Information

1.4.9.9: Putting It Together- Fungi - Biology


Although humans have used yeasts and mushrooms since prehistoric times, the biology of fungi was poorly understood until recently. In addition, their mode of nutrition was poorly understood.

Progress in the field of fungal biology was the result of mycology: the scientific study of fungi. Based on fossil evidence, fungi appeared in the pre-Cambrian era, about 450 million years ago. Molecular biology analysis of the fungal genome demonstrates that fungi are more closely related to animals than plants. They are a polyphyletic group of organisms that share characteristics, rather than sharing a single common ancestor.

Career Connection: Mycologist

Mycologists are biologists who study fungi. Mycology is a branch of microbiology, and many mycologists start their careers with a degree in microbiology. To become a mycologist, a bachelor’s degree in a biological science (preferably majoring in microbiology) and a master’s degree in mycology are minimally necessary. Mycologists can specialize in taxonomy and fungal genomics, molecular and cellular biology, plant pathology, biotechnology, or biochemistry. Some medical microbiologists concentrate on the study of infectious diseases caused by fungi (mycoses). Mycologists collaborate with zoologists and plant pathologists to identify and control difficult fungal infections, such as the devastating chestnut blight, the mysterious decline in frog populations in many areas of the world, or the deadly epidemic called white nose syndrome, which is decimating bats in the Eastern United States.

Government agencies hire mycologists as research scientists and technicians to monitor the health of crops, national parks, and national forests. Mycologists are also employed in the private sector by companies that develop chemical and biological control products or new agricultural products, and by companies that provide disease control services. Because of the key role played by fungi in the fermentation of alcohol and the preparation of many important foods, scientists with a good understanding of fungal physiology routinely work in the food technology industry. Oenology, the science of wine making, relies not only on the knowledge of grape varietals and soil composition, but also on a solid understanding of the characteristics of the wild yeasts that thrive in different wine-making regions. It is possible to purchase yeast strains isolated from specific grape-growing regions. The great French chemist and microbiologist, Louis Pasteur, made many of his essential discoveries working on the humble brewer’s yeast, thus discovering the process of fermentation.


8.9 Putting It All Together

In these optional lessons, students solve complex problems. In the first several lessons, they consider tessellations of the plane, understanding and using the terms “tessellation” and “regular tessellation” in their work, and using properties of shapes (for example, the sum of the interior angles of a quadrilateral is 360 degrees) to make inferences about regular tessellations. These lessons need to come after unit 8.1 has been done. In the later lessons, they investigate relationships of temperature and latitude, climate, season, cloud cover, or time of day. In particular, they use scatter plots and lines of best fit to investigate the question of modeling temperature as a function of latitude. These lessons need to come after units 8.5 and 8.6 have been done.

Lessons

Tessellations

The Weather

IM 6–8 Math was originally developed by Open Up Resources and authored by Illustrative Mathematics®, and is copyright 2017-2019 by Open Up Resources. It is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0). OUR's 6–8 Math Curriculum is available at https://openupresources.org/math-curriculum/.

Adaptations and updates to IM 6–8 Math are copyright 2019 by Illustrative Mathematics, and are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).

Adaptations to add additional English language learner supports are copyright 2019 by Open Up Resources, and are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).

The second set of English assessments (marked as set "B") are copyright 2019 by Open Up Resources, and are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).

Spanish translation of the "B" assessments are copyright 2020 by Illustrative Mathematics, and are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).

The Illustrative Mathematics name and logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be used without the prior and express written consent of Illustrative Mathematics.

This site includes public domain images or openly licensed images that are copyrighted by their respective owners. Openly licensed images remain under the terms of their respective licenses. See the image attribution section for more information.


How do you solve #9-3/(1/3)+1#?

Explaining why you turn upside down (invert) and multiply when dividing fractions.

#color(magenta)("Explanation part 1 of 2")#

Explanation:

#color(blue)("Fact 1: ")# A fraction's structure consists of:

#("count")/("size indicator of what you are counting")" "->" "("numerator")/("denominator")#

#color(blue)("Fact 2: ")# You can not DIRECTLY DIVIDE the counts in a fraction unless the 'size indicators' are the same.

#color(blue)("Fact 3: ")# When dividing the counts and the 'size indicators' are not the same the shortcut process includes an adjustment factor. This adjustment factor converts the answer to that which you would obtain if you had made the 'size indicators' the same before you applied the division.

#color(blue)("Fact 4: ")# Multiply by 1 and you do not change an intrinsic value. However, 1 comes in many forms so you can change the way a fraction looks without changing its intrinsic value.


#color(blue)("Demonstration of principle")#

Using numbers that we should be familiar with:

Making the adjustment before the division

Now you can directly divide the top numbers (numerators)

#color(green)(2color(magenta)(-:1)=2#
.
Just for interest lets look at the shortcut method applied to #2/4-:1/4#

Turn the #1/4# upside down and multiply

Using the principle that #axxb# is the same answer as #bxxa#
#" "->2xx3=6=3xx2#

Write #color(green)(2/4xxcolor(magenta)(4/1) = 2)# as:

#" "2xx1=2#
#" "color(oliveg)(uarr)#
#color(olive)("Think of dividing the 'size indicators' as an adjustment factor.")#
In this case the adjustment factor is 1 as both of the denominators are the same.


1.9: Putting it All Together

  • Clark, Heflin, Kluball, & Kramer
  • Sourced from GALILEO Open Learning Materials

When we talk about musical form, we are talking about the organization of musical elements&mdashmelody, harmony, rhythm, texture, timbre&mdashin time. Because music is a temporal art, memory plays an important role in how we experience musical form. Memory allows us to hear repetition, contrast, and variation in music. And it is these elements that provide structure, coherence, and shape to musical compositions.

A composer or songwriter brings myriad experiences of music, accumulated over a lifetime, to the act of writing music. He or she has learned how to write music by listening to, playing, and studying music. He or she has picked up, consciously and/or unconsciously, a number of ways of structuring music. The composer may intentionally write music modeled after another group&rsquos music: this happens all of the time in the world of popular music where the aim is to produce music that will be disseminated to as many people as possible. In other situations, a composer might use musical forms of an admired predecessor as an act of homage or simply because that is &ldquohow it&rsquos always been done.&rdquo We find this happening a great deal in the world of folk music, where a living tradition is of great importance. The music of the &ldquoclassical&rdquo period (1775-1825) is rich with musical forms as heard in the works of masters such as Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In fact, form plays a vital role in most Western art music (discussed later in the chapter) all the way into the twenty-first century. We will discuss these forms, such as the rondo and sonata-allegro, in later chapters, but for the purpose of this introduction, we will focus on those that might be more familiar to the modern listener.

Many compositions that on the surface sound very different use similar musical forms. A large number of jazz compositions, for example, follow either the twelve-bar blues or an AABA form. The twelve-bar blues features a chord progression of I-IV-I-V-IV-I. Generally the lyrics follow an AAB pattern, that is, a line of text (A) is stated once, repeated (A), and then followed by a response statement (B). The melodic idea used for the statement (B) is generally slightly different from that used for the opening a phrases (A). This entire verse is sung over the I-IV-I-V-IV-I progression. The next verse is sung over the same pattern, generally to the same melodic lines, although the singer may vary the notes in various places occasionally.

Listen to Elvis Presley&rsquos version of &ldquoHound Dog&rdquo (1956) using the link below, and follow the chart below to hear the blues progression.

Ex. 1.18: Elvis Presley &ldquoHound Dog&rdquo (1956)

Figure (PageIndex<1>): Format Breakdown of Elvis's "Hound Dog" by Thomas Heflin. Source: Original Work

This blues format is one example of what we might call musical form. It should be mentioned that the term &ldquoblues&rdquo is used somewhat loosely and is sometimes used to describe a tune with a &ldquobluesy&rdquo sound, even though it may not follow the twelve-bar blues form. The blues is vitally important to American music because it influenced not only later jazz but also rhythm and blues and rock and roll.

Another important form to jazz and popular music is AABA form. Sometimes this is also called thirty-two-bar form in this case, the form has thirty-two measures or bars, much like a twelve-bar blues has twelve measures or bars. This form was used widely in songs written for Tin Pan Alley, Vaudeville, and musicals from the 1910s through the 1950s. Many so-called jazz standards spring from that repertoire. Interestingly, these popular songs generally had an opening verse and then a chorus. The chorus was a section of thirty-two-bar form, and often the part that audiences remembered. Thus, the chorus was what jazz artists took as the basis of their improvisations.

&ldquo(Somewhere) Over the Rainbow,&rdquo as sung by Judy Garland in 1939 (accompanied by Victor Young and his Orchestra), is a well-known tune that is in thirty-two-bar form.

Ex. 1.19: Judy Garland &ldquo(Somewhere) Over the Rainbow&rdquo (1939)

After an introduction of four bars, Garland enters with the opening line of the text, sung to melody A. &ldquoSomewhere over the rainbow way up high, there&rsquos a land that I heard of once in a lullaby.&rdquo This opening line and melody lasts for eight bars. The next line of the text is sung to the same melody (still eight bars long) as the first line of text. &ldquoSomewhere over the rainbow skies are blue, and the dreams that you dare to dream really do come true.&rdquo The third part of the text is contrasting in character. Where the first two lines began with the word &ldquosomewhere,&rdquo the third line begins with &ldquosomeday.&rdquo Where the first two lines spoke of a faraway place, the third line focuses on what will happen to the singer. &ldquoSomeday I&rsquoll wish upon a star, and wake up where the clouds are far, behind me. Where troubles melt like lemon drops, away above the chimney tops, that&rsquos where you&rsquoll find me.&rdquo It is sung to a contrasting melody B and is eight bars long. This B section is also sometimes called the &ldquobridge&rdquo of a song. The opening a melody returns for a final time, with words that begin by addressing that faraway place dreamed about in the first two A sections and that end in a more personal way, similar to the sentiments in the B section. &ldquoSomewhere over the rainbow, bluebirds fly. Birds fly over the rainbow. Why then, oh why can&rsquot I?&rdquo This section is also eight bars long, adding up to a total of thirty-two bars for the AABA form.

Although we&rsquove heard the entire thirty-two-bar form, the song is not over. The arranger added a conclusion to the form that consists of one statement of the A section, played by the orchestra (note the prominent clarinet solo) another restatement of the A section, this time with the words from the final statement of the A section the first time and four bars from the B section or bridge: &ldquoIf happy little bluebirds&hellipOh why can&rsquot I.&rdquo This is a good example of one way in which musicians have taken a standard form and varied it slightly to provide interest. Now listen to the entire recording one more time, seeing if you can keep up with the form.

1.11.4 Verse and Chorus Forms

Most popular music features a mix of verses and choruses. A chorus is normally a set of lyrics that recur to the same music within a given song. A chorus is sometimes called a refrain. A verse is a set of lyrics that are generally, although not always, just heard once over the course of a song.

In a simple verse-chorus form, the same music is used for the chorus and for each verse. &ldquoCan the Circle Be Unbroken&rdquo (1935) by The Carter Family is a good example of a simple verse-chorus form. Many childhood songs and holiday songs also use a simple verse-chorus song.

Ex. 1.20: The Carter Family &ldquoCan the Circle Be Unbroken&rdquo (1935)

In a simple verse form, there are no choruses. Instead, there is a series of verses, each sung to the same music. Hank Williams&rsquos &ldquoI&rsquom So Lonesome I Could Cry&rdquo (1949) is one example of a simple verse form. After Williams sings two verses, each sixteen bars long, there is an instrumental verse, played by guitar. Williams sings a third verse followed by another instrumental verse, this time also played by guitar. Williams then ends the song with a final verse.

Ex. 1.21: Hank Williams: I&rsquom So Lonesome I Could Cry (1949)

A contrasting verse-chorus form features different music for its chorus than for the statement of its verse(s). &ldquoLight my Fire&rdquo by the Doors is a good example of a contrasting verse-chorus form. In this case, each of the two verses are repeated one time, meaning that the overall form looks something like: intro, verse 1, chorus, verse 2, chorus, verse 2, chorus, verse 1, chorus. You can listen to &ldquoLight my Fire&rdquo by clicking on the link below.

Ex. 1.22: The Doors, &ldquoLight my Fire&rdquo (1967)

Naturally, there are many other forms that music might take. As you listen to the music you like, pay attention to its form. You might be surprised by what you hear!

1.11.5 Composition and Improvisation

Music from every culture is made up of some combination of the musical elements. Those elements may be combined using one of two major processes composition and improvisation.

Composition is the process whereby a musician notates musical ideas using a system of symbols or using some other form of recording. We call musicians who use this process &ldquocomposers.&rdquo When composers preserve their musical ideas using notation or some form of recording, they intend for their music to be reproduced the same way every time.

Listen to the recording of Mozart&rsquos music linked below. Every element of the music was carefully notated by Mozart so that each time the piece is performed, it can be performed exactly the same way.

Ex. 1.23: Mozart &ldquoPiano Sonata K.457 in C minor&rdquo (1989)

Improvisation is a different process. It is the process whereby musicians create music spontaneously using the elements of music. Improvisation still requires the musician to follow a set of rules. Often the set of rules has to do with the scale to be used, the rhythm to be used, or other musical requirements using the musical elements.

Listen to the example of Louis Armstrong below. Armstrong is performing a style of early New Orleans jazz in which the entire group improvises to varying degrees over a set musical form and melody. The piece starts out with a statement of the original melody by the trumpet, with Armstrong varying the rhythm of the original written melody as well as adding melodic embellishments. At the same time, the trombone improvises supporting notes that outline the harmony of the song and the clarinet improvises a completely new melody designed to complement the main melody of the trumpet. The rhythm section of piano, bass, and drums are improvising their accompaniment underneath the horn players, but are doing so within the strict chord progression of the song. The overall effect is one in which you hear the individual expressions of each player, but can still clearly recognize the song over which they are improvising. This is followed by Armstrong interpreting the melody. Next we hear individual solos improvised on the clarinet, the trombone, and the trumpet. The piece ends when Armstrong sings the melody one last time.

Ex. 1.24: Louis Armstrong, &ldquoWhen the Saints Go Marching In&rdquo (1961)

Composition and Improvisation Combined

In much of the popular music we hear today, like jazz and rock, both improvisation and composition are combined. Listen to the example linked below of Miles Davis playing &ldquoAll Blues.&rdquo The trumpet and two saxophones play an arrangement of a composed melody, then each player improvises using the scale from which the melody is derived. This combined structure is one of the central features of the jazz style and is also often used in many popular music compositions.

Ex. 1.25: Miles Davis &ldquoAll Blues&rdquo (1949)

1.11.6 Music and Categories

Categorizing anything can be difficult, as items often do not completely fit in the boxes we might design for them. Still, categorizing is a human exercise by which we attempt to see the big picture and compare and contrast the phenomenon we encounter, so that we can make larger generalizations. By categorizing music we can attempt to better understand ways in which music has functioned in the past and continues to function today. Three categories which are often used in talking about music are (1) art music, (2) folk music, and (3) popular music. These categories can be seen in the Venn diagram below:

Figure (PageIndex<2>): Venn Diagram of the Three Categories of Music by Elizabeth Kramer Source: Original Work

Much of the music that we consider in this book falls into the sphere of art music in some way or form. It is also sometimes referred to as classical music and has a written musical tradition. Composers of art music typically hope that their creative products will be played for many years. Art music is music that is normally learned through specialized training over a period of many years. It is often described as music that stands the test of time. For example, today, if you go to a symphony orchestra concert you will likely hear music composed over a hundred years ago. Folk music is another form of music that has withstood the test of time, but in a different way.

Folk music derives from a particular culture and is music that one might be expected to learn from a family at a young age. Although one can study folk music, the idea is that it is accessible to all it generally is not written down in musical notation until it becomes an object of scholarship. Lullabies, dance music, work songs, and some worship music are often considered folk music as they are integrated with daily life.

Popular music is marked by its dissemination to large groups of people. As such, it is like folk music. But popular music is generally not expected to be passed down from one generation to the next as happens with folk music. Instead, as its name implies, it tends to appeal to the masses at one moment in time. To use twentieth-century terminology, it often hits the charts in one month and then is supplanted by something new in the next month. Although one might find examples of popular music across history, popular music has been especially significant since the rise of mass media and recording technologies in the twentieth century. Today, music can be put online and instantly go viral around the world. Some significant twentieth-century popular music is discussed in chapter eight.


4.9 Putting It All Together

A set of points that are arranged in a straight way and extend infinitely in opposite directions.

The top part of a fraction that tells how many of the equal parts are being described.

A location along a line or in space.

A formal way to say which number a given number is closer to. For example, for 182, the number 180 is the closest multiple of ten and 200 is the closest multiple of a hundred. We can round 182 to 180 (if rounding to the nearest ten) or 200 (if rounding to the nearest hundred).

A part of a line with two endpoints.

The Illustrative Mathematics name and logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be used without the prior and express written consent of Illustrative Mathematics.

These materials include public domain images or openly licensed images that are copyrighted by their respective owners. Openly licensed images remain under the terms of their respective licenses. See the image attribution section for more information.


6.9 Putting it All Together

In this optional unit, students use concepts and skills from previous units. In solving Fermi problems, they use measurement conversions together with their knowledge of volumes or surface areas of right rectangular prisms or the relationship of distance, rate, and time. In answering questions about ratios of two populations, they work with percentages that include numbers expressed in the form (frac a b) or as decimals. In answering questions about diagrams of rectangles with whole-number dimensions, they connect arithmetic features of the dimensions such as remainder or greatest common factor with geometric features of the diagrams. In answering questions about votes, voting methods, and equitable distribution, they use their knowledge of equivalent ratios, part–part ratios, percentages, and unit rates.

Lessons

Making Connections

Voting

IM 6–8 Math was originally developed by Open Up Resources and authored by Illustrative Mathematics®, and is copyright 2017-2019 by Open Up Resources. It is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0). OUR's 6–8 Math Curriculum is available at https://openupresources.org/math-curriculum/.

Adaptations and updates to IM 6–8 Math are copyright 2019 by Illustrative Mathematics, and are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).

Adaptations to add additional English language learner supports are copyright 2019 by Open Up Resources, and are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).

The second set of English assessments (marked as set "B") are copyright 2019 by Open Up Resources, and are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).

Spanish translation of the "B" assessments are copyright 2020 by Illustrative Mathematics, and are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).

The Illustrative Mathematics name and logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be used without the prior and express written consent of Illustrative Mathematics.

This site includes public domain images or openly licensed images that are copyrighted by their respective owners. Openly licensed images remain under the terms of their respective licenses. See the image attribution section for more information.


1.4.9.9: Putting It Together- Fungi - Biology

Agenda:
1. Find your seats.
2. Planner handed out.
3. The Hunt is On Activity
4. Motivation Wheel

8/21
Period 5, 6
Bell Ringer: Setting up Bell Ringers (see me or a classmate) .

Homework:
1. #1-3 on your Notes Packet
2. Read through your notes packet.

8/25
Period 5, 6
Bell Ringer : Using the characteristics of life we talked about last week, explain why fire is living or non-living?

Agenda:
1. Drops on a Penny Lab
2. Scientific Method Notes Packet

Resources :
Day 5 Scientific Method

Homework:
1. #1-3 on your Notes Packet
2. Read through your notes packet.
8/26
Period 1
Bell Ringer:
1. Based on the Penny Lab we did, what are some other questions you have and want to investigate?
a. Ex: Would the temperature of the water affect the amount of water droplets onto the penny?

Agenda:

1. Finish Scientific Method Notes Packet
2. Independent Investigation (Scroll down to Pg. 2)

Agenda:
1. Carry out your investigation
2. Writing a Conclusion
3. Starting your Final Draft
4. Binder Organization

Agenda:
1. Test on Characteristics of Life and Scientific Method
2. Binder Check #1
3. Intro to Ecology Notes
4. Abiotic vs Biotic Factor Walkthrough

Resources:
Intro to Ecology Slides

9/2
Period 5, 6
Bell Ringer:
List the 7 Characteristics of Life.

Agenda:
1. Test on Characteristics of Life and Scientific Method
2. Binder Check #1
3. Intro to Ecology Notes
4. Abiotic vs Biotic Factor Walkthrough

Resources:
Intro to Ecology Slides

Agenda:
1. Level of Organization
2. Species Interactions
3. Species Interaction Activity (M&M's Activity)

Resources:
- Intro to Ecology Slides (scroll down)
- Species Interactions Slides

Homework:
1. Finish Level of Organization Foldables!
2. Species Interaction Activity (Read Part A, DO Part C)
3. Workbook Pgs 12-13 (due Friday 9/11)

9/8
Period 1
Bell Ringer:
Explain the following relationships:
a. Rabbit + Foxes
b. Rabbit + Grass
c. Rabbit + Deer

Agenda:
1. Test Return &
Test Correction Resource Handout
2. Species Interaction Activity (M&M's Activity)

Resources:
Species Interactions Slides (scroll down)

Homework:
1. Finish Workbook Pgs. 12-14
2. Finish Species Interactions Post-Activity Questions
3. Test Corrections due 9/16 Wednesday

9/10
Period 1
Bell Ringer:
List the following levels into smallest-->largest organization
a. Ecosystem b. Community
c. Organism d. Biome
e. Population f. Biosphere

Agenda:
1. Species Interaction Review
2. Quiz on Levels of Organization, Biotic/Abiotic, and Species Interactions via Plickers.
3. Energy Flow Note-Taking
4. Energy Pyramid 3-D
5. Food Web Practice

Resources:
Energy Flow in Ecosystems


Homework:
1. Finish Energy Pyramid 3-D due Monday
2. Workbook Pgs. 15-17 (due next Friday 9/16)
3. Food Web Practice due next Wednesday

9/11
Period 5, 6
Bell Ringer:
List the following levels into smallest-->largest organization
a. Ecosystem b. Community
c. Organism d. Biome
e. Population f. Biosphere

Agenda:
1. Species Interaction Review
2. Quiz on Levels of Organization, Biotic/Abiotic, and Species Interactions via Plickers.
3. Energy Flow Note-Taking
4. Energy Pyramid 3-D
5. Food Web Practice

Resources:
Energy Flow in Ecosystems

Homework:
1. Finish Food Web Practice
2. Finish Workbook Pgs 15-17.
3. Finish Test Corrections

9/15
Period 5, 6
Bell Ringer:
1. What are the 3 types of -trophs (based on ways that organisms get their energy)? 2. What are the 4 different categories of heterotroph?
Agenda:
1. Diet Coke Activity
2. Food Chain & Food Web labeling

Using the above food chain, what happens to the population of Grass and Fox if we add another herbivore (deer)?

Using the above food chain, what happens to the population of Grass and Fox if we add another herbivore (deer)?

Agenda:
1. Complicated Relationships Web Activity!

Homework:
1. Organize your binder!
2. Make up any late/missing work!

Agenda:
1. Read Pgs. 28-44 in the Textbook
2. Write question and answer in complete sentences the following:
a. Section 2.1 Assessment Questions (Pg 40)
b. Section 2.2 Assessment Questions (Pg 44)
c. Chapter 2 Assessment #1-25 (Pg. 53)

Resources:
None.

Mouse and grasshoppers eat grains (plant)

Owls consume mouse and grasshopper

Resources:
Interactive Web Activity Slides (last few slides)

Homework:
1. Finish Questions
2. Finish Reflection Paper
3. Complete and turn in any late/missing work.
4. Textbook Pgs 40, 44, and 53

Resources:
Keystone Species & Activity

Homework:
1. Finish Reflection Paper

9/24
Period 1
Bell Ringer:
1. What is a Foundation Species?
2. What is a Keystone Species?
3. Is the Tiger Shark a foundation species or a keystone species?

Agenda:
1. Finish Keystone Species Activity
a. Walkthrough
b. Questions
c. Wrap-Up

Resources:
Keystone Species & Activity

Agenda:
1. Finish Keystone Species Group Activity Discussion
2. Introduce Biogeochemical Cycles Notes
Note-taking Guide
3. Cycles Vocabulary
4. What adds/subtracts?

Resources:
Biogeochemical Cycles Slides

Homework:
1. Workbook Pgs 19-20 due Wed.
2. Vocabulary Cycles Notes

10/7
Period 1
Bell Ringer:
1. We currently have a drought in CA. How come we don't have enough water/rain when the water cycle is continuous?
2. How do YOU contribute to the Carbon Cycle?

Agenda:
1. What's Carbon? Anticipatory Set
Carbon, Life, and Health Handout
2. Paired Reading with Post-Reading Questions Carbon, Life, and Health Reading (first two pages)

Homework:
1. Finish Post-Reading Questions .

Agenda:
1. Caron - Harmful/Helpful?
2. Wraping up Carbon, Life, and Health
3. Carbon Moves! Activity - Start

Resources:
Carbon, Life, and Health Slides

Homework:
1. Finish Carbon Moves Round 1 Map
2. Quiz next week!

Resources:
Carbon, Life, and Health Slides

Homework:
1. Finish Traveling Nitrogen Passport Activity

10/13
Period 1
Bell Ringer:
1. What did you noticed about your Carbon Map from Round 1?
2. What do you know about Nitrogen?

Agenda:
1. Finish up Carbon Moves!
2. Traveling Nitrogen Passport Activity (see me for handout)

Resources:
Carbon, Life, and Health Slides
(Scroll down)

Homework:
1. Finish Carbon Moves Activity!
2. Finish Traveling Nitrogen Passport Activity
3. Study for Quiz

10/14
Period 5, 6
Bell Ringer:
1. What did you noticed about your Carbon Map from Round 1?
2. What do you know about Nitrogen?

Agenda:
1. Finish up Carbon Moves!
2. Traveling Nitrogen Passport Activity (see me for handout)

Resources:
Carbon, Life, and Health Slides
(Scroll down)

Resources:
Population Slides

Homework:
1. Finish Workbook Pgs. 31-34
2. Quiz Corrections
3. Finish Definitions (#22b)

10/21
Period 1
Bell Ringer:
1. Can you guess what the current world population is?
2. Which country do you think has the most human population?
3. Which state do you think has the most human population?

Homework:
1. Complete Human Population Growth Web Activity (#23)

Homework:
1. Complete Human Population Growth Web Activity (#23)

10/23
Period 1
Bell Ringer:
1. What is the world's population when you were born?
2. If I asked you to graph your age against world's population, what would go on the x-axis and what would go on the y-axis?

Agenda:
1. Finished Human Population Web Activity
2. Graphing & Math Review
3. Ecological Footprint Web Activity

Resources:
Human Population

Homework:
1. Finish #23 Human Population Growth Web Activity
2. Finish #23a (Front Side) Ecological Footprint Web Activity
3. Quiz Corrections
4. E.C.: Workbook Pgs. 35-37

Homework:
1. Finish #23 Human Population Growth Web Activity
2. Finish #23a (Front Side) Ecological Footprint Web Activity
3. Quiz Corrections
4. E.C.: Workbook Pgs. 35-37

10/27
Period 1
Bell Ringer:
1. What is an ecological footprint?
2. Did you think that you would used up that many earths?

Agenda:
1. Biodiversity & Human Impact
2. Update Binder
3. Biodiversity Questions

Agenda:
1. Binder Organization
2. Study Guide
3. Class Review

Resources:
Human Population

Homework:
1. Finish Study Guide
2. Organize Binder Pgs. 15-24


Let's design the floor plan for a restaurant.

Exercise (PageIndex<1>): Dining Area

  1. Restaurant owners say it is good for each customer to have about 300 in 2 of space at their table. How many customers would you seat at each table?
  1. It is good to have about 15 ft 2 of floor space per customer in the dining area.
    1. How many customers would you like to be able to seat at one time?
    2. What size and shape dining area would be large enough to fit that many customers?
    3. Select an appropriate scale, and create a scale drawing of the outline of your dining area.

    The dining area usually takes up about 60% of the overall space of a restaurant because there also needs to be room for the kitchen, storage areas, office, and bathrooms. Given the size of your dining area, how much more space would you need for these other areas?

    Exercise (PageIndex<2>): Cold Storage

    Some restaurants have very large refrigerators or freezers that are like small rooms. The energy to keep these rooms cold can be expensive.

    • A standard walk-in refrigerator (rectangular, 10 feet wide, 10 feet long, and 7 feet tall) will cost about $150 per month to keep cold.
    • A standard walk-in freezer (rectangular, 8 feet wide, 10 feet long, and 7 feet tall) will cost about $372 per month to keep cold.

    Here is a scale drawing of a walk-in refrigerator and freezer. About how much would it cost to keep them both cold? Show your reasoning.

    Figure (PageIndex<2>): A large right trapezoid, that represents the shape of a refrigerator and freezer, with a longer top horizontal base. A horizontal line is drawn such that it divides the large trapezoid into two smaller trapezoids labeled refrigerator and freezer. The top trapezoid labeled refrigerator has a top horizontal base of 14 feet, a bottom horizontal base of 9 feet, a vertical leg of 7 point 5 feet, and a leg of 9 feet. The bottom trapezoid labeled freezer has a top horizontal base of 9 feet, a bottom horizontal base of 4 feet, a vertical leg of 7 point 5 feet, and a leg of 9 feet.


    Fluorescence Light Microscopy

    The addition of fluorescence to light microscopy allows us to look not just at cells, but for things inside them. Specific cellular components can be fluorescently labeled, with a stain or antibody that binds a particular molecule. Alternatively, a protein of interest can be genetically linked to a fluorescent protein such as Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP, isolated from a bioluminescent jellyfish off the Pacific coast in the 1970s and adapted as a revolutionary molecular biology tool in the 1990s). While tagging a protein can sometimes change its properties (e.g. affecting its function or altering its localization), this technique often enables us to identify where in the cell a protein is found, and what it might be doing there.

    As an example, this movie from Howard Berg’s lab [8] [9] shows Escherichia coli cells stained by a fluorescent dye that binds to and highlights their flagella – long, thin appendages that propel them through their environment. (We will discuss this and other ways cells move in Chapter 6.)


    5.9.2. Example two: precision and recall¶

    Let’s use what we know about Booleans to perform a simple data analysis task.

    Suppose we have a system that predicts something, say, whether it will be sunny today, and let’s furthermore assume that we assembled a list of such predictions, together with the actual outcome of what was predicted. When the prediction and the outcome are the same, we have a successful prediction. When they differ, we have a failed prediction. So:

    records a sequence of predictions in which two out of four are failures.

    Three important scores for evaluating our performance are called accuracy, precision, and recall. For the above data, assuming that the task is predicting sunny days, we’ll call a ‘sunny’ day ‘positive’ and anything else ‘negative’, Putting all our system’s positive predictions in the first row and all the negative predictions in the second, we can tabulate our prediction success with a contingency table as follows:

    Let N be the size of the dataset, and be true and false positive respectively and and be true and false negatives respective. Accuracy is the percentage of correct answers out of the total dataset . In this case the total dataset has size 4, 2 are correctly classified, so the accuracy is .5. Precision is the percentage of true positives out all positive guesses the system made , so in this case precision is .33. Recall is the percentage of true positives out of actual positives . In this case there was one actually sunny day out of the 4, and we predicted it, so is recall is 1.0.

    Considering this line by line:

    Two arguments to the function, we’ll call the default positive class (the one whose presence we’re testing for) 'pos'

    We set a number of variables in one line by assigning to a tuple of variables. We have to keep counts of the 4 cells in the contingency table, as well as the total number of things.

    Notice the indentation is crucial . The else on line 10 has to belong to the if on line 8, not to the if on line 6, and the indentation shows that.

    Again, the indentation is crucial . The else on line 12 belongs to the if on line 6, not to the if on line 8, and the indentation shows that.


    Watch the video: Fungi (December 2021).