Information

Plant identification and toxicity


What type of plant this is and is it poisonous (and, if so, in what quantities)? The pictures were taken at Gullane Bay, Scotland. The plant is widely present in that region.


This is common sea buckthorn, Hippophae rhamnoides. The blueish leaves and the orange berries are unmistakable.

It occurs mainly in coastal regions, but is also cultivated throughout the world. The berries are processed to all kinds of food. In their natural habitat in Northwestern Europe, the berries serve as a food source for migrating birds that fly from Scandinavia to the UK or the Netherlands. However, because the berries are often rotting and contain alcohol in september, sometimes drunk birds can be observed.


Poisonous and Non-poisonous Plants An Illustrated List

Some plants can be poisonous if you eat them. Others can hurt you if you get them on your skin. For some plants, all parts of the plant are poisonous. For others, only certain parts of the plant are harmful. The danger can range from mild irritation to severe illness or death. Check out our illustrated list of selected poisonous and non-poisonous plants.


Poisonous Plants

This list contains plants that have been reported as having systemic effects on animals and/or intense effects on the gastrointestinal tract. Please note that the information contained in our plant lists is not meant to be all-inclusive, but rather a compilation of the most frequently encountered plants. Individual plants may differ in appearance from the photos used on our listings. Please be sure to check the name of the plant to determine its toxicity.

Also, be advised that the consumption of any plant material may cause vomiting and gastrointestinal upset for dogs and cats. Plants listed as either non-toxic, or potentially toxic with mild GI upset as their symptoms are not expected to be life-threatening to your pets.

If you believe that your animal is ill or may have ingested a poisonous substance, or if you have any further questions regarding the information contained in this database, contact either your local veterinarian or the APCC 24-hour emergency poison hotline at 1-888-426-4435.


Botany and Plant Biology

Classes with a focus on plant biology and botany are listed here. Included are both lecture only classes and classes with a lab. Classes are on-campus, field courses, or presented online.

Spring and Fall semesters. Instructor: Eric Wise.
Plant Biology covers plant structure and function, and the diversity and evolution of plants and plant-like organisms. It is a 4-unit course consisting of 2 lectures and one, 3-hour lab per week. You must attend lab as it is an integral part of the course. Prerequisites are MATH 107 or MATH 111 and Skills Advisories are Eligibility for ENG 110 or ENG 110H or ENG 110GB. This course is required for the Biological Sciences major and it satisfies the SBCC General Education requirement in Natural Sciences. Sample syllabus

  1. Explain and interpret the basic principles of biology
  2. Describe the structure and function of plants and plant-like organisms
  3. Explain plant development,physiology,and ecosystem structure
  4. Describe diversity and evolution of the major groups of plants on earth
  5. Explain scientific method and critical thinking
  6. Perform an analytical approach in examining data and ideas
  7. Describe and explain scientific equipment and techniques
  8. Analyze the scientific literature
  1. BIOL 101 SLO 1 - Explain the anatomy and morphology of plants and plant-like organisms as well as the functional characteristics of these organisms including their physiology and adaptation to the environment.
  2. BIOL 101 SLO 2 - Describe the diversity of existing and fossil plants and plant-like organisms including life cycles and relationships with one another.
  3. BIOL 101 SLO 3 - Discuss, from a scientific perspective, the molecular nature of living organisms including their chemical composition, replication, and growth.

Spring and Fall semesters. Instructor: Matt Kay
Concepts of Botany is a 4-unit course consisting of lecture and lab. This course is intended for students with no previous science experience as well as for those with some high school science. This course is not intended for students who are currently biology majors. If you are, or plan to be, a biology major you should take Biology 101. Topics covered in BOT 100 include plant structure and function, plant evolution, diversity, self defense, familial relationships, and the role of plants in the biosphere and society.

At the end of this course, successful students will be able to describe the biology of plants and plant-like organisms. As a student, you should absorb this information by reading your text, attending lectures, taking notes, attending lab, performing experiments, studying the material, and generally getting involved with appreciating plants on a daily basis. Sample syllabus.

Student Learning Outcomes:

  1. BOT 100 SLO 3 - Compare and contrast the major evolutionary lineages of plants and plant-like organisms, including important structural features of each lineage, ecological importance, and human uses
  2. BOT 100 SLO 2 - Describe the anatomy and physiology of plants and plant-like organisms
  3. BOT 100 SLO 1 - Describe fundamental processes operative throughout botany and plant biology, including evolution via natural selection, sexual reproduction, photosynthesis, basic chemistry, and biochemical processes (cellular respiration, fermentation, photosynthesis)

Online. Taught Fall and Spring semesters and one of the summer sessions. Instructor: Bob Cummings. Sample syllabus
By the end of the semester, the successful student can:

  1. Summarize the fundamental molecular and cellular principles critical to an understanding of plant biology.
  2. Describe the history, characteristics and utility of plants that have been used in agriculture and medicine.
  3. Describe the functional anatomy of non-vascular and vascular plants including reproduction and development, primary and secondary growth, and movement of water and food within the plant.
  4. Describe the evolutionary history and characteristics of the four major floras that have occurred since the transition of plants to land.

Spring only. Instructor: Matt Kay.
BOT 122 is a 3-unit lab science class. Students MUST complete 4 units of Physical Science or an additional course in Biological Sciences to complete the units required in IGETC Area 5. Sample Syllabus

This course explores flowering plant diversity and identification in California and beyond. Goals of the class are:
• Become comfortable using The Jepson Manual, 2nd Edition and other references useful for plant identification.
• Test these plant ID skills in the field (on local field trips during class time).
• Achieve familiarity with many common and “important” (ecologically and economically) plant families in California (which are also common/important worldwide).

Lab sections focus on using The Jepson Manual, 2nd Edition. Lecture periods provide an opportunity to build vocabulary and gaining a knowledge base of the plant families identified in lab.

Fall only. Instructor Matt Kay.
Bot 123 is a 3-unit lab science class. Students MUST complete 4 units of Physical Science or an additional course in Biological Sciences to complete the units required in IGETC Area 5. Sample syllabus.

This course explores many of the native plant communities of the California landscape. California is a remarkably diverse region so the frequent field trips will visit creeks, deserts, beaches, dunes, woodlands, valleys, and mountain tops.

You will learn to identify >100 species of dominant native plants, and recognize the community(-ies) to which they belong. In the context of natural selection, we'll discuss how these plants are adapted to climate (and microclimate), weather, disturbance, soil, and other ecological factors that shape the distribution and appearance of the plant communities in which they occur. You will also learn how to recognize some of the more common plant families, and how to collect and prepare plant specimens for preservation in an herbarium.


FDA Poisonous Plant Database

The Poisonous Plant Database provides access to references in the scientific literature (primarily print literature through about 2007) describing studies and reports of the toxic properties and effects of plants and plant parts.

The information in this database is intended only for scientific exchange. It has not been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for publication nor does it have any official status. The information is continually increasing and being modified it is neither error-free nor comprehensive. Information herein is in the public domain. Any copyrighted or privately-owned material inadvertently included will be removed as soon as possible.

For information or concerns about the toxicity of plants, contact the local Poison Control Center in your area. A directory of these is available from The American Association of Poison Control Centers.

For information for pets and toxic plants, see ASPCA Poisonous Plants.

For poisoning emergency call 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call 911.


1.12: Key to Plant Classification

  • Contributed by Michelle Nakano
  • Faculty (Horticulture) at Kwantlen Polytechnic University
  • Sourced from KPU Zero Textbook Cost Program

Dichotomous keys help improve pattern recognition and understanding of the descriptive terminology used to classify important distinctions among plants. The following dichotomous key can be used outdoors to classify a range of plants by type, growth habit, and reproductive method.

Key to Plant Classification

1.b. Plants have a water conducting system that supplies above ground tissues with water and allows growth above ground &hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip.Vascular plant (go to 2)

2.a. Plants, (conifers and flowering) that reproduce by seed &hellip&hellip.. Spermatophyte (go to 3)

5.b. Woody plants with multiple stems emerging from base &hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip. Shrub (go to 7)

7.a. Trees or shrubs that lose their leaves every autumn&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip Deciduous (go to 8)

8.b. Woody or herbaceous angiosperm that produces a pair of seed leaves leaves have netted venation flower parts are in 4&rsquos or 5&rsquos &hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip&hellip.&hellip Eudicotyledon


Bibliography

Keeler, Richard F., Kent R. Van Kampen, and Lynn F. James, eds. Effects of Poisonous Plants on Livestock. New York: Academic Press, 1978.

Munro, Derek B. Canadian Poisonous Plants Information System. <http://sis.agr.gc.ca/poison/> . Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 1993.

Spoerke, David G., and Susan C. Smolinske. Toxicity of Houseplants. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1990.

When white snakeroot is eaten by livestock, it can cause a sickness known as trembles. Symptoms in animals include depression, inactivity, labored breathing, loss of weight, and trembling.


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AQA Detection and identification of plant diseases. 4.3.3.1

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It includes all the necessary information , match up, PPQ's with answers and aids.

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1) Plumeria

Plumeria trees can be found just about everywhere in the Hawaiian landscape. The flowers have a deliciously sweet scent and therefore are often eaten by children. The flowers although made into beautiful lei, will cause vomiting and diarrhea when eaten.The most common reaction is caused by the sticky white sap which oozes out when any part of the tree is picked or broken. The white sap will cause rash and blistering.

2) Mango

While the fruit is one of the most delicously favored treasures of the tropics, the sap from the tree is one of the most wicked. It’s a relative to poison ivy and can produce a rash just as bad. The severity of symptoms depends on the individual and the amount of contact. Skin contact of the sap results in simple rash and blistering that can produce generalized swelling all over the entire body. Watch out! The effects may be delayed.

3) Oleander (pink and yellow)

We’ve all seen Oleander as someones hedge or as a filler in a decorative landscape. But did you know it is one of the most poisonous plants in Hawaii? Just a small smidgin of a taste of any part of the plant can produce nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, pain and cramping. Its common name “Be still” describes what it can do to your pulse by causing heart irregularities. It also can affect the nervous system producing dizziness, headaches, confusion and drowsiness.

4) Angels Trumpet

Far from angelic, this stunning flower is not to be played with! It is a serious threat to your health and even to your life. In extreme cases and under severe exposures it may result in seizures, paralysis, coma, respiratory failure, and death!Even a little toying with can produce blurred vision, sensitivity to bright light, dry mouth, restlessness, disorientation, and hallucinations.Stay away from all parts of this plant!

5) Pencil Plant

Often found as a decorative potted plant, this funny looking cactus like plant produces a sticky white sap that will cause severe burns and blisters on your skin. OUCH! Intense pain, redness, and swelling can affect your whole body and especially your eyes if the sap gets on it. If any part is ingested it will cause severe stomach pain, nausea, and diarrhea. Clearly, getting anywhere near this plant would be pointless.

6) Crown Flower

This sweet little plant is often strung into lei or planted as part of a pollinator garden. However harmless it may seem, it can be a royal pain if the sticky white sap gets anywhere on your skin or in your eyes. The milky juice will irritate and burn your skin and cause the eyelids to get red and swollen. If ingested it will cause stomach cramping, nausea, vomiting, an irregular and slowed pulse, dizziness, headache, and confusion.

7) Castor Bean

Castor bean is one of those plants that pops up everywhere and anywhere. It is considered a weed and an invasive one at that because it can easily propagate an area on its own. This bushy plant has SEEDS that are HIGHLY TOXIC if entered into the bloodstream through a cut or scrape. Ingested it will cause loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, shock, delirium, collapse, and death.

8) Poinsettia

This merry little plant is often propagated for its decorative nature in the winter months. You can even find it in the grocery store, although it is far from being edible. Ingesting this plant may result in nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.Be sure to keep it away from the kids because it can also cause mild redness, irritation, swelling and blisteringwhen in contact with the skin.

9) Mushrooms

If you haven’t learned to identify mushrooms in Hawaii, don’t pick and eat them. Fungi thrive in this wet and humid environment and they can be found just about anywhere anything is growing. Young children are especially susceptible. Even one little nibble can result in violent vomiting, severe diarrhea, nausea, sweat, cold and clammy feeling, hallucinations and low blood pressure. In rare and extreme cases there may be gastrointestinal hemorrage. Children are at risk of sufffering from dehydration and hypovolemic shock. Clearly the only safe place to gather mushrooms is at the store!

10) Kukui Nut Tree

While parts of this plant are highly regarded for being medicinal, improper care and handling can be far from therapeutic. Kukui has a watery sap that when in contact with the skin can produce an itchy, red rash. The raw nuts inside the husky seed can have a severe laxative effectwhen consumed in unregulated amounts. It can also produce severe cramping, and vomiting.Four seeds are enough to produce unwanted, stay in the bathroom all day symptoms! Proceed with caution when around Kukui.

This list is not extensive. These are the Top Ten most common poisonous plants of Hawaii. Some of these plants may be familiar to you and some parts of them are even useful or edible. Looks can be deceiving when trying to decipher if a plant is poisonous or not, so if you’re out and about here are some basic rules to follow from the Hawaii Department of Agriculture:

Basic Rules:

  • Never eat, or taste strange fruit, seeds, leafs, flowers, or roots
  • Be cautious of contact with a plant you don’t know or a plant with these characteristics:
    • white, milky, juice or sap
    • spiny fruit or seed pods
    • rough hairy leaves
    • unusual shape

    If you follow these basic guidelines and keep an eye out for the Top Ten common poisonous plants you should fair just fine. Make sure to educate your family and other families too!