Information

25.7: Glossary: P - Biology


25.7: Glossary: P

COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCES BIOLOGY

BIOL 100 Introductory Biology (5) NW
Develops an awareness of science by studying basic biological principles and their application to problems of humans and society in the contexts of special topics or themes, which vary quarter to quarter. For non-science majors only.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 100

BIOL 103 Sex, Death, and Evolution (2) NW Jon Herron
Evolution is the conceptual foundation for all the life sciences. Overview of theoretical and empirical evolutionary biology using examples that involve sex and/or death. Designed for non-majors.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 103

BIOL 105 Drug Dilemmas: The Biology of Cannabinoids and Opioids (2) NW
Covers the biology of two - the drug group related to heroin and the drug group related to cannabis. Studies the biology of these drugs to make predictions about human responses and impacts. Investigates social and legal factors interacting with drug biology.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 105

BIOL 106 Introductory Biology Seminar (1/3, max. 6) NW
Focuses on current topics in biology. Topics vary from quarter to quarter. Designed to enhance learning skills of students who intend to take BIOL 180/BIOL 200/BIOL 220 and major in one of the biological sciences.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 106

BIOL 107 Biology of Vaccines (3) NW
Vaccines and other immunotherapies, biological interactions with our immune system, impacts on society. Why certain immunization schedules are used for infants and how pathogens and cancers are removed by our immune system. Offered: W.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 107

BIOL 108 Evolution and Human Behavior (5) I&S/NW
Introduction to evolution by natural selection, examining the light it can throw on human biology and behavior in such areas as the nature of sex differences, sexual conflict, and conflict between parents and children. Offered: jointly with BIO A 100.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 108

BIOL 110 Freshman Discovery Seminar in Biology (5) NW
Introduces incoming freshman to research basics and scholarly inquiry skills used in the study of biology.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 110

BIOL 114 Astrobiology: Life in the Universe (5) NW David C. Catling, Roger Buick, Victoria S Meadows, Woodruff T Sullivan
Introduction to the new science of astrobiology, study of the origin and evolution of life on Earth, and the search for microbial and intelligent life elsewhere in the Universe. Designed for non-science, liberal arts majors. Offered: jointly with ASTBIO 115/ASTR 115/ESS 115/OCEAN 115.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 114

BIOL 118 Survey of Physiology (5) NW
Human physiology, for nonmajors and health sciences students. Offered: AWSpS.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 118

BIOL 119 Elementary Physiology Laboratory (1) NW
Prerequisite: BIOL 118 which may be taken concurrently. Offered: AWSpS.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 119

BIOL 120 Current Controversies in Biology (2-5, max. 6) NW
Explores a current controversial topic in biology, stressing information needed by the general public to make informed personal, political, and ethical decisions relating to this topic.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 120

BIOL 130 Introduction to Neuroscience (4) NW Horacio O. De La Iglesia, Bingni W Brunton, William J Moody
Provides a broad introduction to the study of brain function in humans and other animals. Emphasizes how circuits within the brain process sensory information and generate complex movements. No credit if NBIO 301, NBIO 302, or BIOL 461 already taken. Offered: Sp.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 130

BIOL 161 Advanced Placement (AP) in General Biology 1 (5-) NW
Course awarded based on Advanced Placement (AP) score. Consult the Admissions Exams for Credit website for more information. Credit/no-credit only.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 161

BIOL 162 Advanced Placement (AP) in General Biology 2 (-5) NW
Course awarded based on Advanced Placement (AP) score. Consult the Admissions Exams for Credit website for more information. Credit/no-credit only.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 162

BIOL 180 Introductory Biology (5) NW
Mendelian genetics, evolution, biodiversity of life forms, ecology, and conservation biology. Open to all students interested in biology whether intending to major in the biological sciences, enroll in preprofessional programs, or fulfill a Natural World requirement. First course in a three-quarter series (BIOL 180, BIOL 200, BIOL 220). Offered: AWSpS.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 180

BIOL 200 Introductory Biology (5) NW
For students intending to take advanced courses in the biological sciences or enroll in preprofessional programs. Metabolism and energetics, structure and function of biomolecules, cell structure and function, animal development. Second course in a three-quarter series (BIOL 180, BIOL 200, BIOL 220). Prerequisite: minimum grade of 1.7 in either BIOL 180, B BIO 180, T BIOL 120, or TESC 120 either CHEM 143, CHEM 145, CHEM 223, CHEM 237, or OCEAN 295, or concurrently taking either CHEM 220, CHEM 152, CHEM 153, or CHEM 155. Offered: AWSpS.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 200

BIOL 220 Introductory Biology (5) NW
For students intending to take advanced courses in the biological sciences or enroll in preprofessional programs. Animal physiology, plant development and physiology. Final course in a three-quarter series (BIOL 180, BIOL 200, BIOL 220). Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in either BIOL 200, B BIO 200, or T BIOL 130. Offered: AWSpS.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 220

BIOL 240 Intensive Introductory Biology: Human Health Emphasis (15) NW J. Doherty, S. Freeman, A. Schivell
Comprehensive introduction to biology from the standpoint of interactions between biology, human health, society, and the larger ecosystem. Covers Mendelian genetics, evolution, biodiversity of life forms, ecology, conservation biology, metabolism and energetics, structure and function of biomolecules, cell structure and function, animal physiology, and plant physiology. Offered: S.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 240

BIOL 250 Marine Biology (3/5) I&S/NW
Lecture-laboratory course in marine biology focusing on physical, biological, and social aspects of the marine environment. Topics include oceanography, ecology, physiology, behavior, conservation, fisheries, exploration, and activism. Weekend field trip. Honors section research project. Offered: jointly with FISH 250/OCEAN 250 AS.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 250

BIOL 270 Data Reasoning in a Digital World (4) I&S Jevin West, Carl T Bergstrom
Our world is rife with misinformation. This is a course about "calling b***s*** on" - spotting, dissecting, and publicly refuting - false claims and inferences based on quantitative, statistical, and computational analysis of data. Spotting misinformation causal fallacies statistical traps data visualization big data interpreting scientific claims fake news and social media refutation techniques. Prior math/stat background unnecessary. Offered: A.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 270

BIOL 280 The History of Life (4) NW P. WARD
Follows the history of life from its first formation including the origin of life and life's diversification from single cells through multi-celluarity. Examines fossils and DNA evidence from understanding the sequence of events and evolutionary history of life.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 280

BIOL 293 Study Abroad - Biology (1-10, max. 10) NW
For participants in UW Study Abroad program. Specific content varies and must be individually evaluated. Credit does not apply to major requirements without approval.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 293

BIOL 302 Laboratory Techniques in Cell and Molecular Biology (4) NW T. Imaizumi, L. Martin-Morris
Explores the use of various cell and molecular laboratory techniques, such as PCR, cloning, gel electrophoresis, and bacterial transformation through hands-on experiments. Students produce a portfolio of techniques they have learned. Prerequisite: either BIOL 355 or a minimum grade of 2.5 in either BIOL 200, BIOL 240, B BIO 200, or T BIOL 130.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 302

BIOL 305 Science Communication: Video Storytelling in Biology (3) NW/VLPA P. Boersma
Students make a short film on a biological story, concept, or theory. Includes developing a storyline, getting the shots to make compelling viewing, editing, and producing a short video. Prerequisite: either BIOL 180, BIOL 240, B BIO 180, or T BIOL 120. Offered: Sp.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 305

BIOL 310 Survey of Human Anatomy (5) NW C. Self
Covers the major systems of the human body (integumentary, skeletomuscular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular and reproductive) and the interactions of cells and tissues that help humans live, grow and change. Focus on anatomy (not physiology) to offer students a greater understanding of the structures, development, and evolution of the of human body. Offered: ASp.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 310

BIOL 311 Biology of Fishes (3/5) NW
Covers morphological, physiological, behavioral, and ecological diversity of fishes of the world designed to provide a basic foundation for advanced courses in all areas of aquatic sciences. 3-credit option does not include laboratory. Offered: jointly with FISH 311 W.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 311

BIOL 313 Civilizational Biology (5) I&S/NW Ben Wiggins
Explores fundamental biology needed to build and maintain human society (both historically and after a future apocalyptic event). Focuses on engineering and innovating necessary biology tools from raw materials (bread, soap, preservatives, textiles, salt, etc.) and in biological/cultural practices (birth, death, medical care, conservation, etc). Prerequisite: BIOL 220.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 313

BIOL 315 Biological Impacts of Climate Change (3) NW Lauren Buckley, Abby Swann She.Her
Covers the biological impacts of climate change, including changes in species distributions and interactions, altered phenology, and ecosystem dynamics. Discusses implications of these biological impacts for society (e.g., food security, public health, and resource management). Prerequisite: either BIOL 180, BIOL 240, B BIO 180, or T BIOL 120.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 315

BIOL 331 Landscape Plant Recognition (3) NW
Field recognition of important groups of woody landscape plants, emphasizing diversity at the genus and family levels. Cultivated plant nomenclature. Plant descriptive characters evident in the field with eye and hand lens. Hardiness and landscape applications. Offered: jointly with ESRM 331 Sp.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 331

BIOL 340 Genetics and Molecular Ecology (5) NW
Application of molecular markers to ecology, evolution, and the management of living resources. Emphasis on understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the approach based on case studies. Prerequisite: BIOL 200. Offered: jointly with FISH 340 A.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 340

BIOL 350 Foundations in Physiology (3) NW
Physiology core course for biological sciences majors. Analysis of basic principles of animal and plant physiology, with emphasis on cellular processes that mediate organismic processes. Serves as gateway to upper-division courses in physiology. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in either BIOL 220, BIOL 240, B BIO 220, or T BIOL 140. Offered: AWSpS.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 350

BIOL 354 Foundations in Evolution and Systematics (3) NW
Evolution and systematics core course for biological sciences majors. Emphasizes patterns, processes, and consequences of evolutionary change. Serves as gateway to 400-level courses and seminars in evolution, population genetics, sociobiology, conservation biology, phylogenetics, and systematics. Prerequisite: either BIOL 180, BIOL 240, B BIO 180, T BIOL 120, or BIO A 201. Offered: ASp.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 354

BIOL 355 Foundations in Molecular Cell Biology (3) NW
Cell biology core course for biological sciences majors. Emphasis on molecular approaches to understand cell structure, function, and regulation, and the analysis of experimental design and data interpretation. Serves as a prerequisite to advanced 400-level cell, molecular, and developmental biology courses and seminars. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in either BIOL 200, BIOL 240, B BIO 200, T BIOL 130. Offered: AWSpS.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 355

BIOL 356 Foundations in Ecology (3) NW
Ecology core course for biological sciences majors. Emphasizes understanding species interactions in biological communities and relationships of communities to environment. Serves as a prerequisite to 400-level courses and senior seminars in ecology, population, and conservation biology. Prerequisite: either BIOL 180, BIOL 240, B BIO 180, or T BIOL 120. Offered: AW.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 356

BIOL 359 Foundations in Quantitative Biology (3) NW, QSR
Quantitative skills used in biology, with a focus on applying those skills to current biological issues. Topics include data analysis, probabilities, statistics, algorithms, and numerical simulations. No math or statistics background required. Prerequisite: BIOL 220 or BIOL 240.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 359

BIOL 360 Cellular Anatomy (4) NW Leslie B. Zeman
Recognition of cellular and tissue structures in plants and animals with correlations to normal physiology and disease states. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in either BIOL 220, BIOL 240, B BIO 220, or T BIOL 140 may not be taken for credit if credit earned in BIOL 403.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 360

BIOL 381 Introduction to Athletic Training (Lower Extremity) ([1-3]-, max. 3) Jaqulyn Carrell, Jenn Stueckle, Kimberly Harmon, Chelsea Larsen
Topics and principles of athletic training, with internship hours in the Husky Athletic Training Room assisting with the 21 Husky varsity sports. Exposes students to the work of an athletic trainer within the sports medicine team. Focuses on lower extremities. Prerequisite: BIOL 220. Offered: A.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 381

BIOL 382 Introduction to Athletic Training (Upper Extremity) (-[1-3]-, max. 3) Jenn Stueckle, Kimberly Harmon, Chelsea Larsen, Jaqulyn Carrell
Topics and principles of athletic training, with internship hours in the Husky Athletic Training Room assisting with the 21 Husky varsity sports. Exposes students to the work of an athletic trainer within the sports medicine team. Focuses on upper extremities. Prerequisite: BIOL 381. Offered: W.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 382

BIOL 383 Introduction to Athletic Training (Core) (-[1-3], max. 3) Kimberly Harmon, Chelsea Larsen, Jenn Stueckle, Jaqulyn Carrell
Topics and principles of athletic training, with internship hours in the Husky Athletic Training Room assisting with the 21 Husky varsity sports. Exposes students to the work of an athletic trainer within the sports medicine team. Focuses on trunk and spine. Prerequisite: BIOL 382. Offered: Sp.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 383

BIOL 385 Evolutionary Medicine and Public Health (3) NW
Explores evolutionary causes of health and disease. Considers how natural selection and the legacies of our human, primate, mammalian and bacterial ancestries have shaped our biology. Topics include mental disorders, aging, cancer, diet, obesity, diabetes, infectious diseases, racism, and health differences between human groups. Prerequisite: either BIO A 201 or BIOL 180. Offered: jointly with BIO A 355.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 385

BIOL 394 Practical Introduction to Beekeeping (4-6) NW
Introduction to bee biology, pollination, and basic beekeeping theory. Students make their own hive, rear a queen bee, and prepare a publishable scientific paper and learn basic beekeeping technique. Credit/no-credit only. Offered: S.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 394

BIOL 396 Peer Facilitation - Teaching in Biology (1-4, max. 8) NW
For undergraduates working in biology courses as peer facilitators. Peer facilitators assist with labs, lectures, and course administration and gain direct classroom experience. No independent teaching or grading. Opportunities vary by quarter and instructor. Prerequisite: either BIOL 350, BIOL 354, BIOL 355, or BIOL 356. Credit/no-credit only.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 396

BIOL 399 Biology Internship Program (2-12, max. 15) NW B. WIGGINS
Coordinated internship in a biology-related field. Allows a structured, real world biology work experiences off-campus. All internships must be approved by instructor. Credit/no-credit only. Offered: AWSpS.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 399

BIOL 400 Experiments in Molecular Biology (4) NW Alison Crowe She.Her, Mandy Schivell She.Her, Adam Steinbrenner he.him
Integrated reading, writing, and experimentation in molecular biology. Design and implementation of experiments using modern molecular biology techniques to address current questions in biology. Emphasizes reading and evaluating primary research literature. Includes practice in different scientific writing styles. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in BIOL 355.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 400

BIOL 401 Advanced Cell Biology (3) NW Clemens C Cabernard, Alison Crowe She.Her, Mandy Schivell She.Her
Selected topics in molecular cell biology. Strong emphasis on reading and interpreting primary research literature. Writing intensive course. Prerequisite: BIOL 355.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 401

BIOL 402 Functional Genomics (4) NW A. Paredez
Students perform initial characterization of novel genes through epitope tagging and localization. Skills covered include: preparation of solutions, Genomic Database queries, PCR, electrophoresis, DNA purification, cloning, transformation, and immunofluorescence microscopy. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in BIOL 355.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 402

BIOL 404 Animal Physiology: Cellular Aspects (3) NW Horacio O. De La Iglesia
Examines the physiology of membrane transport, nervous signaling, sensory systems, behavioral modulation, muscle, neuronal and endocrine integration, and circadian rhythms. Emphasis on the cellular and tissue level. Prerequisite: either BIOL 220, BIOL 240, B BIO 220, or T BIOL 140 either CHEM 224 or CHEM 239. Offered: A.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 404

BIOL 405 Cellular and Molecular Biology of Human Disease (3) NW Barbara Wakimoto
Emphasizes the understanding of disease mechanisms through studies of genetic and cellular basis human disease and disease models. Based on analyses of primary research articles. This course does not cover infectious diseases. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in BIOL 355 either GENOME 361 or GENOME 371 either BIOC 405, BIOC 440, BIOL 401.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 405

BIOL 406 Conservation of Large Vertebrates (3) NW Briana Abrahms
Conservation of highly mobile megafauna across terrestrial and marine systems. Threats unique to large vertebrate species. Established and emerging scientific, management, and technological frameworks for their conservation. Topics include trophy hunting challenges for migratory species human-wildlife conflict impacts of climate change on highly mobile species as well as emerging solutions. Prerequisite: either BIOL 315 or BIOL 356.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 406

BIOL 407 Molecular Cell Biology of Neural Stem Cells (4) NW C. Cabernard
Examines the basic mechanisms used by stem cells to form differentiated cells. Students analyze the localization and function of Myosin family genes/proteins in the context of asymmetrically dividing neural stem cells using Drosophilla genetics, molecular biology and cell biology techniques. Offers opportunities for follow-up experiments based on initial observations. Prerequisite: BIOL 355.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 407

BIOL 408 Neuroethology (4) NW
Comparative exploration of the neural, hormonal, and genetic mechanisms that control behaviors necessary for survival and reproduction in animals. Model systems discussed include animal communication, mate choice, escape behavior, spatial orientation, homing and migration, and biological rhythms. Students are expected to understand fundamental concepts of neuroscience from any of the following prerequisite courses. Prerequisite: either PSYCH 333 OR BIOL 220. Offered: jointly with PSYCH 408.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 408

BIOL 410 Current Topics in Molecular and Cellular Biology Research (2) NW R. Gardner
Focuses on current research in primary literature in molecular and cellular biology. Covers three topics in depth that change to match immediately active topic areas. Prerequisite: BIOL 340, BIOL 350, BIOL 354, BIOL 355, BIOL 356, BIOL 360, or BIOL 380. Offered: Sp.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 410

BIOL 411 Developmental Biology (4) NW Jeff Rasmussen
Embryology and subsequent development of vertebrate and invertebrate animals, including Xenopus, mammals, chicks, Drosophila, echinoderms. Morphological changes in developing animals experimental analysis of developing systems underlying genetic and biochemical regulation of development. Prerequisite: BIOL 355 Offered: AW.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 411

BIOL 413 Molecular Genetics of Development (4) NW J. Parrish
Uses molecular biology, cell biology, and genetic approaches to investigate how nutrient signals influence neuron growth. Prerequisite: BIOL 355.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 413

BIOL 414 Molecular Evolution (5) NW
Survey of empirical approaches to the study of molecular evolution and ecology, drawing on examples from a variety of taxa and the recent literature. Topics include DNA sequencing and systematics, fingerprinting approaches in behavioral ecology, and adaptive evolution at the molecular level. Prerequisite: BIOL 354. Offered: jointly with GENOME 414.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 414

BIOL 415 Evolution and Development (3) NW Billie J Swalla
Analysis of intertwined developmental and evolutionary processes studied through evolution of developmental genes, proteins, and expression patterns in different organisms. Includes reading and analyzing implications for ecology evolution, and human disease. Prerequisite: either a minimum grade of 3.0 in BIOL 200, BIOL 240, B BIO 200, or T BIOL 130, or a minimum grade of 2.0 in either BIOL 354 or BIOL 355.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 415

BIOL 416 Molecular Genetics of Plant Development (3) Takato Imaizumi He,Him
Plant growth and development examined in molecular-genetic terms. Covers mutation, dominance, redundancy, epistasis, and key technologies for discovery of gene function as well as embryogenesis, meristem formation, flower development, and other problems in plant development. Prerequisite: BIOL 355 and either GENOME 361, or GENOME 371.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 416

BIOL 417 Comparative Reproductive Physiology of Vertebrates (4) NW Karen E Petersen, Kristiina J Hurme
Compares the reproductive physiology of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Prerequisite: either BIOL 350 or BIOL 355.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 417

BIOL 418 Biological Clocks and Rhythms (4) NW H. DE LA IGLESIA
Examines circadian rhythms and other forms of biological rhythmicity, including annual and tidal rhythms. Includes theoretical background as well as aspects that range from the molecular and cellular basis to the ecological and evolutionary implications of biological rhythms. Prerequisite: BIOL 350 or BIOL 355.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 418

BIOL 419 Data Science for Biologists (4) QSR B. BRUNTON
Explores, analyzes, and visualizes biological data sets using scientific computing software. Focuses on the foundations of data wrangling, data analysis, and statistics, particularly the development of automated techniques that are reproducible and scalable to large data sets. Offered: W.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 419

BIOL 421 Ecological and Evolutionary Physiology of Animals (4) NW L. Buckley
Explores the role of physiology in the ecology and evolution of animals. Special emphasis on how physiology influences responses to environmental change. Prerequisite: either BIOL 350, BIOL 354, BIOL 356, or a minimum grade of 3.6 in BIOL 180 or BIOL 240.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 421

BIOL 422 Physiology of Plant Behavior (3) NW Elizabeth Van Volkenburgh
Focuses on plant sensory mechanisms, transport and integration of information, and behavior in response to a variety of environmental stimuli. Prerequisite: either BIOL 220, BIOL 240, B BIO 220, or T BIOL 140.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 422

BIOL 423 Marine Ecological Processes (3) NW Emily Carrington
Studies the ecology of the oceans and coastal regions, emphasizing benthic communities common to the Pacific Northwest. Prerequisite: either BIOL 180 and BIOL 356, or BIOL 180 and FISH 250/BIOL 250/OCEAN 250, or a minimum grade of 3.4 in either BIOL 180 or BIOL 240.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 423

BIOL 424 Plant Ecophysiology (5) NW S. Kim
Explores physiological mechanisms that underlie ecological observations, including how above- and below-ground microclimates develop and affect plant physiological processes. Discusses acclimation to environmental change along with species differences in physiological processes and plant's occupation of heterogeneous environments. Laboratories emphasize field measurement techniques. Prerequisite: either BIOL 180, B BIO 180, TESC 120, T BIOL 120, ESRM 201, ESRM 162, or FISH 162. Offered: jointly with ESRM 478 W.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 424

BIOL 425 Plant Physiology and Development (5) NW Elizabeth Van Volkenburgh
Expanded coverage of plant growth, nutrition, metabolism, and development. Prerequisite: either BIOL 220, BIOL 240, B BIO 220, or T BIOL 140. Offered: W.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 425

BIOL 426 Comparative Immunology (3) NW Adam Steinbrenner he.him
Function and evolution of immune sensing across kingdoms. Basic bioinformatic and structural biology skills. Prerequisite: either BIOL 354, BIOL 355, GENOME 361, or GENOME 371. Offered: W.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 426

BIOL 427 Biomechanics (5) NW T. Daniel
Physical biology emphasizing a mechanical approach to ecological, evolutionary, and physiological questions. Basic principles underlying fluid and solid mechanics to explore responses of animals to flows, loads, and motions. Prerequisite: either BIOL 220, B BIO 220, or T BIOL 140 either MATH 125 or Q SCI 292 either PHYS 114 or PHYS 121.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 427

BIOL 428 Sensory Neurophysiology and Ecology Lab (5) NW J. Riffell
Examines behavioral and physiological processes within an environmental framework. Uses a synthetic approach emphasizing applications to cell biology, physiology and behavior, and biomechanics. Prerequisite: either BIOL 350 or BIOL 355.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 428

BIOL 430 Marine Zoology (5) NW
Survey of groups of invertebrate animals represented in the San Juan Archipelago natural history, functional morphology, ecology, distribution, habitat, adaptation, trophic interrelationships, and evolution. Prerequisite: BIOL 445, which must be taken concurrently permission of Friday Harbor director. Offered: jointly with FHL 430.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 430

BIOL 431 Biology of Cannabinoids (1) NW Linda Martin-Morris She. They
Focuses on the plant biochemistry of and human biology interaction with cannabinoid compounds such as those found in the genus Cannabis. Prerequisite: Any one of BIOL 313, BIOL 350, BIOL 354, BIOL 355, BIOL 356, BIOL 360, or BIOL 380. Offered: A.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 431

BIOL 432 Marine Invertebrate Zoology (9) NW
Comparative morphology and biology of marine invertebrates with emphasis on field and laboratory studies. Representatives of all major and most minor phyla are collected, observed live, and studied in detail. Taken at Friday Harbor Laboratories. Not open for credit to students who have taken BIOL 434. Offered: jointly with FHL 432 S.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 432

BIOL 433 Marine Ecology (5) NW Jennifer Ruesink
Study of marine ecological processes such as recruitment, disturbance, competition, and predation, and their effects on the structure and diversity of marine communities. Weekend field trips to local intertidal habitats required. Prerequisite: either FISH 270/OCEAN 270/MARBIO 270, BIOL 356, BIOL 472, or a minimum grade of 3.4 in either BIOL 180, BIOL 240, B BIO 180, or T BIOL 120 Offered: jointly with MARBIO 433 Sp, odd years.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 433

BIOL 434 Invertebrate Zoology (5) NW Mandy Schivell She.Her, Kenneth P Sebens
Comparative biology and morphology of invertebrates. Laboratory work emphasizes structures and functions. Emphasizes annelids and related worms, mollusks, and arthropods. Not open to students who have taken BIOL 430 or BIOL 432. Prerequisite: either BIOL 220, BIOL 240, B BIO 220, or T BIOL 140.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 434

BIOL 435 Research Apprenticeship in Marine Science (15) NW
Immersive quarter in research n close collaboration with one-three faculty mentors on a specific topic that varies with the apprenticeship. Students engage in laboratory or field research in marine science, involving gathering, analyzing, and communicating results as part of a research team. Offered: jointly with FHL 435/MARBIO 435 ASpS.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 435

BIOL 438 Analytical Paleobiology (5) NW Gregory Wilson Mantilla, Caroline Stromberg she.her
Introduction to the principles and analytical methods in the study of paleobiology, morphology, and systematics. Topics include paleobiogeography, morphology-based phylogenetics, evolutionary rates, biodiversity curves, functional morphology, morphometrics, and paleoecology. Emphasis on application of methods using fossil and modern specimens. Prerequisite: either BIOL 280, BIOL 354, or ESS 213. Offered: jointly with ESS 448 A.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 438

BIOL 439 Functional Morphology (5) NW S. Santana Mata
Uses mammals as a model system to investigate functional morphology. Focus on discussing primary literature, modern methodological tools used in functional morphology, and group research projects. Research-intensive format allows students to conduct research projects using resources and specimens in the Biology Department and Burke mammalogy collection. Prerequisite: BIOL 443, BIOL 448, BIOL 452, BIOL 453, or 3.0 in BIOL 350, or permission of instructor. Offered: A.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 439

BIOL 440 General Mycology (5) NW J. Ammirati
General survey of the fungi with emphasis on life cycles, structure, physiology, economic importance. Prerequisite: either BIOL 354 or BIOL 356
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 440

BIOL 441 Trends in Land Plant Evolution (5) NW Veronica Di Stilio
Covers key innovations and trends during the evolution of land plants. Uses an evolution of development (evo-devo) approach that compares morphological, anatomical, developmental, and molecular traits across main evolutionary lineages of plants. Prerequisite: either BIOL 220, B BIO 220, or T BIOL 140 and either BIOL 317, BIOL 350, BIOL 354, BIOL 355, or BIOL 356. Offered: A.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 441

BIOL 442 Mushrooms and Related Fungi (5) NW J. AMMIRATI
General biology, ecology, and classification of mushrooms, polypores, puffballs, and other related basidiomycetes. Emphasis on Pacific Northwest species. Prerequisite: BIOL 440.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 442

BIOL 443 Evolution of Mammals and their Ancestors (5) NW Gregory Wilson Mantilla
Highlights the evolutionary history and systematics of mammals and their ancestors. Examines fossil and modern mammal specimens from the Burke Museum collections. Required field trip. Prerequisite: either BIOL 354, BIOL 453, or ESS 100. Offered: Sp.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 443

BIOL 444 Ornithology (5) NW John T Klicka
Field, lecture, and laboratory study of birds from an evolutionary perspective. Emphasizes taxonomy, breeding systems, brood parasitism, appearance, molt, migration, orientation, social behavior, song, and flight. Includes Saturday and weekend field trips for which students are required to share a portion of transportation costs. Prerequisite: either BIOL 220, BIOL 240, B BIO 220, or T BIOL 140.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 444

BIOL 445 Marine Botany (5) NW
Survey of plants represented in marine environments natural history ecology, distribution, habitat, adaptation, and trophic interrelationships. Taken at Friday Harbor laboratories. Prerequisite: either BIOL 220, B BIO 220, or TESC 140 BIOL 430, which must be taken concurrently. Offered: jointly with FHL 440.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 445

BIOL 446 Plant Classification and Identification (5) NW Richard G. Olmstead
Explores the classification and diversity of seed plants concepts and principles of phylogeny and classification lab and field study of common plant families in Washington and skill development for identification of species. One field trip. Offered: SpS.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 446

BIOL 447 The Greening of the Earth: Influence of Plants on the Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems (5) NW Caroline A Stromberg
Examines the evolution of terrestrial ecosystems focusing on how abiotic factors such as climate change have shaped the evolution of vegetation on earth, and how the evolution of vegetation has influenced the evolution of animals. Introduces paleoecological techniques using Burke Museum plant fossils. Prerequisite: either BIOL 354 or ESS 213. Offered: A.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 447

BIOL 448 Mammalogy (5) NW S. SANTANA MATA
Studies evolutionary patterns, ecology, behavior, physiology, and taxonomy of mammals. Relies on a comparative, systems approach to understand the major trends and mechanisms maintaining the diversity in form and function in mammals. Prerequisite: either BIOL 350, BIOL 354, or BIOL 356.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 448

BIOL 449 Applied Phylogenetics (3) NW A. LEACHE
Emphasizes the estimation of species trees - multilocus estimates of species or population relationships as opposed to genealogies of alleles. Provides students with the computation and bioinformatics skills needed to apply new phylogenetic techniques that can accommodate larger, more complex data sets. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in BIOL 354.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 449

BIOL 450 Vertebrate Paleontology (5) NW C. SIDOR
Examines fossil vertebrate life, focusing on systematics and morphology of major lineages (fish, reptiles, bird, and early mammal relatives). Examines fossil and modern vertebrates from the Burke Museum collection in the lab. Weekend field trip. Prerequisite: either BIOL 354, BIOL 452, BIOL 453 or ESS 100. Offered: jointly with ESS 452.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 450

BIOL 451 Invertebrate Paleontology (5) NW Peter D Ward
Important larger invertebrate groups morphology, classification, stratigraphic distribution, evolution, paleoecology. Offered: jointly with ESS 451.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 451

BIOL 452 Vertebrate Biology (5) NW Karen E Petersen
The biology of vertebrate animals, emphasizing their diversity, adaptations, and evolutionary history. Introduces aspects of behavior, physiology, morphology, and ecology that emerge from the comparative study of vertebrates. Laboratory includes local field trips, films, and introduction to regional vertebrate fauna. Prerequisite: either BIOL 180, BIOL 240, B BIO 180, or T BIOL 120. Offered: SpS.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 452

BIOL 453 Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates (5) NW Karen E Petersen, Christian A Sidor
Comparison of the structure of vertebrate organ systems: integument, skeletal, muscle, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, urinary, and reproductive, with an emphasis on evolutionary trends. Prerequisite: either BIOL 350, BIOL 355, BIOL 452, or BIOL 467. Offered: W.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 453

BIOL 454 Molecular Mechanisms of Somatosensation: Itch, Touch, Heat, and Pain (3) NW Jay Z Parrish
Tactile discrimination, chronic itch, heat sensation and pain sensitivity among other aspects of skin sensory function. Readings from primary research. Prerequisite: BIOL 350 or BIOL 355. Offered: A.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 454

BIOL 455 Human Immunology and pathology of infectious diseases: the continuing battle (4) NW Justine Liepkalns
Focuses on the immune system as the co-evolutionary center of a struggle between animals and pathogens in regards to human life within a germ-infested world. Deep discussion of the immune system, vaccines, pathogens (focusing on viruses) and how the battle between good and evil needs a healthy balance. Focuses on the biological aspects of cellular and system-wide defense against pathogens. Prerequisite: BIOL 350, 355, or 356. Offered: ASp.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 455

BIOL 457 Chemical Communication (3) NW J. Riffell
Exploration of how chemical signals are produced, transported, and influence behavior of microbes, plants, and animals. Synthetic approach, with emphasis on applications to cell biology, neurobiology, and ecology. Prerequisite: either a minimum grade of 2.5 in either BIOL 220, BIOL 240, B BIO 220, or T BIOL 140, or a minimum grade of 2.0 in BIOL 350.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 457

BIOL 458 Behavioral Genetics (4) NW
Role of genetics in determining variation in human and animal behavior and in regulating behavioral development. Techniques for quantifying genetic variation, behavioral effects, and gene expression. Prerequisite: either minimum 3.5 grade in PSYCH 200, 2.0 in PSYCH 300, or 2.0 in BIOL 180. Offered: jointly with PSYCH 458.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 458

BIOL 459 Developmental Neurobiology (3) NW M. Bosma
Invertebrate and vertebrate examples illustrate the mechanisms used in constructing nervous systems. Focus on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie questions about the basis of neuronal diversity, axonal pathfinding and target recognition, synaptogenesis, and activity-dependent plasticity. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in either BIOL 350 or BIOL 355. Offered: Sp.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 459

BIOL 460 Mammalian Physiology (3) NW Mary Pat Wenderoth
Principles of mammalian physiology with special emphasis on the cardiac, respiratory, renal systems taught at the organ and organ systems level. Prerequisite: a minimum grade of 2.5 either BIOL 350 or NBIO 301.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 460

BIOL 461 Neurobiology (3) NW Bing Wen Brunton
Examination of neuronal function with a focus on sensory systems, research techniques, neurological disease and potential therapeutics. Discussion of primary literature highlights new data related to neurological disease. Prerequisite: BIOL 220 and either PHYS 115 or PHYS 122. Offered: W.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 461

BIOL 462 Advanced Animal Physiology (3) NW Mary Pat Wenderoth
Physiology at levels of organisms and behavior, organ systems, and cells - an evolutionary and integrative perspective. Organismal physiology: metabolism, temperature, locomotion, osmoregulation, respiration, circulation, digestion. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in either BIOL 350 or NBIO 301.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 462

BIOL 463 Advanced Animal Physiology Lab (3) NW Mary Pat Wenderoth
Experimental design and techniques, data analysis, written reports. Original project labs and experiments in physiology. Prerequisite: BIOL 462, which may be taken concurrently.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 463

BIOL 464 Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer Seminar (2) NW Alison Crowe She.Her
Molecular mechanisms of cancer and therapeutic strategies designed to treat cancer. Additional focus on intersection of medicine and society, including racial health disparities, patient ethics, and informed consent. Prerequisite: either BIOL 350 or BIOL 355.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 464

BIOL 465 Comparative Endocrinology (3) NW
Hormonal integration of living processes at all levels in animals: molecules, cells, organs, organisms, populations. Prerequisite: BIOL 220 or BIOL 240
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 465

BIOL 466 Pathobiology of Emerging Diseases (3) NW Leslie B. Zeman, Mandy Schivell She.Her, Justine Liepkalns
Examination of the causes, alterations in cellular function, and remediation of emerging diseases in plants and animals from a global perspective. Includes weekly scientific papers. Prerequisite: either BIOL 350, BIOL 355, BIOL 356, or BIOL 380.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 466

BIOL 467 Comparative Animal Physiology (3) NW Adam P. Summers
Studies organismal function in an evolutionary context. Uses a variety of animals to highlight transitions in metabolism, muscle function, respiration, circulation, digestion, excretion, and ion regulation. Cannot be taken for credit if credit received for FHL 471/BIOL 471. Prerequisite: either BIOL 220, BIOL 240, B BIO 220, or T BIOL 140.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 467

BIOL 468 Medical Physiology (3) Scott Weigle
Students deepen their understanding of human physiology and pathophysiology by performing in-depth analyses of actual medical cases. Cases are chosen to illustrate the mechanisms of frequently encountered diseases and the clinical presentation of affected patients. Prerequisite: either BIOL 220, BIOL 240, B BIO 220, or T BIOL 140 BIOL 350.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 468

BIOL 469 Evolution and Medicine (3) NW C. Bergstrom
Responds to new applications of evolutionary biology in medicine, now being discovered at an accelerating rate. Emphasizes medically relevant aspects of evolutionary biology. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in either BIOL 180, BIOL 240, B BIO 180, or T BIOL 120.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 469

BIOL 471 Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of Marine Organisms (5) NW Adam P. Summers
Challenges and opportunities presented by the marine environment. Relationship between organismal form and physiological function in marine animals and plants. Field trips for collection of live local organisms. Physiology experiments and CT scanning. Offered at Friday Harbor Laboratories. Cannot be taken for credit if credit received for FISH 324 or BIOL 467. Prerequisite: either BIOL 220, BIOL 240, or FISH 270/MARBIO 270/OCEAN 270 recommended: Q SCI 381 or equivalent. Offered: jointly with FHL 471 A.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 471

BIOL 472 Community Ecology (5) NW Berry Brosi he.him
Covers the forces that structure ecological communities (e.g. speciation / migration, the environment, species interactions) as well as anthropogenic impacts on ecological communities. Course time includes the reading of primary literature, discussions, lectures, data collection (in the field and lab) and data analysis. Includes mandatory field trips to local field sites. Prerequisite: BIOL 356.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 472

BIOL 473 Limnology (3) NW
Ecology, conservation, and management of inland aquatic ecosystems. Explores interactions among biological, chemical, and physical features of lakes and other aquatic habitats. Prerequisite: BIOL 180. Offered: jointly with FISH 473 A.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 473

BIOL 474 Limnology Laboratory (2) NW
Examination of biota of fresh waters, survey of limnological methods, analysis of data, and writing of scientific papers. Prerequisite: BIOL 473/FISH 473/CEE 462, which may be taken concurrently. Offered: jointly with CEE 463/FISH 474 A.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 474

BIOL 475 Paleobiology Field Methods and Research (3-5) NW
Introduces field methods and research in various areas of biology, e.g., paleontology, ecology, climate change, and mycology. Includes two or more weeks away from campus at field site. Offered: jointly with ESS 449 S.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 475

BIOL 476 Conservation Biology (4) NW Berry Brosi he.him
Covers conservation of biological diversity in its many forms and dimensions. Explores biological diversity, the threats to biological diversity, and past and current approaches to reversing those threats and their pros and cons. Discusses conservation interventions critically in the cultural context of colonialism, as well as the concept of evidence-based science. Prerequisite: BIOL 356.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 476

BIOL 477 Seminar in Marine Biology (3) NW
Reviews current research in marine biology. Emphasizes critical readings and discussion of primary literature. Prerequisite: FISH 250, OCEAN 250, or BIOL 250 Q SCI 381, STAT 220, or STAT 311. Offered: jointly with FISH 477/OCEAN 477 W.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 477

BIOL 478 Topics in Sustainable Fisheries (3, max. 9) I&S/NW
Seminar series featuring local, national, and internationally known speakers in fisheries management and conservation. Conservation/restoration in practice. Pre-seminar discussion section focusing on select readings. Topics may include harvest management, whaling, by-catch, salmon, marine protected areas, introduced species, citizen action, co-management, and marine ethics. Offered: jointly with ENVIR 478/FISH 478.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 478

BIOL 479 Research in Marine Biology (1-15, max. 15)
Individual research on topics in marine biology. Research projects supervised by an individual faculty member. Projects may include laboratory work, fieldwork, and literature surveys. Prerequisite: BIOL 250/FISH 250/OCEAN 250 Q SCI 381. Offered: jointly with FISH 479/MARBIO 479/OCEAN 479 AWSpS.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 479

BIOL 480 Field Ecology (4) NW P. Boersma
Field projects examining ecological and behavioral topics such as foraging and social behavior, species interactions, and structure of terrestrial and aquatic communities. Two weekend fieldtrips required. Prerequisite: either BIOL 356 or a minimum grade of 3.0 in either BIOL 180, BIOL 240, B BIO 180, or T BIOL 120. Offered: Sp.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 480

BIOL 481 Experimental Evolutionary Ecology (5) NW B. Kerr
Explores experimentally approachable questions in ecology and evolution through lectures, laboratory, and field experiments. Topics may include evolution of bacterial antibiotic resistance, the evolution of virulence, seed predation, plant biodiversity, and others. Prerequisite: either BIOL 180, BIOL 240, B BIO 180, or T BIOL 120. Offered: A.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 481

BIOL 482 Advanced Experimental Evolutionary Ecology (2-5, max. 15) NW B. KERR
Working in pairs or independently, students pursue supervised original field or laboratory research projects. Projects span three academic quarters, with project development beginning in autumn, research continuing in winter, and culminating in spring with production of a scientific paper. Prerequisite: BIOL 180, which must be taken concurrently. Offered: WSpS.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 482

BIOL 483 Senior Seminar in Paleobiology (1, max. 6)
Supervised readings and group discussion. Prerequisite: either BIOL 443, BIOL 447, BIOL 450/ESS 452, BIOL 451/ESS 452, ESS 450, BIO A 388, or ARCHY 470.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 483

BIOL 484 Senior Seminar in Evolution and Systematics (1-3, max. 9) NW
Supervised readings and group discussion. Prerequisite: BIOL 354.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 484

BIOL 485 Senior Seminar in Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Biology (1-3, max. 9) NW
Supervised readings and group discussion. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.0 in either BIOL 350, BIOL 354, BIOL 355, BIOL 356, BIOC 405, BIOC 406, BIOC 440, BIOC 441, or BIOC 442.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 485

BIOL 486 Senior Seminar in Ecology (1-3, max. 9) NW
Supervised readings and group discussion. Prerequisite: BIOL 356.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 486

BIOL 487 Senior Seminar in Conservation Biology (1-3, max. 9) NW
Supervised readings and group discussion. Prerequisite: BIOL 356.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 487

BIOL 488 Senior Seminar in Physiology (1-3, max. 9) NW
Supervised readings and group discussion. Prerequisite: BIOL 350.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 488

BIOL 489 Senior Seminar in Plant Biology (1-3, max. 9) NW
Supervised readings and group discussion. Prerequisite: BIOL 220 or BIOL 240.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 489

BIOL 490 Undergraduate Seminar (1-3, max. 6) NW
Supervised readings and group discussion of selected topics of broad biological significance. Prerequisite: either BIOL 220, BIOL 240, B BIO 220, or T BIOL 140.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 490

BIOL 492 Teaching Biology Inclusively to Diverse Audiences (3) I&S, DIV Linda E Martin-Morris
Designed to help biology students gain skills in disseminating science information to students at any level, patients, and the public. Pays special attention to making STEM education accessible to underrepresented populations. Includes hands-on practice in variety of learning strategies and teaching practices. Prerequisite: either BIOL 350, BIOL 354, BIOL 355, BIOL 356, or NBIO 301.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 492

BIOL 493 Study Abroad - Advanced Biology (1-18, max. 18) NW
For participants in UW Study Abroad program. Specific content varies and must be individually evaluated. Credit does not apply to major requirements without approval.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 493

BIOL 494 Controversies in Biology and Society (4) NW/I&S B. Buchwitz
Explorations of controversies in biology and society that benefit from a biological perspective. Topics vary from quarter to quarter, but include cases from biological research, communication, education, and policy. Prerequisite: Either BIOL 350, BIOL 354, BIOL 355, or BIOL 356 Offered: W.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 494

BIOL 495 Biology of Fermentation (3) NW Alexander R. Paredez, Justin M Kollman
Practical application of biology and chemistry in beer and winemaking. Students learn to culture yeast, ferment foods, brew beer from malted grains, and perform chemical analysis of wine must. Prerequisite: either BIOL 310, BIOL 313, BIOL 340, BIOL 350, BIOL 354, BIOL 355, BIOL 356, BIOL 360, BIOL 380, BIOC 405, BIOC 426, BIOC 440, or BIOC 450. Offered: jointly with BIOC 495 W.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 495

BIOL 496 Special Topics in Field Biology (1-5, max. 10)
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 496

BIOL 497 Special Topics in Biology (1-5, max. 10) NW
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 497

BIOL 501 Topics in Biological Instruction (1-2, max. 10)
Focused discussion of on-going research in instructional methods for life science courses. Credit/no-credit only.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 501

BIOL 502 Grant Writing (2-4, max. 8) B. KERR, J. NEMHAUSER
Introduces the steps of compiling a successful grant proposal, using the NSF graduate fellowship as a template. Offered: AWSp.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 502

BIOL 504 Mentored Scientific Reading and Analysis (2/4, max. 16)
Introduce graduate students to theory, methods, and current research in a biological discipline, and provides structured opportunity for students to practice scientific discourse. Graduate status required, or permission of instructor for undergraduates. Topics vary.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 504

BIOL 505 Evidence-Based Teaching in Biology (1-3, max. 10)
Designed to help biology students gain skills in disseminating science information to students at any level, patients, and the public. Pays special attention to making STEM education accessible to underrepresented populations. Includes hands-on practice in variety of learning strategies and teaching practices.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 505

BIOL 506 Scientific Manuscript Writing (4)
Introduces the writing of scientific articles. Students write a scientific manuscript, cover letter, and identify a journal for submission. Offered: W.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 506

BIOL 507 Novel Methods for Cell, Mechano-, and Developmental Biologists (2) Clemens C Cabernard
New technological advances and research methods supporting research in cell, mechano-, and developmental Biology. Enables students to practice scientific discourse and for scientific networking. Credit/no-credit only.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 507

BIOL 508 Developing Evidence-Based Instructional Materials and Teaching Strategies (2) Jennifer H. Doherty, Casey J Self
Helps students develop a lesson within their discipline that is suitable for implementation in a job interview that requests a demonstration of teaching. Participants also gain broadly applicable skills in evidence-based teaching and backward course design.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 508

BIOL 511 Topics in Mathematical Biology (1-3, max. 15)
Discussion of current topics in mathematical biology. This is a lab meeting, so registration is limited to students already affiliated with this research laboratory.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 511

BIOL 519 Data Science for Biologists (4) B. BRUNTON
Explores, analyzes, and visualizes biological data sets using scientific computing software. Focuses on the foundations of data wrangling, data analysis, and statistics, particularly the development of automated techniques that are reproducible and scalable to large data sets. Offered: W.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 519

BIOL 520 Departmental Seminar (1, max. 18)
Credit/no-credit only. Offered: AWSp.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 520

BIOL 533 Advanced Organismal Biology (9)
Advanced study and research in organismal biology. Emphasizes marine organisms and habitats of the San Juan Archipelago. Includes individual research projects. Prerequisite: permission of Director of Friday Harbor Laboratories. Offered: S.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 533

BIOL 536 Comparative Invertebrate Embryology (9)
Studies diversity in developmental patterns in major marine taxa. Analyzes evolutionary changes in development, with emphasis on observation of live embryos and larvae. Offered: jointly with FHL 536 S.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 536

BIOL 540 Seminar in Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology (1-3, max. 15)
Weekly discussions of past and current scientific literature in cell, molecular, and/or developmental biology, review of the state of the field, and presentation of research results. Discussions may cover the full breadth of the discipline or focus on selected topics.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 540

BIOL 541 Topics in Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology (1-3, max. 15)
Focused discussion of on-going cell, molecular, or developmental biology research occurring in the instructor's laboratory. This is a lab meeting, so registration is limited to students already affiliated with this research laboratory.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 541

BIOL 542 Analysis of Development (1-3, max. 15)
Analysis of structural, physiological, and molecular levels of developmental processes, including gametogenesis, fertilization, cell and tissue movements, induction, and cytodifferentiation. Graduate standing or permission of instructor.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 542

BIOL 543 Biology of Drosophila Seminar (1, max. 12)
Weekly presentation by participants of classical literature, current literature, and research in the molecular biology, developmental biology, neurobiology, and genetics of Drosophila. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered: AWSp.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 543

BIOL 544 Evolution of Photosynthesis (3) R. CATTOLICO
Focuses on the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotic cells. Interactive discussions target the morphological, genetic, and biochemical consequences of progenitor cell specialization within extant taxa.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 544

BIOL 545 MCD-Biology Professional Skills Seminar (1, max. 6) D. PARICHY
Presentations of past or planned research in molecular, cellular, or developmental biology. Participants give presentations in either professional-meeting or chalk-talk formats. Uses written and oral evaluations by audience to focus on scientific content as well as presentation skills. Credit/no-credit only. Offered: AWSp.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 545

BIOL 546 Plant Classification and Identification (5) Richard G. Olmstead
Explores the classification and diversity of seed plants concepts and principles of phylogeny and classification lab and field study of common plant families in Washington and skill development for identification of species. Annotated bibliography relying on original literature to demonstrate depth of understanding of one taxonomic group. One field trip. Offered: Sp.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 546

BIOL 550 Seminar in Evolution and Systematics (1-3, max. 15)
Weekly discussions of past and current scientific literature in evolution and/or systematics, reviews of the state of the field, and presentation of research results. Discussions may cover the full breadth of the discipline or focus on selected topics.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 550

BIOL 551 Topics in Evolution and Systematics (1-3, max. 24)
Focused discussion of on-going research in evolution and/or systematics occurring in the instructor's laboratory. This is a lab meeting, so registration is limited to students already affiliated with this research laboratory.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 551

BIOL 552 Advanced Evolution ([2-5]-, max. 10)
Successful analytical approaches to understanding evolutionary patterns and the processes that generate them, examined by using a wide array of empirical and theoretical tools. Survey of how theory, modeling, and statistics can be applied to observations and experiments in evolutionary biology.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 552

BIOL 553 Applied Phylogenetics (3) A. LEACHE
Survey of methods for estimating phylogenetic trees. Covers theory and use of phylogeny in comparative biology. Computer labs focus on analyzing real data to answer relevant biological questions. Strong computer skills necessary. Includes weekly discussions of scientific papers and an individual research project. Prerequisite: minimum grade of 2.5 in BIOL 354.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 553

BIOL 555 Introduction to Graduate Research in Paleobiology (1)
Introduction to paleobiology techniques and resources. Credit/no-credit only. Offered: jointly with ESS 558 A.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 555

BIOL 557 Vertebrate Paleontology (5)
Examines the biology of vertebrate animals, emphasizing their diversity, adaptations, and evolutionary history. Introduces aspects of behavior, physiology, morphology, and ecology that emerge from the comparative study of vertebrates. Laboratory includes local field trips and introduction to regional vertebrate fauna. Offered: jointly with ESS 557.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 557

BIOL 560 Seminar in Ecology (1-3, max. 15)
Weekly discussions of past and current scientific literature in ecology, reviews of the state of the field, and presentation of research results. Discussions may cover the full breadth of the discipline or focus on selected topics.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 560

BIOL 561 Topics in Ecology (1-3, max. 15)
Focused discussion of on-going research in ecology occurring in the instructor's laboratory. This is a lab meeting, so registration is limited to students already affiliated with this research laboratory.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 561

BIOL 563 Experimental Evolutionary Ecology (5) B. KERR
Explores experimentally approachable questions in ecology and evolution through lectures, lab, and field experiments. Topics may include evolution of bacterial antibiotic resistance, the evolution of virulence, seed predation, plant biodiversity, and others. Corequisite: BIOL 481. Offered: A.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 563

BIOL 564 Advanced Experimental Evolutionary Ecology (2-5, max. 15) B. KERR
Working independently or paired with an undergraduate in BIOL 482, students pursue supervised original field or laboratory research projects. Projects span three academic quarters, with project development beginning in autumn, research continuing in winter, and culminating in spring with production of a scientific paper. Prerequisite: BIOL 563, which may be taken concurrently. Offered: AWSp.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 564

BIOL 565 Community Ecology (5) J. HILLE RIS LAMBERS
Covers the complexity of biological communities as influenced by biotic and abiotic factors, as wells as the impact of human activities, like global warming, on communities.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 565

BIOL 567 Topics in Advanced Ecology (3, max. 6)
Discusses literature on active research areas or controversies in different branches of ecology. Offered: jointly with FISH 567/SEFS 567 W.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 567

BIOL 570 Seminar in Conservation Biology (1-3, max. 15)
Weekly discussions of past and current scientific literature in conservation biology, reviews of the state of the field, and presentation of research results. Discussions may cover the full breadth of the discipline or focus on selected topics. tes.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 570

BIOL 571 Topics in Conservation Biology (1-3, max. 15)
Focused discussion of on-going research in conservation biology occurring in the instructor's laboratory. Graduate status required, or permission of instructor for undergraduates. This is a lab meeting, so registration is limited to students already affiliated with this research laboratory.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 571

BIOL 580 Seminar in Physiology (1-3, max. 15)
Weekly discussions of past and current scientific literature in physiology, reviews of the state of the field, and presentation of research results. Discussions may cover the full breadth of the discipline or focus on selected topics.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 580

BIOL 581 Topics in Physiology (1-3, max. 15)
Focused discussion of on-going research in physiology occurring in the instructor's laboratory. This is a lab meeting, so registration is limited to students already affiliated with this research laboratory.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 581

BIOL 583 Physiological Mechanisms of Histology (5) L. ZEMAN
Develops recognition of cellular structures with correlations to normal physiology and disease states. Lab projects cover harvesting, sectioning, staining, and mounting tissue. Includes weekly scientific papers.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 583

BIOL 590 Seminar in Organismal Biology (1-3, max. 15)
Weekly discussions of past and current scientific literature in organismal biology, reviews of the state of the field, and presentation of research results. Discussions may cover the full breadth of the discipline or focus on selected topics.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 590

BIOL 591 Topics in Organismal Biology (1-3, max. 15)
Focused discussion of on-going research in organismal biology occurring in the the instructor's laboratory. This is a lab meeting, so registration is limited to students already affiliated with this research laboratory.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 591

BIOL 600 Independent Study or Research ([1-10]-)
Credit/no-credit only.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 600

BIOL 700 Master's Thesis (*-)
Credit/no-credit only. Offered: AWSpS.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 700

BIOL 800 Doctoral Dissertation (*-)
Credit/no-credit only. Offered: AWSpS.
View course details in MyPlan: BIOL 800


Examples of F1 Generation

A Monohybrid Cross

When the “Father of Genetics”, Gregor Mendel, was first unfolding the secrets of pea genetics, he started by producing lines of pure-breeding peas. Peas are a variety of plant which can self-fertilize, meaning the male part of the plant can fertilize the eggs produced by the female part of the plant. When allowed to self-fertilize, these plants would produce offspring with the same traits. For example, the pea pods on one plant and all its offspring would produce green pods, while another plant would produce all yellow pods. To unlock the secrets of how these traits were passed to offspring, Mendel decided to cross these two lines of plants. Mendel took the pollen from yellow-pod plants and transferred it to green-pod plants. He then did the opposite cross, of green-pod pollen to yellow-pod flowers.

Scientist now designate these original two plants as the parental generation or simply the P generation. Once fertilized, the parental generation grows peas, which contain the genetic information for the first generation of offspring, or the F1 generation. Mendel planted these peas and noticed a curious fact about the color of the pea pods they produced: they were all green! The yellow-pod plants had contributed genetically to the F1 generation, but only green-pods were found.

Mendel had to do one further experiment to determine what was happening with the genetics controlling pod color. Mendel took a plant from the F1 generation, and allowed that plant to self-fertilize. He then planted and observed the offspring from this cross. Because it is a cross of the offspring, it represents the second filial generation, or F2 generation. Mendel observed that the F2 generation contained a mixture of green and yellow pods. Mendel showed that the 3:1 ratio of yellow-pod to green-pod plants could only be obtainable if both parents carried a copy of both the yellow and green alleles, and that the yellow allele had to be dominant over green.

Modern scientists now describe the cross of Mendel’s F1 generation as a monohybrid cross. The individuals in the cross all had one allele for green pods and one allele for yellow pods, making them hybrids. This cross only examined one trait, however many more traits can be observed at once.

A Test Cross

In a test cross, we take our unknown dominant seed, grow it into a plant, and fertilize it with a plant grown from a green seed. We know that green peas must contain two recessive alleles (yy). Therefore, one of two things can happen. We know that the yellow-pea plant has at least one dominant allele, but we don’t know what the other allele could be. The offspring of this cross, the F1 generation, can have two outcomes. Either the seeds will be all yellow, or they will be half yellow and half green. All yellow seeds in the F1 generation means that the unidentified seed we started with had two dominant alleles (YY). Only this could mask the green alleles present in the other parent. If the F1 generation produces a half and half mix, we know that the other allele in the parental yellow seed had to be a recessive allele, and that the parental yellow-pea plant is a hybrid.

1. Two pea plants are crossed. Both are homozygous for the genes controlling flower color. One produces purple flowers, while the other produces white flowers. What is the ratio of offspring in the F1 generation if the purple allele is dominant?
A. 1:1 Purple to White
B. All White
C. All Purple

2. You are a scientist studying a new species of fish. It is found that the fish come in two varieties, blue and red. Through other experiments, scientists have determined that red is dominant. You have a red fish, and you want to know if he is homozygous or heterozygous for the trait. What should you do?
A. A Test Cross
B. Breed with other red fish
C. Cross your fingers

3. A scientist is breeding daisies and studying their traits. He takes two plants to begin his experiments with. He collects their seeds, and grows the plants. He then crosses these plants with each other and collects the seeds they create. These seeds are again grown, crossed, and the seeds collected. This final round of seeds is planted and grows into plants. What generation do these plants represent?
A. F1 Generation
B. F5 Generation
C. F4 Generation


Biology

Gunnar and others hope to reveal more of the underlying biology behind the reboot.

This study also opens the door for other control measures that alter the biology of locusts themselves.

It expects women and men to behave very differently, from birth forward, simply on the basis of their biology .

Now researchers have proposed a new learning method more closely tied to biology , which they think could help us approach the brain’s unrivaled efficiency.

One key contender is CRISPR, the fast-advancing gene-editing technology that stands to revolutionize synthetic biology and treatment of genetically linked diseases.

For his tireless assault on evolutionary biology and downsizing the deity to fit within science, I give Meyer second place.

Complementarity as conservative Catholics use the term, however, is more than biology .

“In the long term, I am more worried about biology ,” he told The Telegraph.

Essentially he is arguing that there are functional trade-offs in developmental biology .

People are starting to recognize that depression must relate to biology , because who would give up such an outwardly gifted life?

Its backbone should be the study of biology and its substance should be the threshing out of the burning questions of our day.

“Botany is that branch of biology which treats of plant life” has in it the same error.

“ Biology ” is not so well understood as “botany,” though it is a more general term.

It follows that biology is the foundation rather than the house, if we may use so crude a figure.

It is time to abandon the notion that biology prescribes in detail how we shall run society.


Graham Davey is Professor of Psychology at the University of Sussex. He has published more than 130 articles in scientific and professional journals and written or edited 14 books.

CHAPTER 1 Introduction
Graham Davey
1.1 What Is Applied Psychology?
1.2 Research and Applied Psychology
1.3 Regulation and Standards Of Conduct
1.4 Emerging Areas of Applied Psychology

PART ONE CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY

CHAPTER 2 Clinical Psychology and Mental Health Problems
Graham Davey
2.1 How Does Clinical Psychology Affect You?
2.2 Who are Clinical Psychologists?
2.3 The Domain of Clinical Psychology
2.4 Conceptual and Classification Issues in Clinical Psychology
2.5 Conclusions

CHAPTER 3 Common Mental Health Problems and Their Treatment
Graham Davey
3.1 Categories of Common Mental Health Problems
3.2 Treating Mental Health Problems
3.3 Conclusions

CHAPTER 4 The Causes of Mental Health Problems: Schizophrenia and
Autistic Spectrum Disorder

Graham Davey
4.1 Schizophrenia
4.2 Autistic Spectrum Disorder

CHAPTER 5 The Causes of Mental Health Problems: Anxiety and
Mood Disorders

Graham Davey
5.1 Anxiety-Based Problems
5.2 Depression and Mood Disorders
5.3 Summary of Research on Anxiety and Depression

CHAPTER 6 Clinical Psychology: Training and Development
Fergal Jones
6.1 Training to be a Clinical Psychologist
6.2 Key Capabilities And Competencies
6.3 Post-Qualification
6.4 International Comparisons
6.5 Summary

PART TWO HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY

CHAPTER 7 What Is Health Psychology?
Charles Abraham, Mark Connor, Fiona Jones & Daryl O'Connor
7.1 An Academic Discipline and a Profession
7.2 A Biopsychosocial Model of Health
7.3 Constructing and Testing Psychological Theory
7.4 The Social and Societal Context of Health and Stress
7.5 Health-Related Behaviour Patterns and Health Promotion
7.6 Enhancing Health Care Through Behaviour Change
7.7 Conclusion

CHAPTER 8 A Biopsychosocial Approach to Health Psychology
Daryl O'Connor, Fiona Jones, Mark Conner & Charles Abraham
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Basic Features of The Nervous System
8.3 What Happens When You Experience Stress?
8.4 The Psychology of Pain
8.5 Psychoneuroimmunology
8.6 A Biopsychosocial Approach to Health Psychology Reviewed

CHAPTER 9 Stress, Coping and Health
Fiona Jones, Daryl O'Connor, Charles Abraham And Mark Conner
9.1 Stress
9.2 Coping
9.3 Social Support
9.4 Work Stress
9.5 Conclusion

CHAPTER 10 Social Psychology and Health
Mark Connor, Charles Abraham, Fiona Jones & Daryl O'Connor
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Personality and Health Behaviour
10.3 Predicting Health Behaviour
10.4 Changing Health Behaviour
10.5 Conclusion

CHAPTER 11 Training and Working as a Health Psychologist
Charles Abraham, Daryl O'Connor, Fiona Jones, Mark Connor & Karen Rodham
11.1 What Do Professional Health Psychologists Do?
11.2 Core Competencies Required by Professional Health Psychologists
11.3 Training as a Health Psychologist
11.4 Working as a Professional Health Psychologist: Author's Experience
11.5 Conclusion

PART THREE FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY

CHAPTER 12 Introduction to Forensic Psychology: Working
with Organisations and Offenders

Carol Ireland
12.1 What Do Forensic Psychologists Do?
12.2 The Role of the Forensic Psychologist in an Organisation
12.3 The Role of the Forensic Psychologist When Working With Offenders
12.4 Ethical Issues Associated With Forensic Psychology
12.5 Conclusion

CHAPTER 13 Working with Child and Adult Victims
Michelle Davies
13.1 The Effects of Criminal Victimisation
13.2 Attitudes Towards Crime
13.3 Repeat and Multiple Victimisation

CHAPTER 14 Eyewitnesses and the Use and Application of Cognitive Theory
Charlie Frowd
14.1 Information Recall
14.2 Person Recognition
14.3 Face Construction
14.4 Summary: Evidence and Eyewitnesses

CHAPTER 15 Violence Assessment and Intervention
Jane L. Ireland
15.1 The Nature of Aggression
15.2 Assessing Aggression: Developing a Comprehensive Formulation
15.3 Psychological Treatments for Aggression: Some Key Components
15.4 Conclusion

CHAPTER 16 Training in Forensic Psychology and Professional Issues
Neil Gredecki & Polly Turner
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Training in Forensic Psychology: an Overview
16.3 Reflective Practice in Forensic Psychology
16.4 Summary and Conclusions

PART FOUR EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

CHAPTER 17 Educational Psychology: History and Overview
Robin Banerjee, Andy Tolmie & Jim Boyle
17.1 What is Educational Psychology?
17.2 Historical Origins of Educational Psychology
17.3 Approaches to Education
17.4 Understanding Pupil and Classroom Functioning
17.5 Research Methods in Educational Psychology
17.6 Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 18 Educational Psychology: Problems and Interventions
Robin Banerjee, Andy Tolmie & Jim Boyle
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Difficulties Associated With Cognitive Functioning
18.3 Behavioural, Emotional And Social Difficulties
18.4 Communication and Interaction Difficulties
18.5 Diffi culties Associated With Sensory and Physical Needs
18.6 Approaches to Intervention
18.7 Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 19 Educational Psychology: Research on Cognitive and Biological Factors
Andy Tolmie
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Behavioural Approaches to Learning
19.3 Cognitive Perspectives on Learning
19.4 Cognitive Processes in the Curriculum
19.5 Learning Difficulties
19.6 Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 20 Educational Psychology: Research on Developmental and
Social Factors

Robin Banerjee
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Theories of Cognitive Development
20.3 Sociomotivational Processes at School
20.4 Behavioural, Emotional and Social Difficulties in The Classroom: Aetiology and Intervention
20.5 Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 21 Educational Psychology: Professional Issues
Jim Boyle
21.1 What Do Educational Psychologists Do? Key Functions and Responsibilities
21.2 Every Child Matters
21.3 Ethics
21.4 Structure of Educational Psychology Services in the United Kingdom
21.5 Training and Qualifications
21.6 The Structure of Training
21.7 The Future of Educational Psychology

PART FIVE OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

CHAPTER 22 Occupational Psychology in Practice - The Individual
Almuth McDowall, Adrian Banks & Lynne Millward
22.1 Introduction
22.2 The Employee Life Cycle
22.3 Entering the Life Cycle and Induction
22.4 Managing Performance and Performing the Job
22.5 Training, Feedback, Preparing for Different Roles
22.6 Interruptions from the Employment Cycle - Stress, Work-Life Balance and Maternity
22.7 Leaving, Retiring and Redundancy
22.8 Summary and Integration

CHAPTER 23 Occupational Psychology In Practice - The Organisation
Almuth McDowall, Lynne Millward & Adrian Banks
23.1 Introduction
23.2 Organisational Behaviour
23.3 The Group as a Source of Work Motivation
23.4 Leadership as Motivation
23.5 Organisational Development and Change
23.6 The Work Environment
23.7 Summary and Conclusions

CHAPTER 24 Cognition in the Workplace
Adrian Banks, Almuth McDowall & Lynne Millward
24.1 Introduction
24.2 Training
24.3 Decision Making
24.4 Human-Machine Interaction
24.5 Team Cognition
24.6 Summary

CHAPTER 25 Social and Development Psychology in Work and
Organisations

Lynne Millward, Almuth McDowall & Adrian Banks
25.1 Social Psychology in Organisations
25.2 The Self in Organisational Contexts
25.3 Social Influence and Organisational Behaviour
25.4 Leadership as Social Influence
25.5 Group Performance
25.6 Life-Span Approaches to Occupational Careers
25.7 Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 26 Professional Issues in Occupational Psychology
Almuth McDowall, Lynne Millward & Adrian Banks
26.1 Introduction
26.2 Pathways into Occupational Psychology
26.3 Ethics and Organisations
26.4 The Scientist-Practitioner Approach
26.5 Diversity in an International Context
26.6 Summary and Conclusion

PART SIX SPORTS AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

CHAPTER 27 The Nature of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Andy Lane & Tracey Devonport
27.1 Who are the Clients?
27.2 Key Issues in Service Delivery
27.3 Performance Enhancement Versus the Health of the Athlete Debate
27.4 Gaining Evidence to Support Performance Enhancement
27.5 Guiding Philosophical Issues
27.6 Measurement Issues Relevant to Conducting a Needs Analysis
27.7 Conclusions

CHAPTER 28 Psychological Skills Interventions in Sport and Exercise Psychology
Andy Lane & Tracey Devonport
28.1 Psychological Skills Interventions
28.2 Supervision
28.3 Ethics of Practice
28.4 Engaging in Reflective Practice
28.5 Conclusion

CHAPTER 29 Sport and Exercise Psychology - Understanding Cognitive and Biological Factors
Andy Lane & Tracey Devonport
29.1 Cognitive Factors
29.2 Biological Factors
29.3 Chapter Summary

CHAPTER 30 Sport and Exercise Psychology - Understanding Social, Developmental and Personality Factors
Andy Lane & Tracey Devonport
30.1 Social Factors
30.2 Developmental Factors
30.3 Personality Factors
30.4 Conclusion

CHAPTER 31 Sport and Exercise Psychology - Professional Structure and Applied Case Study
Andy Lane & Tracey Devonport
31.1 Training Structure of Applied Sport and Exercise Psychology (ASEP)
31.2 Case Study: Sport Psychology in Practice
31.3 Conclusion


Abstract

A focus on novel, confirmatory, and statistically significant results leads to substantial bias in the scientific literature. One type of bias, known as “p-hacking,” occurs when researchers collect or select data or statistical analyses until nonsignificant results become significant. Here, we use text-mining to demonstrate that p-hacking is widespread throughout science. We then illustrate how one can test for p-hacking when performing a meta-analysis and show that, while p-hacking is probably common, its effect seems to be weak relative to the real effect sizes being measured. This result suggests that p-hacking probably does not drastically alter scientific consensuses drawn from meta-analyses.

Citation: Head ML, Holman L, Lanfear R, Kahn AT, Jennions MD (2015) The Extent and Consequences of P-Hacking in Science. PLoS Biol 13(3): e1002106. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002106

Published: March 13, 2015

Copyright: © 2015 Head et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

Funding: Funding for this research was provided by Australian Research Council Grants awarded to MDJ, RL and LH. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Abbreviations:: NHST, Null hypothesis significance testing


Biology

The trematodes Fasciola hepatica (also known as the common liver fluke or the sheep liver fluke) and Fasciola gigantica are large liver flukes (F. hepatica: up to 30 mm by 15 mm F. gigantica: up to 75 mm by 15 mm), which are primarily found in domestic and wild ruminants (their main definitive hosts) but also are causal agents of fascioliasis in humans.

Although F. hepatica and F. gigantica are distinct species, &ldquointermediate forms&rdquo that are thought to represent hybrids of the two species have been found in parts of Asia and Africa where both species are endemic. These forms usually have intermediate morphologic characteristics (e.g. overall size, proportions), possess genetic elements from both species, exhibit unusual ploidy levels (often triploid), and do not produce sperm. Further research into the nature and origin of these forms is ongoing.

Life Cycle

Immature eggs are discharged in the biliary ducts and passed in the stool . Eggs become embryonated in freshwater over

2 weeks embryonated eggs release miracidia , which invade a suitable snail intermediate host . In the snail, the parasites undergo several developmental stages (sporocysts , rediae , and cercariae ). The cercariae are released from the snail and encyst as metacercariae on aquatic vegetation or other substrates. Humans and other mammals become infected by ingesting metacercariae-contaminated vegetation (e.g., watercress) . After ingestion, the metacercariae excyst in the duodenum and penetrate through the intestinal wall into the peritoneal cavity. The immature flukes then migrate through the liver parenchyma into biliary ducts, where they mature into adult flukes and produce eggs . In humans, maturation from metacercariae into adult flukes usually takes about 3&ndash4 months development of F. gigantica may take somewhat longer than F. hepatica.


Share Link

Subject(s) in Oxford Reference

Publishing Information

Access to the complete content on Oxford Reference requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us.


Watch the video: Plant Biology. Learn English. Vocabulary. Pronunciation. Learn Scientific English. The Cell (January 2022).