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4.1: Case Study: Fueling Our Bodies Properly - Biology


Case Study: What's Wrong with Fast Food?

Like many Americans, 20-year-old Abdul eats fast food several times a week. After a long day of classes and work, it’s easy for him to pick up fast food for dinner from a drive-through window on his way home. He also often has fast food for lunch on his short break. He knows that fast food probably isn’t the healthiest choice, but it is convenient and he likes it. Besides, he is young and only slightly overweight, with no major health problems, so he is not too concerned about it affecting his health.

One day, Abdul gives his friend Carlos a ride home and suggests they pick up some fast food on the way. Carlos says, “Nah, I don’t eat that stuff very often. It’s not good for you.” Abdul feels a little defensive and asks Carlos what exactly is wrong with it. Carlos says, “Well, it has a lot of calories and it’s not exactly fresh food.” Abdul says he doesn't think it has any more calories than other types of meals, and he eats some fresh fruit and vegetables at other times — is it really that bad for his health to eat fast food five or six times a week?

Carlos thinks about this. He has heard many times that fast food is not good for your health, but he is not sure of the exact reasons. When he gets home, he decides to do some research. He visits the website of Abdul’s favorite fast food restaurant and looks up the nutritional information for Abdul's typical meal of a cheeseburger, large fries, and a large soda. Some of the information he finds is shown in Table (PageIndex{1}) and Table (PageIndex{2}).

Table (PageIndex{1}): Nutritional Information for a Typical Fast Food Meal
FoodCaloriesTotal Fat (%DV)Saturated Fat (%DV)Trans FatCarbohydrates (%DV)
Burger54043%49%1 g15%
Fries51037%17%0 g22%
Soda3000%0%0 g27%
Total1,35080%66%1 g64%
Table (PageIndex{2}): Percentage of the adult recommended daily value (%DV) for each nutrient, based on a 2,000 Calorie a day diet.
FoodSodium (%DV)Iron (%DV)Vitamin A (%DV)Vitamin C (%DV)Calcium (%DV)
Burger40%25%10%2%15%
Fries15%6%0%30%2%
Soda1%0%0%0%0%
Total56%31%10%32%17%

What does this nutritional information mean? How can it help Carlos understand the potential health impact of Abdul frequently eating meals like this?

Chapter Overview: Nutrition

In this chapter, you will learn about nutrients, proper nutrition, and the negative health consequences of bad nutrition and improperly prepared food. Specifically, you will learn about:

  • The six major classes of nutrients — carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, water, vitamins, and minerals — are substances the body needs for energy, building materials, and body processes.
  • Essential nutrients, which must be obtained from food, and nonessential nutrients, which can be synthesized by the body.
  • Macronutrients, which the body needs in relatively large quantities, and micronutrients, which the body needs in relatively small quantities.
  • The functions of specific nutrients in the body and sources of these nutrients.
  • Phytochemicals and their potential role in maintaining normal body functions and good health.
  • Guidelines for healthy eating and good nutrition, and why a healthy diet can reduce the risk of many diseases.
  • Energy homeostasis, which is the balance between calories consumed and those that are used by the body.
  • Types of malnutrition, including undernutrition, overnutrition, and unbalanced nutrition.
  • Nutrient and energy density and how knowledge of these factors can be used to make healthier food choices.
  • How appetite is regulated.
  • Eating disorders including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder and their causes, health effects, and treatments.
  • Obesity and how it is defined, its causes, health consequences, ways to prevent and treat it, and the impact on public health.
  • Undernutrition and how it is defined, its causes, specific undernutrition syndromes, and the often irreversible effects on children.
  • The impact of undernutrition around the world, including richer nations, and public health approaches to treat and prevent undernutrition.
  • The causes of foodborne diseases, including microorganisms and toxins; symptoms of the foodborne diseases; and ways to prevent foodborne disease including good hygiene and proper food preparation and storage.

As you read this chapter, think about the following questions related to the tables above that contain nutritional information for Abdul’s typical fast food meal:

  1. Which nutrients might Abdul consume too much of if he eats meals like this frequently? Why would these nutrients be a concern? What health issues could be caused by consuming them in excess?
  2. Which nutrients might Abdul not get enough of if he eats meals like this frequently? What health issues could this cause?
  3. What are some ways Abdul can make better food choices, even at a fast-food restaurant? Why would these choices improve his diet and health?

“Wow, this line for the restroom is long!” Shae says to Talia, anxiously bobbing from side to side to ease the pressure in her bladder. Talia nods and says, “It’s always like this at parties. It’s the alcohol.”

Shae and Talia are 21-year-old college students at a party. They — along with the other party guests — have been drinking alcoholic beverages over the course of the evening. As the night goes on, the line for the restroom has gotten longer and longer. You may have noticed this phenomenon if you have been to places where large numbers of people are drinking alcohol, like at the ballpark in Figure 16.1.2.

Figure 16.1.2 A line stretching out of a restroom door at a ballpark.

Shae says, “I wonder why alcohol makes you have to pee?” Talia says she learned about this in her Human Biology class. She tells Shae that alcohol inhibits a hormone that helps you retain water. Instead of your body retaining water, you urinate more out. This could lead to dehydration, so she suggests that after their trip to the restroom, they start drinking water, instead of alcohol.

For people who drink occasionally or moderately, this effect of alcohol on the excretory system — the system that removes wastes such as urine — is usually temporary. However, in people who drink excessively, alcohol can have serious, long-term effects on the excretory system. Heavy drinking on a regular basis can cause liver and kidney disease.

As you will learn in this chapter, the liver and kidneys are important organs of the excretory system, and impairment of the functioning of these organs can cause serious health consequences. At the end of the chapter, you will learn which hormone Talia was referring to. You will also learn some of the ways alcohol can affect the excretory system — both after the occasional drink, and in cases of excessive alcohol use and abuse.


Governance and Management of Green IT: A Multi-Case Study

The changes that are taking place with respect to environmental sensitivity are forcing organizations to adopt a new approach to this problem. Implementing sustainability initiatives has become a priority for the social and environmental awareness of organizations that want to stay ahead of the curve. One of the business areas that has, more than others, proven to be a vital asset and a potential ally of the environment, is the area of Information Technology (IT). Through this area, Green IT practices advocate sustainability in and by IT. However, organizations have a significant handicap in this regard, due to the lack of specific Green IT standards and frameworks that help them carry out this type of sustainability practices.

Objective

We have developed the “Governance and Management Framework for Green IT” (GMGIT), which establishes the necessary characteristics to implement Green IT in organizations, from the point of view of the governance and management of this area. After developing and validating a first version of this framework, we have performed a set of improvements, obtaining the GMGIT 2.0, which we want to validate.

Method

We have conducted a series of empirical validations at international level based on case studies, whose characteristics and results are presented in this study.

Results

The results of this multi-case study show an example of the current situation of organizations in Green IT, as well as the resolution of problems encountered during the validations conducted with the GMGIT 1.0.

Conclusion

The findings obtained demonstrate the usefulness, applicability, and validity of the framework when implementing, auditing, and improving Green IT in organizations in a systematic and progressive manner.


A novel guidance scheme for close range operation in active debris removal

Active debris removal mission poses new challenge for close range guidance system design because the target debris is uncooperative and uncommunicative. The challenge is particularly critical if the debris is tumbling.

Fly-around phase is an essential component of close range operation and provides precondition for target characterization, inspection and clamp capture. Although related study has been studied in rendezvous and formation flying, technology readiness is still low for application in active debris removal (ADR) and key technology is still under demonstration. Nutation following fly-around is proposed in this paper to define the forced motion which synchronizes chaser with tumbling target. Total synchronization will be necessary for debris capture, e.g. capture by rigid contact robotic arm.

The contribution of this paper is to develop a novel dynamic model governing the relative motion between chaser and target and to design the guidance algorithm. Rotating LOS (Line of Sight) coordinate system is established with origin set at the chaser. Instant Rotating Plane of LOS (IRPL) is introduced to simplify the kinematic equations of tumbling motion based on differential geometric theory. Introduction of IRPL resolves the coupling effect between pitch and yaw planes in general 3D scenario and simplifies the control of chaser with a concise dynamical model.

Two classical cases are presented to illustrate nutation following fly-around and simulations are implemented to demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed guidance scheme. Further study of proximity mission along spin axis is conducted to show the advantages of guidance scheme.


What Are the Primary Ethical Issues Involved In Genetic Testing (Chapters Four and Five) for Gifts of the Body (Chapters Nine and Ten)?

Answer the following questions. Each question should be addressed in a paragraph of at least 200 words. Pay attention to spelling, grammar, and style and include appropriate references to the readings with correct citations (in APA or MLA).

What are the primary ethical issues involved in genetic testing (chapters four and five) or gifts of the body (chapters nine and ten)?

What does Meilaender suggest are the appropriate Christian ethical responses to these issues? On what Christian ethical principles does he rely on in making his argument?

Do you find his argument convincing? Why or why not?

Reference ID No. AH019002029

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Operations

Planned preventative maintenance (PPM)

PPM involves regular maintenance of specific identified areas and can reduce energy use provided the correct items are serviced at the correct time. Sometimes the schedule will identify maintenance areas where there is really no need for maintenance at the specified time (cautious) and sometimes the schedule will fail to identify items that do need maintenance (reckless). The difficulty is that often the maintenance is cursory and concentrates simply on those items on the schedule. This type of system is used at the majority of plastics processing sites.

Maintenance is not an option in a ‘world-class’ business. It is simply a method of improving the return on capital employed (ROCE) and of being sure that you can meet the customer’s requirements.


STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Assignment Question and Answers for SBS – MBA / MSc Students

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Length: 30 pages

Carry out a full strategic analysis of a chosen organization(Manufacturing / Service) in which you are currently employed / had worked previously / you are familiar with.

The chosen organization could be Domestic / International / Multinational / Global Organization. In case the chosen organization operates in different markets, choose a specific market in which it operates and do the analysis.

Prepare a report and submit to your management. The report must be of the standard report format that must contain an Executive Summary, Introduction, Body, Conclusion, References sections.

Provide detailed supporting evidence and make sure that you integrate key points from the understanding that you had into your answers. Your analysis should include as a minimum:

  • Corporate Objectives and Overview of the Organization
  • The vision / mission of the Organization.
  • Identifying the significant capabilities of the Organization (SWOT analysis)
  • Core Competencies of the Organization
  • The culture of the Organization (Cultural Web).
  • The stakeholders of the company (Stakeholder Analysis: power/interest matrix).
  • Issues faced by the Organization in the chosen market (PESTLE analysis)
  • The basis of competition (Porter’s Diamond)
  • Identification of the significant strategic options available to the Organization using Porters Generic Model and selection of the best option.
  • Identifications of alternative directions for the future strategy using the Ansoff matrix
  • Evaluation of future strategies (SAFE framework)
  • Identification of changes or developments in strategy, or strategic initiatives that have occurred over the past 10 years

Future changes expected and getting ready for sustainability.

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Case Study Mrs A

Age related changes alter the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of drugs, please briefly discuss the influence of Absorption , distribution , metabolism and excretion of drugs in general for the older client

.Case Study Mr B

Mr B is a 65 year old man admitted to your ward, diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia. At 10am, the Registered Nurse dilutes his intravenous Amoxicillin 1gm in 100ml minibag and connects it to his IV cannula. He has frail veins so the flow rate is set to run slowly via gravity infusion.

Define adverse drug reaction.

Describe your role as an EN responding to Mr B’s nurse call bell. Include in your answer,

  • Follow-up assessments you as the EN may do over the next 15mins,
  • Who would you consult with throughout this event
  • What would you need to document?
  1. Identify the changes that should be added to his medication chart? (you must refer to the national medication chart for this answer)

Her medical history includes:

Her current regular medications are:

  1. Discuss the nursing assessment you as a EN would undertake to evaluate the significance of a patient who may have potential fluid overload ( remember this is the assessment a EN would do, not what the doctor would order – please include at least 4 points)
  1. Explain the process of completing a pain assessment on Amelia – using a pain assessment tool?
  2. Discuss 3 complementary therapies strategies that you as the EN may implement to alleviate Amelia’s pain during her stay in hospital
  3. Identify which drug schedule applies to Endone and discuss the storage requirements for this medication – especially storage requirements for a health care facility.
  4. Provide an example of what you would write in the nursing notes when doing the documentation once the pain relieving medication has been administered – including follow-up assessment
  5. In your own words briefly discuss your understanding of traditional medicine in the context of

health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people

Some medications have Individualised doses based on a patient’s weight and body surface area – (BSA) (for both children, frail adults, adults) for instance chemotherapy drugs – as many of these drugs are very toxic with a narrow therapeutic range. While you may not calculate these doses you are required to have an understanding of how to do a calculation using BSA. The units of BSA are per square meter (m 2 ). BSA is calculated from a formula that employs the height and weight – there are numerous formulas – in use here is the Mosteller formula – one of the most commonly used Mostella formula used to calculate BSA is

BSA (in m2) = square root of (ht in cm x wt in kg/3600)

BSA (in m2) = square root of (ht in cm x wt in kg) x 60 (as the square root of 3600 = 60)

Mrs Jones is a 76yr old woman who is to commence chemotherapy. Her weight is 51kg and her height is 165cm

To calculate BSA of Mrs Jones –

Using a calculator with a Square root symbot √ (51 X 165) = /60 = 1.52(m 2 ). OR

You will note I have rounded down. Always check with facility policy for rounding up or down if you are in this situation for specific drugs like this

Please answer the following question in reference to Mrs Jones (note the BSA is as above)

Mrs Jones is ordered Cisplatin (for CA of the bladder) 50mgs per (m 2 ) as a single IV infusion.

Please calculate using the above BSA for Mrs Jones how many mgs will be needed

Review the side effects of digoxin looking at the above scenario – discuss aspects of Mrs A’s history that may be related to these side effects. Your immediate priority’s, (remember he has a IV)Discuss the education (regarding his new allergy) that should be provided to Mr B after he recovers from this event?

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Acknowledgements

The Subantarctic research is funded by an Australian Antarctic Science Programme Grants (AAS 3095, 4192, 4312) the contributors thank Catherine Dickson for use of the photographs. The Alpine vegetation monitoring has been supported by grants from the Australian Research Council via their Linkage program and the Long Term Ecological Research Network. The Wet Tropics vertebrate biodiversity research was funded by National Environmental Research Program, Earthwatch Institute, Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network and the National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility. Research in the southwestern Australian forests and woodlands has been supported by ARC Linkage Projects (LP0455349, LP150100936) and The Centre for Climate Change, Woodland and Forest Health, which is a partnership between private industry, community groups, Universities and the Government of Western Australia. Dr George Matusick provided aerial photographs Research of the Northern Jarrah Forest psyllid induced dieback in the Cumberland Plain Woodland was funded. The work on avian body size has been supported by the NSW Environmental Trust and the Australian Research Council.


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