If you would calculate it: ~5 liters of blood = 50 deciliters 10g glucose = 10000 milligram
so the glucose level raises by 10000mg/50dl = 200mg/dl
However, it is known that ingesting 10g glucose only raises the blood glucose level by ~40mg/dl
If you get an intravenous injection containing 10 g of glucose, all glucose will enter the blood within few seconds and your blood glucose level will temporary rise by ~200 mg/dL.
If you take 10 g of glucose by mouth, the glucose will be dissolved and distributed within the stomach and small intestine and will be gradually absorbed into the blood, let's say within 30 minutes. In this time, some glucose will already move from the blood into the cells, so you will never have 10 g of additional glucose in the blood at a given time.
The actual blood glucose rise after ingestion of 10 g of glucose is not a fixed number, but a range that depends on several factors:
The gastrointestinal tract plays a major role in the regulation of postprandial glucose profiles. Gastric emptying is a highly regulated process, which normally ensures a limited and fairly constant delivery of nutrients and glucose to the proximal gut. The subsequent digestion and absorption of nutrients are associated with the release of a set of hormones that feeds back to regulate subsequent gastric emptying and regulates the release of insulin, resulting in downregulation of hepatic glucose production and deposition of glucose in insulin-sensitive tissues. These remarkable mechanisms normally keep postprandial glucose excursions low, regardless of the load of glucose ingested.** (Role of Gut in Glucose Homeostasis, Diabete Care, 2016)
How are blood glucose levels controlled in the body?
When there is an excess of glucose in the blood (as there would be after eating a meal), the increase in blood glucose concentration is detected by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. They respond by increasing the secretions of the hormone insulin.
Insulin will increase the rate of glucose uptake by activating enzymes that convert glucose to glycogen, so blood glucose levels will lower and return to normal. This process is called glycogenesis.
Low blood glucose levels are detected by alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas. These cells will respond by increasing the secretions of glucagon into the blood.
Glucagon is a hormone that will activate enzymes in the liver, these enzymes will convert glycogen to glucose in a process called glycogenolysis. Glucagon will also stimulate formation of new glucose molecules in a process called gluconeogenesis. As more glucose is synthesised and released into the blood, the blood glucose levels will return to normal.
This system is controlled by negative feedback, once blood glucose concentrations have returned back to the normal level, the receptors involved will detect this and stop secreting excessive amounts of hormone (insulin or glucagon).
This process provides homeostasis the maintainance of a constant internal environment and independance of fluctuating external conditions. Homeostasis is achieved by negative feedback.
How does the human body regulate its blood glucose levels?
Once a person has eaten a meal, their digestive system will break the nutrients down into smaller components that can travel in the blood to any parts of the body that need them. Any carbohydrates in this food will be broken down into sugars (e.g. glucose). These sugars will rapidly enter the blood.
At this point, it is critical for the body to use the glucose ASAP to avoid hyperglycaemia (high blood glucose) and maintain a constant blood glucose level. The glucose in the blood is therefore stored in liver and muscle cells in the form of a larger molecule called glycogen.
The body is able to detect blood glucose levels via an organ called the pancreas. More specifically, it is detected by areas within the pancreas called islets of Langerhans. In this region there are 2 types of cells. Beta-cells and alpha-cells.
Beta-cells will detect high blood glucose (e.g. after a meal) and secrete insulin. Insulin is a hormone that will help the liver and muscle cell uptake more glucose and convert it to glycogen, thus lowering the overall blood glucose levels.
Alpha-cells will detect low blood glucose (e.g. after exercise) and secrete glucagon. Glucagon is also a hormone, but it has the role of breaking down glycogen and releasing glucose from the liver and muscle cells. This will increase the blood glucose.
To provide an overview, the components within this system communicate with each other via hormones in order to provide a relatively constant blood glucose level. This maintanence of the internal environment is an example of homeostasis.
Daily consumption of banana marginally improves blood glucose and lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic subjects and increases serum adiponectin in type 2 diabetic patients
In this study, we explored the effects of consumption of banana in thirty hypercholesterolemic and fifteen type 2 diabetic subjects. They were given a daily dose of 250 or 500 grams of banana for breakfast for 12 weeks. Fasting serum lipid, glucose and insulin levels were measured initially as well as every 4 weeks. Daily consumption of banana significantly lowered fasting blood glucose (from 99 ± 7.7 to 92 ± 6.9 and 102 ± 7.3 to 92 ± 5.7 mg x dL(-1) (p < 0.05) after consuming banana 250 or 500 g/day for 4 wk, respectively) and LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio (from 2.7 ± 0.98 to 2.4 ± 0.85 and 2.8 ± 0.95 to 2.5 ± 0.79, p < 0.005) in hypercholesterolemic volunteers. Analysis of blood glycemic response after eating banana showed significantly lower 2 h-postprandial glucose level compared to baseline in hypercholesterolemic volunteers given a dose of 250 g/day. The changes of blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic patients were not statistically significant, but for plasma levels of adiponectin, there were significantly increased (from 37.5 ± 9.36 to 48.8 ± 7.38 ngnml1, p < 0.05) compared to baseline. Although it remains to be confirmed with larger group of volunteers, this pilot study has demonstrated that daily consumption of banana (@ 250 g/day) is harmless both in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic volunteers and marginally beneficial to the later.
What Can You Do?
To keep your blood sugar in balance, try to get at least 7 hours of sleep each night.
If you work at night or have rotating shifts: Try to maintain regular meal and sleep times, even on your days off, if you can. And get some exercise during your breaks, like short walks or stretches.
If you’re concerned about your blood sugar: Getting a good night’s sleep on a regular basis will go a long way toward helping your body use insulin efficiently. Along with getting enough sleep, avoid eating late at night, and try to get some exercise after dinner, like going for a walk.
If you have diabetes: If your blood sugar is often too high in the morning, talk to your doctor. You may need to do some extra blood sugar testing or use a continuous glucose monitor to figure out what’s going on, which will determine how you should handle it. Your doctor may suggest a tweak to your diabetes medicines or your exercise routine.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: “Why Is Sleep Important?”
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disorders: “Prediabetes and Insulin Resistance.”
American Diabetes Association: “Dawn Phenomenon,” “Handling Morning Highs in Blood Glucose.”
Journal of Thoracic Disease: “Insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus in obstructive sleep apnea.”
Cleveland Clinic: “Diabetes and the Night Shift Factor.”
Sleep: “Additional Sleep Duration Associates with Improved Blood Sugar Regulation.”
Canadian Journal of Diabetes: “Inadequate Sleep as a Contributor to Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes.”
Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism: ‘The Association Between Sleep Duration, Insulin Sensitivity, and β-Cell Function: The EGIR-RISC Study.”
Current Opinions in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity: “Metabolic effects of sleep disruption, links to obesity and diabetes.”
Journal of Diabetes Investigation: “Association of short sleep duration with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus.”
Current Biology: “Morning Circadian Misalignment during Short Sleep Duration Impacts Insulin Sensitivity.”
How much do fast-acting carbs raise BG?
For example, when my son's BG = 52, and we want to raise it quickly, why is it better to use pure fruit juice or the glucose tabs? I know those are absorbed quicker, but in the end, doesn't ANY 15 carbs raise BG to the same level as the juice/glucose tabs eventually? And, how much does 4g, or 6g, or 8g, of the fast-acting carbs raise the BG?
What I think I really want to know is what one carb equals in raising BG.
Sorry this question is hard to ask. I'm just not really sure how to word it.
The rule of thumb I was told is that 10g carbs will raise your BG by 36 - 54 (the exact amount depends on the individual, and will probably vary for an individual depending on exactly what their body is doing).
And yes, in theory, 10g of carbs will raise your BG by the same amount whether it is fast acting or slow acting, but if you are hypo, you want fast acting ones because they will stop your BG dropping low enough for you to pass out (you don't want to have to wait for 30 mins for your BG to rise).
It isn't quite as simple as this though with fast acting carbs, the sugar is in your blood very quickly, so your blood sugar spikes, then it comes down slowly as your body uses up the sugar. With slower acting carbs, the body uses up the sugar as it is being released in to the blood stream, which means that you dont peak at such a high number.
For me, 1 gram of carb will raise me about 5 pts if I haven't recently exercised or have any IOB. So, two glucose tablets = about 40 pts, which is about what I want to do to treat a reaction, but I'm an adult reaching for really tight control, so I don't want to correct to much over 100. When I was younger, I corrected higher.
Ultimately, it really depends on your total daily dose and your insulin to carb ratio. Definitely get a copy of Walsh's Pumping Insulin. Even if your child isn't pumping, there are numerous charts that will give you a starting place to experiment with things like this. You can test it, too, with one glucose tab under the right conditions.
Also, fastest carbs are glucose tabs or gatorade. I treated lows for over 20 years with juice, soda, and dried fruit, and have never passed out (so it must work quickly enough), but I notice a dramatic difference when I use tabs or gatorade. I recover more quickly, and don't feel the nasty "reaction hangover." Slow carbs, theoretically, should raise us the same amount of points, but much slower, and that's not what you need during a low.
I call this the SSF, sugar sensitivity factor. If you know your insulin sensitivity factor (ISF) and your insulin to carb ratio (ICR) , then presumably:
So a normal person might have an ISF of say 50 and an ICR of 10, and hence a gram of carbs would raise your blood sugar 5 mg/dl. Of course, it does necessarily work this way, but that never stopped me from interjecting a little math in everybodies lives. Technically, the glycemic index measures the amount of blood sugar rise proportion to the weight of carbs, a glycemic index of 100 would cause a blood sugar rise of 5 mg/dl, while a GI would cause a 2.5 mg/dl rise.
Dr. B suggests that a gram of carbs raises ones blood sugar 3-5 mg/dl. I have found that guideline to work pretty well, my insulin response is generally shot, so my blood sugar will rise about the same corresponding amount to peak generally within an hour of a meal.
What Is Adrenaline?
"It's what we call the 'fight or flight' hormone," says Deena Adimoolam, MD, an assistant professor of endocrinology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City. "When your body is in a state of stress, you end up secreting this hormone called adrenaline, which is also known as epinephrine."
Adrenaline is produced in your adrenal glands, located on the tops of your kidneys, and in some types of nerve cells. When a stressful situation triggers adrenaline production, you may start to sweat, feel your heart racing or pounding and even be dizzy or lightheaded, according to the Endocrine Society. The goal of this physical response is to get your body ready to battle — or flee from — danger.
According to the Endocrine Society, this includes opening your air passages to help your muscles get needed oxygen, contracting your blood vessels to focus your blood supply on critical areas (such as your heart and lungs), reducing your ability to feel pain and boosting your strength and awareness. It also causes a release of glucose, which the Society for Endocrinology notes is primarily intended for your brain.
Steroids and anti-psychotic medications can cause higher-than-normal blood sugar levels, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA). Hormonal contraceptives can elevate blood sugar too, according to the University of Colorado.
Other meds may cause low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia. Most of these are diabetes medications such as insulin injections. But in rare cases, certain heart arrhythmia drugs, pain relievers and antibiotics can also cause low blood sugar, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Before taking a fasting blood sugar test, be sure to tell your doctor about any and all medications you may be taking — including over-the-counter medications and herbal supplements.
Diabetic-level glucose spikes seen in healthy people
A study out of Stanford in which blood sugar levels were continuously monitored reveals that even people who think they’re “healthy” should pay attention to what they eat.
A device that keeps extra-close tabs on the ups and downs of blood glucose levels reveals that most people see only a partial picture of the sugar circulating in their blood, according to a study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
It turns out that the level of sugar in an individual’s blood — especially in individuals who are considered healthy — fluctuates more than traditional means of monitoring, like the one-and-done finger-prick method, would have us believe. Often, these fluctuations come in the form of “spikes,” or a rapid increase in the amount of sugar in the blood, after eating specific foods — most commonly, carbohydrates.
“There are lots of folks running around with their glucose levels spiking, and they don’t even know it,” said Michael Snyder, PhD, professor and chair of genetics at Stanford and senior author of the study. The covert spikes are a problem because high blood sugar levels, especially when prolonged, can contribute to cardiovascular disease risk and a person’s tendencies to develop insulin resistance, which is a common precursor to diabetes, he said.
“We saw that some folks who think they’re healthy actually are misregulating glucose — sometimes at the same severity of people with diabetes — and they have no idea,” Snyder said.
The insight came to him after he and collaborators at Stanford gave study participants a continuous glucose-monitoring device, which superficially pokes into the surface layer of the skin and takes frequent readings of sugar concentrations in the blood as it circulates. With the frequent readouts providing more detailed data, Snyder’s group saw not only that glucose dysregulation is more common than previously thought, but they also used the data to start building a machine-learning model to predict the specific foods to which people spike. The goal is to one day use the framework to compile data from an individual and, based on their continuous glucose readout, direct them away from particularly “spikey” foods.
The study was published online on July 24 in PLOS Biology. Graduate student Heather Hall, research dietician Dalia Perlman and postdoctoral scholar Alessandra Brechi, PhD, share lead authorship.
Some are ‘spikier’ than others
Most people who periodically check their blood sugar levels do so with a quick lance to the finger and a device that reads out the blood glucose concentration. The problem with this method is that it captures only a snapshot in time. The amount of sugar in a person’s blood is not a constant it ebbs and flows depending on what the person has eaten that day, down to the specific kind of carbohydrate. (For instance, rice, breads and potatoes are all different kinds of carbohydrates, yet people often digest them differently.)
To get a better read on glucose levels, Snyder fitted 57 people with a device that continuously took blood glucose readings over about two weeks. Most of the participants were healthy or showing signs of prediabetes, and five had Type 2 diabetes. Data sent back to the lab showed that there were multiple types of spikers, which were classified into three overarching “glucotypes.” The glucotype categories — low, moderate and severe — are basically rankings of spike intensity.
“We’re very interested in what it means to be ‘healthy’ and finding deviations from that,” said Snyder, who holds the Stanford W. Ascherman, MD, FACS Professorship in Genetics. These glucotypes, he said, are subject to change based on diet. The researchers ultimately have two goals for their work: When people spike, catch it early and understand what makes a person spike, and adjust their diet to bring the glucotype into the “low” range.
Often people who are prediabetic have no idea they’re prediabetic. In fact, this is the case about 90 percent of the time. It’s a big deal, Snyder said, as about 70 percent of people who are prediabetic will eventually develop the disease.
“We think that these continuous glucose monitors will be important in providing the right information earlier on so that people can make changes to their diet should they need to,” he said.
Blame it on the cornflakes
In getting at the subtleties of spiking, Snyder conducted a sub-study in which 30 participants using the continuous glucose monitor alternated between three breakfasts: a bowl of cornflakes with milk, a peanut butter sandwich and a protein bar.
The trio of tests yielded some fairly startling results: After eating one or more of the meals, more than half of the group — whose prior blood sugar tests showed that they were “healthy” — spiked at the same levels as those of people who were prediabetic or diabetic.
What’s more, nearly everyone spiked after eating the cereal.
“We saw that 80 percent of our participants spiked after eating a bowl of cornflakes and milk,” Snyder said. “Make of that what you will, but my own personal belief is it’s probably not such a great thing for everyone to be eating.”
Still, the variables that elicit spikes in an individual — genetics the population of microbes that live in our bodies and epigenetics, or changes to gene expression — are critical to understanding glucose dysregulation and the foods that cause glucose spikes. Those parameters are not set in stone, which is why Snyder encourages everyone — including those who think of themselves as healthy — to check their blood sugar with continuous glucose monitoring about once a year.
“Right now we have information about people who do and don’t spike, or are super-spikers, but we need to get smart about why it’s happening,” Snyder said. “I think understanding the microbiome and manipulating it is going to be a big part of this, and that’s where our research is headed next.”
The work is an example of Stanford Medicine’s focus on precision health, the goal of which is to anticipate and prevent disease in the healthy and precisely diagnose and treat disease in the ill.
Other Stanford co-authors of the study are Ryan Kellogg, PhD former research coordinator Patricia Limcaoco and professor of medicine Tracey McLaughlin, MD.
The study was supported by the National Institutes of Health (grant 5U54DK10255603) and the National Science Foundation.
Cholesterol and Pectin
People with type 2 diabetes commonly have too much of a "bad" form of cholesterol called low-density lipoprotein, circulating in their blood. The European Food Safety Authority, allows a health claim for pectin in maintaining normal blood cholesterol levels. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not allow health claims for pectin supplements with regard to cholesterol or blood glucose.
To substantiate the health claim about pectin and its effect on LDL levels, the EFSA cited an analysis of controlled clinical research trials. In the analysis of 7 research studies -- 1 of which included people with diabetes -- a dose of pectin between 2.2 and 9 g per day for an average of 34 days exerted a small but significant LDL cholesterol-lowering effect that was proportional to the dose.
It is now suggested that tight glycemic control with a target blood glucose level of 90-110 mg/dL does not improve clinical outcome and that less strict glycemic control with a target blood glucose level of 140-180 mg/dL is more effective. Also specific targeting of glycemic control in diabetic patients should be considered. Since there is a significant correlation between success rate of glycemic control and the degree of hypercytokinemia in septic patients, some countermeasures to hypercytokinemia may be an important aspect of successful glycemic control. Thus, in future, use of an artificial pancreas to avoid hypoglycemia during insulin therapy, special consideration of septic diabetic patients, and control of hypercytokinemia should be considered for more effective glycemic control in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.