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12.8: References - Biology
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12.8: References - Biology

Amberg DC, Burke DJ & Strathern JN (2005) Methods in Yeast Genetics. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor.Gietz RD & Schiestl RH (2007) High-efficiency yeast transformation using the LiAc/SS carrier DNA/PEG method. Nat Protoc 2: 31-34.Johnston, M (1987) A model fungal regulatory mechanism: the GAL1 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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The Douglas fir - conifer

Characteristics Name: Douglas fir Latin name: Pseudotsuga menziesii Number of species: 6 Range: North America (original) Fruits: ca. 8cm long cones, light brown Flowering period: March - May Height: 10 - 60m Age: 200 - 800 years Properties of the bark: silver -grau Properties of the wood: red-brown Locations of the tree: sunny to partially shaded, nutrient-rich soil Leaf: green needle leaves, approx.
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The ash - deciduous tree

Characteristics Name: Ash Latin name: Fraxinus Number of species: approx. 70 Species Europe: Fruits: Flowering period: April-May Height: 30 - 45 meters Age: up to 250 years Properties of the bark: longitudinal and cross-eaten, but rich in profile no high elevations Properties of the wood: heavy, high density Locations of the tree: calcareous soils Leaf: symmetrical leaf structure; Top side dark green, underside light green Interesting facts about the ash The genus of ash trees (Fraxinus) includes European common species of common ash, the flower ash and the ash bud.
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The flounder - profile

Characteristics Name: Flounder Other names: Butt Latin name: Platichthys flesus Class: Fish Size: 30 - 50 cm Weight: 200 - 300 g Age: up to 20 years Appearance: flattened, oval body Sex dimorphism: No Nutrition type:? Food: Fish, shrimps, crabs, mussels, worms Origin: Europe Sleep / wake rhythm: twilight and after-active Habitat: Sea, rivers Natural enemies: predatory fish Sexual maturity: at the age of four Mating time: December - January Oviposition : 500.
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The cytology

Overview From chloroplasts to centrioles ... At the beginning of the early 19th century, the first naturalists recognized that plants, animals and humans consist of cells. What sounds so natural these days, then caused great skepticism in society. Today's cell biology or
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The Lacewing - Wanted Poster

Characteristics Name: Lacewing Other names: Green Lacewing, Goldwing Latin name: Chrysoperla carnea Class: Insects Size: about 15mm Weight:? Age: 6 - 12 weeks as Imago Appearance: green body, green wing veins Sex dimorphism:? Nutrition type:? Food: nectar, honeydew distribution: worldwide (except Australia) origin: unknown sleep-wake-up-rhythm: dusk-active habitat: unspecific natural enemies: insect-eating birds sexual maturity: immediate imago clutch size: altogether 200 - 700 eggs From extinction threatened: No further profiles You can find animals in the Encyclopaedia of Animals.
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The shrimp - profile

Characteristics Name: Shrimp Latin name: Decapoda Class: Crustaceans Size: 5 - 30cm Weight:? Age: 2 - 3 years Appearance: light reddish Sex dimorphism: yes Nutrition: algae Spread: worldwide Sleep / wake cycle: nocturnal and nocturnal Habitat: ocean Natural enemies: fish Sexual maturity:?
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The Gazelle - Wanted Poster

Character Name: Gazelle Latin Name: Gazella Class: Mammals Size: 100 - 150cm Weight: 35 - 70kg Age: 7 - 12 years Appearance: Brown Fur, White Belly Bottom Sex Dimorphism: Yes Diet Type: Herbivore (herbivor) Food: Grass Distribution: Africa, Asia origin: Africa sleep-wake-up rhythm: nocturnal or nocturnal (species dependent) habitat: steppe, semi-desert natural enemies: lion, hyena, wolf sexually mature: from about the age of two mating season:?
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The hornbeam - deciduous tree

Characteristics Name: Common hornbeam Latin name: Carpinus betulus Number of species: approx. 170 Species Geographical area: Europe Fruits: up to 1cm large nut fruits Flowering period: June Height: 15 - 25 meters Age: up to 300 years Properties of the bark: long and smooth characteristics of the wood: hardest European timber Locations of the tree: basically everywhere, hornbeam has no spec.
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The smallest animals

Small, smaller, smallest ... Many invertebrates are so small that they are invisible to humans with the naked eye. These include, for example, some species of pygmy wasps, which colonize almost the entire earth, but remain largely unrecognized because of their small size. The smallest wasp, the Costa Rica-based Kikiki Huna, measures only fractions of a millimeter and is therefore considered the smallest insect in the world.
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The cow - Wanted poster

Characteristics Name: Cow Other names: Domestic Cattle Latin name: B. primigenius taurus Class: Mammals Size: 1.2 - 1.6m Weight: 400 - 750kg Age: 15 - 20 years Appearance: white, black, brown Sex Dimorphismus: Yes Nutrition Type: Herbivore (herbivor) Food: Grass Distribution: Worldwide Origin: Middle East Sleep / wake cycle: active in the daytime Habitat: pastures and meadows Natural enemies: Sexual maturity: approx.
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The black-headed gull - Wanted poster

Characteristics Name: Black-headed Gull Other Names: / Latin Name: Chroicocephalus ridibundus or Larus ridibundus Class: Birds Size: 35 - 38 cm Weight: 270 - 350 g Age: 5 - 25 years Appearance: black-brown head, light gray wing and back feathers, white Tail feathers sexual dimorphism: yes nutrition type: omnivorous food: carrion, fish, frogs, insects, crayfish, earthworms distribution: Europe, Asia, Africa original origin: unknown sleep-wake rhythm: tagkativ habitat: near waters (coasts , Lakes, rivers) natural predators: martens, birds of prey sexual maturity: from about the age of two mating season: April - June breeding season: 23 days litter size: 1 - 3 eggs social behavior: swarming endangered species: no You can find other animals in the Encyclopaedia of Animals.
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The skin

Definition: With a total size of about 2 square meters, the skin is the largest organ in the human body. First and foremost, the skin protects us from external influences such as solar radiation, dehydration or dangerous microorganisms, because it forms a natural protective layer, which enormously facilitates the maintenance of the conditions in the body.
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The Crow - Wanted Poster

Characteristics Name: crow Latin name: Corvidae class: birds size: 40 - 50cm weight: 600 - 1500g age: 10 - 25 years appearance: black plumage sex dimorphism: yes nutrition type: omnivore food: carrion, insects, worms, fruit, Songbirds Distribution: worldwide Original source: unknown Sleep-wake-up-rhythm: diurnal Habitat: parks, parks, mixed forests Natural enemies: birds of prey, martens, foxes Sexual maturity: with two to three years Mating season: February - April Hatching season: 21 days Size of eggs: 3 - 5 eggs Social behavior: pronounced Danger of extinction: no You can find more profiles of animals in the Encyclopaedia of Animals.
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The lightest animals

Light, lighter, easiest ... It is well known that many insects or tiny rodents are true lightweights. Looking at the lightest animals in the world, however, within the different classes, there are some surprises. Some mammals, birds and fish are so light that their weight is barely noticeable when held in the hand.
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The mouse - Wanted poster

Characteristics Name: Mouse More names: House mouse Latin name: Mus musculus Class: Mammals Size: 5 - 10 cm Weight: 20 - 30g Age: 1 - 3 years Appearance: gray Sex Dimorphism: No Diet type: omnivore Food: small insects, Seeds, grasses Distribution: worldwide Original Origin: India Sleep-wake-up-rhythm: nocturnal Habitat: close to humans Natural enemies: cats, owls, birds of prey Sexual maturity: after approx.
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The human nose

Structure and function of the human nose The sensory organ nose is responsible in humans for the perception of odors. Aerial molecules reach via the nostril, nasal vestibule and nasal cavity the olfactory mucous membrane, where the sensory cells convert the odors into electrical impulses (transduction) and conduct them via the olfactory nerve to the brain.
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Mitosis

What happens with mitosis? The process of mitosis is understood to mean the simple division of the nucleus, where at the end of a cell two identical daughter cells are formed. The function of mitosis is therefore the proliferation of cells. In humans and animals virtually new cells are formed.
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The Nutria - Wanted Poster

Characteristics Name: Nutria Other names: beaver rat, coypu, marsh beaver, water rat Latin name: Myocaster coypus Class: mammals Size: 40 - 60cm Weight: 4 - 10kg Age: 2 - 4 years Appearance: brown-gray coat, orange-front teeth Gender dimorphism: Yes Nutrition Type: predominantly herbivorous (herbivor) Food: leaves, roots, aquatic plants Origin: South America Sleep / wake cycle: nocturnal and nocturnal Habitats: Standing and running waters Natural enemies: fox, birds of prey, Marten Sexual maturity: towards the end of the first year of mating Mating season: potentially year-round Tragzeit: ca.
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The replication

Polymerase, ligase, primer, primase, helicase ... Before mitosis or meiosis can happen, a cell has to double its DNA. This happens through replication during the interphase. Sequence of replication: 1. The enzyme topoisomerase unwinds the DNA double helix. 2. The helicase then splits the now enspiralized double strand of DNA into two single strands by dissolving the hydrogen bonds of the opposite base pairs under ATP consumption.
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The smartest animals

Clever, smarter, cleverer ... Humans are considered to be the most intelligent living beings in the world and are not only able to recognize connections, but also to significantly shape and change their environment by learning new skills. However, humans are not alone with this because some animal species are classified as highly intelligent due to similar abilities.
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