5.2.6: Fungi (Exercises) - Biology

These are homework exercises to accompany Kaiser's "Microbiology" TextMap. Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are defined as any microscopic organism that comprises either a single cell (unicellular), cell clusters or no cell at all (acellular). This includes eukaryotes, such as fungi and protists, and prokaryotes. Viruses and prions, though not strictly classed as living organisms, are also studied.

8.1: Overview of Fungi

Study the material in this section and then write out the answers to these questions. Do not just click on the answers and write them out. This will not test your understanding of this tutorial.

  1. A fungal infection is termed a _________________. (ans)

8.2: Yeasts


Study the material in this section and then write out the answers to these questions. This will not test your understanding of this tutorial.

  1. Briefly describe a typical yeast and state how it reproduces asexually. (ans)
  2. Match the following:

    _____ Reproductive spores produced by yeast by budding. (ans)

    _____ Thick walled survival spores produced by the yeast Candida. (ans)

    _____Long, continuous fungal filaments produced by dimorphic yeast. (ans)

    1. hyphae
    2. blastoconidia (blastospores)
    3. chlamydoconidia (chlamydospores)
  3. Name 3 potentially pathogenic yeasts and state an infection each causes.
    1. (ans)
    2. (ans)
    3. (ans)
  4. Multiple Choice (ans)

8.3: Molds


Study the material in this section and then write out the answers to these questions. This will not test your understanding of this tutorial.

  1. Define mold. (ans)
  2. Match the following:

    _____ The hyphae that grow up in the air and produce asexual reproductive spores. (ans)

    _____ Large asexual reproductive mold spores coming of of vegetative hyphae and often produced by dermatophytes. (ans)

    _____ Asexual reproductive mold spores produced inside a sac or sporangium at the end of an aerial hypha. (ans)

    _____ The hyphae that anchor a mold and absorb nutrients. (ans)

    _____ Asexual reproductive mold spores produced in chains at the end of an aerial hypha. (ans)

    _____ A branching tubular structure of a mold that is usually divided into cell-like units by crosswalls called septa. (ans)

    _____ Asexual reproductive mold spores produced by fragmentation of vegetative hyphae. (ans)

    1. hypha
    2. macroconidia
    3. vegetative mycelium
    4. aerial mycelium
    5. sporangiospores
    6. arthrospores
    7. conidiospores
  3. Define dermatophyte. (ans)
  4. List 2 genera of dermatophytes.
    1. (ans)
    2. (ans)
  5. Name 3 dermatophytic infections. (ans)
  6. Describe what is meant by the term "dimorphic fungus", name 2 systemic infections caused by dimorphic fungi, and state how they are initially contracted. (ans)
  7. Multiple Choice (ans)

8.4: Fungal Pathogenicity


  1. Name at least 3 fungal virulence factors that promote fungal colonization.
    1. (ans)
    2. (ans)
    3. (ans)
  2. Name 2 fungal virulence factors that damage the host.
    1. (ans)
    2. (ans)

8.5: Chemotherapeutic Control of Fungi

Study the material in this section and then write out the answers to these questions. This will not test your understanding of this tutorial.

  1. Briefly describe 2 different ways antifungal chemotherapeutic agents may affect fungi and give an example of an antibiotic for each way.
    1. (ans)
    2. (ans)

Five Kingdom Classification

Segregating living organisms into different hierarchical groups depending upon their similarities in their structure, functions, physiology, etc. is Biological Classification. Aristotle first, classified living organisms on the basis of their habitat (living on water, land, or air). The systematic classification of organisms is needed to study them properly. As evolution is a continuous process with a standard classification system in place it is easier to place the organisms according to their groups and identify their characteristics.

What is the Five Kingdom Classification

The basic two-kingdom classification that divides plants and animals into two groups was not efficient enough to help study other organisms that did not fall in either of the categories. There are organisms, with no similarities with plants or animals. Hence, to classify and study all organisms, a broader system was needed to first classify and put all of them into different groups.

Fungal diseases

Fungal diseases can have a devastating effect on our health and our environment. From mycotoxins and mycoviruses to the mechanisms of infection of Chalara fraxinea, Candida and Cryptococcus, we touch on the many ways fungal diseases can affect people, animals and plants in this issue of Microbiology Today.

Human fungal diseases

Over a billion people suffer from superficial fungal infections, such as athlete’s foot and thrush worldwide, while life-threatening fungal infections cause an estimated 1.5 million deaths worldwide each year. This briefing outlines the important, but often overlooked, burden of human fungal diseases on public health.

The state of the world's fungi symposium

On 12 September, scientists at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew published a comprehensive report on the state of the world’s fungi highlighting the often overlooked importance of this kingdom. To coincide with this, a two-day international symposium was organised.

A killer snake fungus has been found in wild british snakes for the first time

Snake fungal disease (SFD) is of growing concern in the eastern US, where it’s causing declines in already fragile snake populations. Now, for the first time, SFD has been detected in wild snakes outside America – here in Great Britain it’s been found in grass snakes, while in mainland Europe a single infected dice snake has been identified.

The fungus that makes zombie ants could use biological clocks to control their minds

Ophiocordyceps spores infect carpenter ants while they are out at night searching for food. The fungus grows inside the ant and eventually causes it to leave the nest, seek out a piece of vegetation and climb it.

Pioneer fungi start degrading dead wood before it hits the ground

Next time you go walking in a forest during the summer months, take a look up and see if you can spot any branches missing their leaves. It might not seem obvious at first, but you’re looking at a poorly understood, although rather important, ecosystem.

Lab Syllabus

Lab sections meet in Room 223 of the Aven Nelson Building which is immediately south of the Classroom Building. Lab sections will meet at the following times:

LIFE 2023-10: Mondays from 2:10PM to 5:00 PM.

LIFE 2023-11: Mondays from 7:00PM to 9:50PM

LIFE 2023-12: Tuesdays from 2:10PM to 5:00PM

LIFE 2023-13: Tuesdays from 7:00PM to 9:50PM

Required materials

Please bring the following to lab meetings:

A printed copy of the lab exercise for that meeting or an electronic tablet with the exercise loaded on it.

A personal notebook of your choice with your name and contact information written on the inside cover.

Pencils and Sharpie markers

A 2 GB flash drive (or larger) for transferring image files between devices

A small, low cost digital camera (optional). Cell phone cameras can serve this purpose.

Course Objectives

The lab sections of LIFE 2023 elaborate on the concepts presented in lecture. They also equip students with a small set of practical laboratory skills. The lab activities are intended to stimulate your interest in plant and fungal biology and to keep you actively learning throughout the semester.

Lab points will be assigned for participation in lab meetings and scores in the lab practical exam. A total of 160 points may earned in the lab.

Each lab section meeting is worth 10 points. A total of 120 points may be earned for lab meetings. You must attend your assigned lab section meeting and turn in completed documentation to receive credit for the meeting.

The remaining 40 points possible for lab are earned by taking 2 Lab Practical Exams worth 20 points each The Lab Practical Exams will be opportunities for students to demonstrate the practical skills and knowledge they have acquired during lab activities.

Food and drink are not allowed in the student laboratory. Students should wear comfortable clothing that exposes relatively little skin. Closed shoes are also necessary. Additional safety precautions will be described for specific lab exercises.

Visitors to the lab are allowed but only at the discretion of the lab instructor and this should occur rarely to avoid overcrowding of the room. Students are also asked to refrain from talking on cell phones or playing music in the lab as a courtesy to others.

Disability Support

If you have a physical or learning disability, we encourage you to speak with your lab instructor about appropriate accommodations. In addition, there other resources available to you across campus that may assist you. Contact the University Disability Support Services and for more information.

How to complete lab exercises

Lab exercises for each lab meeting will be available for download as pdf files from the bottom of this web page prior to the lab meeting. You may print these for use in the lab or download them to an e-reader or tablet computer. These files are the directions for the lab work you must complete in each lab meeting.

Use a personal notebook of your choice, a digital camera, and a flash drive to record data, images, answers to questions, and other information that you generate during the lab exercise. You will transfer these to a lab notebook that will be a record of your work in lab.

Lab notebook templates for each lab meeting will be available for download as doc files from the bottom of this web page prior to the lab. Data, images, answers to questions, and other results of your lab work should be entered into these files from your personal notebook, camera, and flash drive. Completed lab notebook files should be submitted to your lab TA as e-mail attachments within 48 hours of the lab meeting. If you have technical difficulties or must miss lab because of an excused absence, arrange an extension of the 48 hour deadline with your lab instructor. The lab instructor may also extend the deadline at their discretion. Lab notes that are submitted late will have one point of credit subtracted for each day they are late.

Lab schedule

The lab schedule below is tentative and may be revised depending experimental results and on the availability of materials and equipment. Revisions to this schedule will be shown in red text. Lab exercises may be rescheduled for individual students if they are in time conflict with an official university function, if the student has three exams on the same day, or in cases of family emergency. Rescheduled exams and lab exercises must be completed within 2 weeks of the regularly scheduled time, if possible. Please do not attend other lab sections for this purpose if they are already full.

Watch the video: Genetic markers for Fungi part 1 (January 2022).