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23.9: Summative Questions - Biology


  1. How could the coevolution of angiosperms and pollinators explain the vast radiation in species that angiosperms experienced?
  2. What would a bird pollinated raceme of bilaterally symmetrical eudicot flowers look like? What would it smell like? Draw one below and label any important features.
  3. How does the structure of a vessel element relate to the ability of angiosperms to compete with gymnosperms?
  4. Where does meiosis occur in the flower?
  5. Where does the name “Anthophyta” derive from? Consider the root words.

Ecology: Questions and Answers on Ecology

Ans. According to Haeckel (1869) ecology is “the science treating the reciprocal relations of organisms and the external world”. Warming (1905) defined ecology as “the study of organisms in relation to their environment”.

Q.2. Give the names of five foreign ecologists of international fame.

Ans. Haeckel, Warming, Odum, Clements, Taylor.

Q.3. Give the names of five Indian workers on ecology.

Ans. R. Mishra, G.S. Puri, S.C. Pandeya, P.S. Ramakrishnan, R.S. Ambasth.

Q. 4. Define autecology.

Ans. The science dealing with the relation of individual species to its environment is called autecology.

Q. 5. What is synecology?

Ans. The study of the groups of organisms in relation with their environment is made under synecology.

Q. 6. What are the basic branches of synecology?

Ans. Population ecology, Community ecology, Biome ecology, Ecosystem ecology, etc.

Q. 7. What are the types of ecological factors?

Ans. Climatic factors (light, temperature, rainfall, humidity, etc.), Topographic factors, edaphic factors and biotic factors.

Q. 8. What is phytogeography?

Ans. The science which deals with the geographical distribution of plants is called phytogeography.

Q. 9. Define genecology.

Ans. The study of ecology which deals with the variations of species based upon their genetic potentialities.

Q. 10. What are the chief topographic factors?

Ans. The important topographic factors are height of mountains, direction of mountains and valleys, steepness of the slopes, exposure of slope, etc.

Q. 11. What do you know about edaphic factors?

Ans. The ecological factors in which we study the structure and composition of soil, as well as its chemical and physical characters.

Q. 12. Define a soil profile.

Ans. Soil profile is an imaginary longitudinal section of the soil showing its different regions. The different regions are horizon ‘A’, horizon ‘B’, horizon ‘C’ and horizon ‘D’. The soil is actually devisible into top soil and sub-soil.

Q. 13. What are the range of diameters of particles of clay, silt and fine sandy soil?

Ans. Clay soil – Less than 0.002 m.m.

Fine sandy soil -0.02-0.20 m.m.

Q. 14. What are the types of soil erosion?

Ans. Chief types of soil erosion are water erosion (sheet erosion, rill erosion, and gully erosion), wind erosion, landslides or slip erosion, and over felling and overgrazing.

Q. 15. Define in brief the soil conservation.

Ans. Various methods of checking the soil erosion are studied under soil conservation.

Q. 16. Name some free-floating hydrophytes.

Ans. Azolla, Eichhornia, Lemna, Pistia, Salvinia, Spirodella, Wolfia, etc.

Q. 17. Name only four rooted-submerged hydrophytes.

Ans. Hydrilla, Isoetes, Potamogeton and Vallisneria.

Q. 18. Name some succulent xerophytes.

Ans. Opuntia, Aloe, Agave, Euphorbia splendens, Cereus, Mammalaria, etc.

Q. 19. Name some ephemeral annual xerophytes.

Ans. Argemonemaxicana, Solanum xanthocarpum, Cassia tora, etc.

Q. 20. Define ecological succession.

Ans. Sequential occurrence of communities over a period of time in the same area is called ‘ecological succession’.

Q. 21. What are the sequential stages of a hydrosere or hydrarch?

Ans. Phytoplankton stage, Rooted-submerged stage, Rooted-floating stage, Reed-swamp stage, Sedge-meadow stage, Woodland stage and Forest stage or Climax.

Q. 22. What are the sequential stages of a xerosere on rock?

Ans. Crustose lichen stage, Foliose lichen stage, Moss stage, Herb stage, Shrub stage and Forest stage or Climax.

Q. 23. What are the types of ecological pyramids?

Ans. Pyramids of number, pyramids of biomass and pyramids of energy.

Q. 24. Define pollution?

Ans. According to E.P. Odum (1971) the “pollution is an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of our air, land and water that may or will waste or deteriorate our raw material resources”.

Q. 25. What are the various agencies of pollution?

Ans. Sewage, industrial wastes, smoke, automobile exhausts, herbicides, insecticides, noise and radioactive substances are the main agencies of pollution.


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Sample Tests

The purpose of the AzM2 Sample Tests is to familiarize students, teachers, and parents with content, item types, and the user interface of the AzM2 assessments. These sample tests are approximately one half-length of the operational test, match the test blueprint, and include the same item types. Answer keys are provided in ancillary “Guide to the Sample Test” documents.

Each content test will contain items aligned to the indicated content area and grade. The AzM2 ELA sample test has a Writing session that will provide students with an example stimulus, prompt, and response mechanism.

The sample tests do not include an item for each of the aligned Arizona Academic Standards that will be measured by the operational assessments. The training tests will NOT provide scores for students and should NOT be used to measure students’ content knowledge. The tests are not predictive of AzM2 summative performance, but do provide an opportunity to respond to similar types of items in about half the time as the summative test. Additionally, the sample tests provide an item response key so teachers can review items with students.

The sample tests are available in the computer-based format and are not available for paper printing.

About the Training Sites

The purpose of the AzM2 Training Sites is to familiarize students and teachers with the design, format, and procedures for answering different types of items that will be included in the AzM2 assessments. Administering the samples tests via the secure browser in the training sites allows schools to review the practices for starting, pausing, and submitting tests successfully while simulating the administration of the live operational sessions.

These tests are aligned to the Arizona K12 Academic Standards according to their individual grade and content level and represent both the variety in difficulty and item format that students may see on the AzM2 assessments. Schools are encouraged to have students take the appropriate sample test prior to the administration of AzM2 however, each LEA/school may decide how it wants to use the sample tests in the training sites with its students.


Construct an MCQ test

Constructing effective MCQ tests and items takes considerable time and requires scrupulous care in the design, review and validation stages. Constructing MCQ tests for high-stakes summative assessment is a specialist task.

For this reason, rather than constructing a test from scratch, it may be more efficient for you to see what other validated tests already exist, and incorporate one into any course for which numerous decisions need to be made.

In some circumstances it may be worth the effort to create a new test. If you can undertake test development collaboratively within your department or discipline group, or as a larger project across institutional boundaries, you will increase the test's potential longevity and sustainability.

By progressively developing a multiple-choice question bank or pool, you can support benchmarking processes and establish assessment standards that have long-term effects on assuring course quality.

Use a design framework to see how individual MCQ questions will assess particular topic areas and types of learning objectives, across a spectrum of cognitive demand, to contribute to the test's overall balance. As an example, the "design blueprint" in Figure 2 provides a structural framework for planning.

Figure 2: Design blueprint for multiple choice test design (from the Instructional Assessment Resources at the University of Texas at Austin)

Cognitive domains
(Bloom's Taxonomy)


Practice Question Directory

English

Math

Having a consistent standard across the United States is not a magic solution that will solve all the problems in our nation’s schools, but it will certainly play a key role in education reform, for several reasons. Having one standard will allow parents and students to know exactly what will be expected of students in order to earn a diploma.

Teachers will also have a clear expectation of what’s required of them, and education programs at colleges and universities will be better able to train our nation’s future teachers. In addition, educational publishers will have benchmarks to guide them in developing textbooks and other educational materials. Testing will also be more effective with uniform, clear-cut standards across the board.

This does not mean that all schools in America will become carbon copies of each other. Common Core standards set specific goals, but it will be up to the administrators and teachers in each school to determine the best methods of achieving those goals.

They will have the flexibility and autonomy they need to give their students a great education, while having clear outcomes to aim for. The standards offer teachers and administrators guidance without taking over their classrooms and turning them into automatons.

The standards are divided into two main categories: Mathematics, and English Language Arts. Standards have been developed only for these two subjects, as they are the foundations upon which students will build to master all other subjects. In each category, there are detailed and objective standards provided for every level, from kindergarten to 12th grade.

Students will be evaluated on a regular basis to measure their progress against the standards for their grade level, and whether or not they receive a high school diploma will depend in large part on their meeting these standards.

While teachers will play a key role in helping students gain the skills and knowledge required by these standards, it will be up to the student to actually pass the exams. To assist students who desire to excel and have the initiative to seek improvement and mastery of the standards on their own, we have provided Common Core practice questions and answers for self-testing purposes.

By taking advantage of these resources, students can determine their strengths and weaknesses, and pinpoint those areas where they may be falling short of the standards. They can also use the questions and answers as a direct means of improvement. Parents should encourage their children to make use of these resources, and monitor their results, as study after study has demonstrated conclusively that children whose parents take an active interest in their education almost always excel.


Assessment

Assessment is the process of gathering, measuring, analyzing, and reporting data on a students' learning. It helps teachers determine how much children learned and how well they learned it.

Assessment has become increasingly important in both K-12 and higher education settings over the past decade. Radcliff (2007) and others suggest two factors in the interest in assessment at the higher educational level. First, there has been an increasing emphasis on accountability. Second, is a growing interesting in creating measures that go beyond traditional grades. An increasing emphasis on learner-centered teaching dictates new ways to think about assessment.

Radcliff (2007) and others stress that information literacy assessment occurs at three levels:

  1. Classroom Assessment - based on specific classes and tied to class learning objectives such as an information literacy course or a discipline-specific course
  2. Programmatic Assessment - based on the learning goals of a program of study connected with a particular discipline such as teacher education or nursing
  3. Institutional Assessment - based on the board goals of information literacy across the institution connected with accrediting bodies

According to Blanchett, Powis, and Webb (2012), when planning assessment ask three questions:

  • What do I want to measure?
  • Is this the best way to assess?
  • Is what I am testing important or significant?

Assessment can also be used to determine the effectiveness of the instruction. Interacting with students about their performance can become an integral part of the learning process.

In contrast, evaluation involves judging the quality of student work or instruction. For example, it may include a final score or grade.

Assessment is the key to determining whether learners have met the expectations set forth in the objectives for the particular learning experiences as well as the standards established by recognized agencies such as ACRL and AASL.

Read!
Read How Should We Measure Student Learning? The Many Forms of Assessment from Edutopia.
Think about the assessments used in the classroom when you were growing up. Which assessment were most useful for you and your teachers? What assessment do you prefer as an instructor? Why?


AQA GCSE Sciences (9-1)

Home learning packs:
This Kerboodle now includes additional home learning packs for Biology, Chemistry and Physics. You will find a new unit made up of 3-5 lesson players for each science. Each unit covers a chapter of AQA GCSE Science Book 1. We will be adding more packs over the next few weeks.

Test Score Converters:
In the Assessment tab you will find updated and new Test Score Converters to support you with compiling your centre-assessed grades.

New baseline assessment materials – September 2020

Kerboodle now includes new support for baseline assessment, to help identify students’ strengths and weaknesses.

Each interactive includes:

These can be found under the Resources tab.

New home learning support – June 2020

We’ve added a new Home Learning Support folder to your subscription, to assist students of all ability levels with autonomous learning.

This folder contains a series of 48 study guides built around 10 core scientific concepts, which can be accessed using the Lessons tab. These study guides are formatted as Lesson Players, using an easy-to-follow presentational structure supported by interactive activities.

New: Oxford Revise practice papers – April 2020

As part of our Oxford Revise project, we’ve added new practice papers to your Kerboodle. These cover the Paper 1 topics for Biology, Chemistry and Physics Higher tiers and for Combined Science: Trilogy Foundation and Higher tiers.

New Exam Pulse 2020 available now – plus, new Oxford Revise support for Combined Science: Trilogy Foundation- January 2020

Exam Pulse gives you the most relevant exam support based on the latest GCSE exam feedback to save you time and includes:

  • Exam-style questions covering key skills identified as areas of low attainment in the 2019 AQA examiners’ reports
  • Command words worksheets to give students practice in interpreting exam-style command words
  • Exam Pulse lesson players linking to existing Kerboodle support for the key skills identified as areas of low attainment in the 2019 AQA examiners’ reports

Plus, as part of our Oxford Revise project, we’ve added new interactive retrieval activities for Combined Science: Trilogy Foundation, ideal for students to check if their knowledge is secure.

Autumn update: brand new Oxford Revise retrieval questions, practice papers, and support for Required Practicals 28.11.19

As part of our Oxford Revise project, we’ve added new retrieval question interactives to Kerboodle covering all the content students need to know.

Each interactive contains retrieval questions covering one chapter. Students fill in their own answers to the retrieval questions, then reveal the correct answer and compare this to the answer they gave.Students should repeat the retrieval questions until they have memorised the correct answer for each.

Plus, your autumn update also includes:

Our new Oxford Revise Revision Guides are full of retrieval and exam-style questions and will be out in January. Find out more.

Summer update: new support for ELC and Required Practicals- June 2019

Your latest update is now live and includes:

  • Exam-style practice papers for Entry Level Certificate
  • On Your Marks interactive activities to help students develop the practical skills they need for their exams. Look out for more of these in the autumn!

Podcasts now available to download plus new answer review functionality- May 2019

All AQA GCSE Sciences (9-1) podcasts are now available to download, both as individual podcasts and as whole-course bulk download files, so students can pick the topics where they need most support or choose to save the whole collection to their device.

We’ve also added a new “review answers” button to all Homeworks and summative Progress Quiz tests. Students can select this once they’ve submitted their answers in order to see the correct answers.

Spring updates- April 2019

End-of-chapter exam-style questions for Chemistry, Biology and Physics.

Updated assessments and the answers for our newest Student Book – November 2018

Following the first exams in the summer of 2018, we’ve updated our baseline tests to match the new GCSE 9-1 grades. We’ve also updated the test score converters, which are now unlocked so that you can change the grades should you wish to do so.

Plus, answers for the questions in our new Foundation: Combined Science Trilogy and Entry Level Certificate Student Book are now available on Kerboodle. If you haven’t already explored all the resources which accompany this book, don’t forget to take a look.


SA 1 Biology Answer Key Sheet 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th Class | Summative 1 Principles of Evaluation 2019

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Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D.R., Airasian, P.W., Cruikshank, K.A., Mayer, R.E., Pintrich, P.R., Wittrock, M.C (2001). A taxonomy of learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. New York, NY: Longman.

Overbaugh, R., and Schultz, L. (n.d.). “Image of two versions of Bloom’s Taxonomy.” Norfolk, VA: Old Dominion University. Retrieved from https://www.odu.edu/content/dam/odu/col-dept/teaching-learning/docs/blooms-taxonomy-handout.pdf

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Watch the video: BIOLOGY FORM 5 CHAPTER 1 Summative Practice KSSM SPM group presentation (January 2022).