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What kind of spider is this, please?


I've found this spider in my bathroom today, never seen one like this, especially since I'm living in part of Europe ( Bosnia, Balkans ) that isn't known for being promised land for spiders. This one was somehow aggressive, when I touched him with an object, he immediately launched himself from the roof using his net, and when landed, he raised his "bottom"?! I've sprayed him with some water, and removed him as seen on picture, didn't want to kill him, but I'm interested if this is some venomous kind, because his head was blood red, and I've never seen this in my region


To me it seems to be an Araniella Cucurbitina ,also called a cucumber spider. It grows upto 4mm to 6mm. This type is native to the UK and they have venom which is not considered dangerous to humans.


What kind of spider is this? Please Help

Hello all,
This is my first time here, but I am still hoping you can help. I am VERY afraid of spiders, and today I saw this ugly one on my house. What kind is it? Tell me it isn’t poisonous!



Thank you in advance for any and all help!

I’m going to have to say your incorrect. I do believe its a funnel web spider.

Spider are usually not dangerous but you can get rid of them. Get more information from this http://tpcs.ca/services/spiders/

I’d say it’s a Wolf Spider. As a control measure, clean and vacuum the house thoroughly. Reduce clutter in undisturbed areas such as closets, garages, basements and attics.

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Contents

Chelicerae can be divided into three kinds: jackknife chelicerae, scissor chelicerae, and 3-segmented chelate chelicerae. [3]

Jackknife chelicerae Edit

The jackknife chelicera is subchelate (with fixed finger much reduced or absent) and is composed of two segments. This type of chelicera occurs exclusively in the Tetrapulmonata.

Jackknife chelicera presents two different forms: orthognathous and labidognathous. Orthognathous chelicerae are articulated in a manner that enables movements of the appendages parallel to the body axis. This kind of chelicera occurs in the Liphistiomorphae and Mygalomorphae spiders and in the related orders Amblypygi, Schizomida and Thelyphonida. Labidognathous chelicerae move at right angles to the body axis. This kind of chelicera is rotated and occurs exclusively in the Araneomorphae spiders. [4]

Spider chelicerae Edit

The chelicerae consist of a base segment, sometimes called the "paturon", that articulates with the cephalothorax (or prosoma) and a fang portion that articulates with the base segment. [3] Almost all spiders have venom glands and can inject the venom through openings near the tips of their fangs when biting prey. The glands that produce this venom are located in the two segments of the chelicerae, and, in most spiders, extend beyond the chelicerae and into the cephalothorax. [3] The fang, the organic functional equivalent to a hypodermic needle is what penetrates the skin, fur, or exoskeleton of the spider's target—spider mouthparts are primarily intended for envenoming a spider's prey in most species, typically insects and other small arthropods. [3] The basal portion includes all or part of the spider's venom glands, which can be squeezed to control the amount of venom forced out of the glands. [3] Such control permits a spider to administer either a dry bite, a dose appropriate to the nature of the prey or enemy, or a maximal dose. [3] The control is also necessary for actions such as the spitting of venomous silk by members of the family Scytodidae they depend on that mechanism both in hunting and defence.

When a spider bites, the two parts of the chelicerae come together like a folding knife, and when making a threat display or actually preparing to bite, the spider will open the angle of the fangs with the basal portion of the chelicerae and also open the angle of the basal portion with the cephalothorax. [3] In the tarantulas and other Mygalomorphae, the horizontal separation of the tips of the fangs does not change much, but in the other spiders the tips of the fangs move apart from each other as well as elevating. [3] Even the tips of the fangs of the rather large spider shown above are quite sharp, and the spider's body is well adapted to driving the fangs into flesh. Some spider bites, such as those of the Sydney funnel-web spider, are reported to have penetrated toenails and soft leather shoes.


Tiny Spiders Are the Fastest Known on Earth

Members of little-known family of spiders are the size of a mere pencil tip, yet they are formidable predators—and incredibly fast ones. A new study has documented these spiders snapping up prey at speeds the likes of which have never before been seen in arachnids.

Surprisingly, the diminutive hunters’ record-setting ballistic attack strategy independently evolved at least four times, according to research published today in Current Biology.

“These are the fastest-known arachnids so far,” says the study’s lead author, Hannah Wood, curator of spiders at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History. And they are the only ones known to catch prey in a way similar to trap-jaw ants. As such, Wood is calling these spiders, from the family Mecysmaucheniidae, “trap-jaw spiders.”

Mecysmaucheniidae spiders are especially secretive creatures, tiny and difficult to spot on the forest floor in their native New Zealand and southern South America. Experts have described 25 species in the family, but another 11 await descriptions—and still more are likely waiting to be discovered.

Wood first took note of the trap-jaws more 10 years ago, when she was living in Chile and noticed something unusual: Compared with most other spiders, these spiders’ jaws, called chelicerae, were more elongated and maneuverable, while their frontal region, called the carapace, almost appeared necklike. Curious about why they look the way they do, Wood began collecting them, keeping her finds with her in the field in Chile, and later in her apartment in the United States. For years, she observed her tiny roommates and recorded their behaviors.

The spiders often walked around with their jaws open while hunting, snapping them closed like a mousetrap when they encountered prey. But that elusive moment of attack happened so quickly, Wood couldn't manage to get it on film.

Still, she did not give up. Eventually, she was able to record 14 species of the spiders with a high-speed camera. She was shocked to find that capturing the snapping-shut action of some species’ jaws required filming at 40,000 frames per second (a regular video camera films at about 24 frames per second). 

Wood used genetic sequencing to elucidate the evolutionary relationships between 26 species of the spiders. Finally, she used a particle accelerator—essentially, a very strong X-ray beam—to create 3-D computer models of many of the spiders, which allowed her to digitally dissect and measure spiders that were otherwise too small to handle. 

In the end, Wood assembled enough specimens to examine all of the major groups within the Mecysmaucheniidae family. She found that the fast-snap trait occurs in about one-third of the species, but, as her phylogenic analysis revealed, it has evolved in four separate instances.

Of the 14 species she was able to get on high-speed video, the fastest could snap their jaws shut in 0.12 milliseconds, which was more than 100 times quicker than the slowest. She also found that the smaller the species, the faster its jaw-snapping capabilities.

The actual mechanism behind the spiders’ lightning speed remains a question for future studies. Although for now, Wood and her colleagues know that it exceeds the known power output of muscles, implying that some other structure must be responsible for releasing all of that stored energy.

Simply finding enough Mecysmaucheniidae spiders to undertake the study was quite an accomplishment—much less pulling off the technical work needed to analyze their anatomy and high-speed behaviors, says Jeffrey Shultz, an arachnologist at the University of Maryland at College Park who was not involved in the work.

“The fruits of all this effort was to show that a peculiar mechanism—which one might have regarded as the product of a unique evolutionary event—has actually appeared four separate times in this group of spiders,” he says. “It will be interesting to find out if the power amplification mechanism is also the same in each evolutionary iteration and, if so, why this particular group of spiders seems to be uniquely predisposed to it.”

That is a question Wood hopes to answer in future studies, although she already has a hunch. The smaller spiders seem to prefer a diet of springtails—very fast insects that rapidly jump to escape predators. It could be that the quickest trap-jaw spiders evolved their lightning-fast attack so that they could target this speedier prey. 


SPIDER CRICKET SPRAY ^

Spider cricket control needs to start on the outside of the home. Treat this area with BITHOR. This is a low odor concentrate which mixes with water.

Simply spray foundation walls, around windows and doorways, under decks and sheds. Also focus on any port of entry like AC units, electric cables, etc.

Bithor will kill spider crickets living on your homes siding as well as keep them away.

Add 1 to 2 oz per gallon of water and expect to spray 1-2 gallons around your home. Treatments will last 30-45 days so try to treat every month when crickets are active.

Use a standard PUMP SPRAYER to treat and around the home, create a good 5 foot band of treated area. Any structure close to the home which may be harboring crickets should be treated thoroughly.



100-Million-Year-Old Spider Attack Found in Amber

Researchers have found trapped in amber a rare dinosaur-age scene of a spider attacking a wasp caught in its web.

The piece of amber, which contains 15 intact strands of spider silk, provides the first fossil evidence of such an assault, the researchers said. It was excavated in a Burmese mine and dates back to the Early Cretaceous, between 97 million and 110 million years ago.

"This juvenile spider was going to make a meal out of a tiny parasitic wasp, but never quite got to it," George Poinar, Jr., a zoology professor at Oregon State University, said in a statement.

"This was a male wasp that suddenly found itself trapped in a spider web. This was the wasp's worst nightmare, and it never ended. The wasp was watching the spider just as it was about to be attacked, when tree resin flowed over and captured both of them."

Poinar and Ron Buckley, an amber collector from Kentucky, described the find in a paper published in the October issue of the journal Historical Biology. They wrote that while there are examples of amber-trapped insects caught in webs, "there is no previous fossil record of a spider attacking its ensnared prey."

The amber chunk also contains the body of another male spider in the same web, which might make the fossil the oldest known evidence of social behavior in spiders, according to the authors.

Both the spider and wasp species are today extinct. But the type of wasp (Cascoscelio incassus) belongs to a group that today is known to parasitize spider eggs, Poinor said. The attack on the wasp by the bristly orb-weaver spider, Geratonephila burmanica, might then be considered revenge.


Water spider

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Water spider, (Argyroneta aquatica), also known as diving bell spider, species of spider that is known for its underwater silk web, which resembles a kind of flexible diving bell. The water spider is the only species of spider known to spend its entire life underwater. It has been placed in the family Argyronetidae however, studies of fossil spiders suggest that it may be more closely related to members of family Cybaeidae.

Water spiders are found in ponds, slow-moving streams, and other shallow bodies of fresh water, particularly where aquatic vegetation is abundant. They are distributed geographically across the northern and central regions of Europe and Siberia. Adult water spiders measure between 8 and 15 mm (0.3 and 0.6 inch) in length and typically are gray to dark brown in colour. Their legs and abdomens are covered with fine hairs, which trap air bubbles in the water and give the spiders a shimmering, silvery appearance.

Once a water spider has captured tiny bubbles of air in the hairs on its body at the water’s surface, it transports them to its silk web, which is anchored to underwater plants or other objects, and ejects them into the interior, thereby inflating the underwater house with air. Research has shown that the inflated web serves as a sort of gill, extracting dissolved oxygen from the water when oxygen concentrations inside the web become sufficiently low to draw oxygen in from the water. Slowly, however, the inflated web collapses, and the spider must travel to the water’s surface for bubble renewal, which it does about once each day.

Most of the life cycle of the water spider, including courtship and breeding, prey capture and feeding, and the development of eggs and embryos, occurs below the water’s surface. Many of these activities take place within the spider’s diving bell.

Water spiders, which tend to be more active at night than during the day, are carnivorous and prey on aquatic invertebrates, such as water mites, water boatmen, and phantom midge larvae. Males generally are more aggressive hunters than females.

Male water spiders often construct their webs close to those of females and tunnel into the females’ webs to mate. A female may lay between 30 and 70 eggs, which are secured within a cocoon suspended from the upper region of the female’s web. Eggs hatch within several weeks, and the spiderlings disperse into the water. Young water spiders often make use of empty snail shells and similar habitats, which they fill with air, before constructing their own webs.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Kara Rogers, Senior Editor.


Meet 10 Beautiful Spiders

Are you afraid of spiders? Don’t be these are only pictures of spiders that stand out because of their strikingly beautiful appearance. Or at least, some species of spiders that you’d be lucky to ever see in the wild. They’re always prettier when you don’t have to separate them from a screaming family member in the bathroom.

Sequined Spiders

Some species of the spider genus called Thwaitesia are also referred to as mirror spiders, bling spiders, or sequined spiders because of the bright and sometimes reflective jewel tones of their abdomens. This one is from Australia.

Photograph by Flickr user Robert Whyte.

Another species of mirrored spider is Thwaitesia argentiopunctata. These colorful spiders are found in Australia. Honestly, not all Thwaitesia species are in Australia, just the most nicely photographed examples.

Ladybird Mimic Spider

The Ladybird Mimic Spider, or Paraplectana, adopted the red with black spots look of a common ladybug. Why? Possibly it’s because ladybugs taste pretty bad, and are unattractive to predators. They are found in the tropical regions of Africa and Asia.

Spiny Orb Weaver

Spiders of the genus Gasteracantha are orb weavers. Gasteracantha dalyi are native to India and have two long curved “horns.” Those spines are not really horns, but the spider’s spinnerets. Scary looking, but still beautiful in its own way.

Ogre-Faced Spider

Photograph by Flickr user Robert Whyte.

This is the face of an ogre-faced spider, or Deinopis subrufa. Look at those beautiful blue eyes! This species is a net-casting spider, meaning it throws its web to catch prey. It lives in eastern Australia and Tasmania.

Jumping Spiders

Photograph by Flickr user Thomas Shahan.

The genus Phidippus are jumping spiders, mostly found in North America. One of the prettiest is Phidippus workmani, found in the United States. How could you resist those lovely eyes -all four of them?

Photograph by Flickr user Thomas Shahan.

Phidippus putnami is also quite beautiful, with colors that resemble a flower.

Peacock Spiders

Photograph by Flickr user Jurgen Otto.

Maratus splendens is not the only species of peacock spider, but its taxonomic name is particularly descriptive. It is certainly splendid! This species is only found near Sydney, Australia. The male of the species has a colorful flap that it raises to attract females.

Maratus volens, on the other hand, is found in Queensland, New South Wales, Western Australia, and Tasmania. Maratus spiders are a type of jumping spider. The female is a dull brown, which is just fine with the family.


Tarantulas are slow and deliberate movers, but accomplished nocturnal predators. Insects are their main prey, but they also target bigger game, including frogs, toads, and mice. The South American bird-eating spider, as it name suggests, is even able to prey upon small birds.

A tarantula doesn't use a web to ensnare prey, though it may spin a trip wire to signal an alert when something approaches its burrow. These spiders grab with their appendages, inject paralyzing venom, and dispatch their unfortunate victims with their fangs. They also secrete digestive enzymes to liquefy their victims' bodies so that they can suck them up through their straw-like mouth openings. After a large meal, the tarantula may not need to eat for a month.


Spin me a web

Spiber's approach is the latter. The company's process involves decoding the gene responsible for the production of fibroin in spiders and then bioengineering bacteria with recombinant DNA to produce the protein, which they then spin into their artificial silk.

Spiber says it will manufacture ten tons of silk in 2015 (Photo: Spiber)

While interest in artificial silk is high and competition is tough, Spiber says it has the advantage of speed: apparently, it can engineer a new type of silk in as little as 10 days, and has already created 250 prototypes with characteristics to suit specific applications.

Spyber starts by tweaking the aminoacid sequences and gene arrangements in its computer models to create artificial proteins that try to maximize strength, flexibility and thermal stability in the final product.

Then, the company synthesizes a fibroin-producing gene, modifying it in such a way that it will produce that specific molecule. The company adopts its own system of gene synthesis, which can produce large quantities of DNA for the fibroin gene in only three days.

Microbes are then modified with the fibroin gene to produce the candidate molecule, which is turned into a fine powder and then spun. The bacteria feed on sugar, salt and other micronutrients and can reproduce in just 20 minutes. A single gram of the protein produces about 5.6 miles (9 km) of artificial silk.

The artificial protein derived from fibroin has been named QMONOS, from the Japanese word for spider. The substance can be turned into fiber, film, gel, sponge, powder, and nanofiber form to suit a number of different needs.

Spibers says it is building a trial manufacturing research plant, aiming to produce 100 kg (220 lb) of QMONOS fiber per month by November. The pilot plant will be ready by 2015, by which time the company aims to produce 10 metric tons (22,000 lb) of silk per year.

The video below introduces the attractive features of the silk and some of its possible applications.


Necrotic Arachnidism -- Pacific Northwest, 1988-1996

Although spider bites are common in many parts of the United States, most domestic spiders are not substantially venomous to man. The best known exceptions are widow spiders (Latrodectus spp., including the black widow L. mactans) and brown spiders (Loxesceles spp., particularly the brown recluse, Lox. reclusa). However, cases of arachnid envenomation from the hobo spider (Tegenaria agrestis) are being reported increasingly in the Pacific Northwest. This report summarizes investigations of three cases of T. agrestis bites among persons in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington spider bites reported to U.S. poison-control centers during 1994 and emphasizes the need for physicians in the northwestern United States to consider this species as a cause of toxic arachnidism.

Case 1. On November 23, 1995, a 10-year-old boy residing in suburban Portland, Oregon, was bitten on the lower leg while asleep in bed. Within 48 hours, two swollen and erythematous lesions 3-4 cm in diameter developed around the site of the bite. Both were hot to the touch, with central blistering. Seven days after the bite, necrosis and skin sloughing developed, and his entire leg and ankle were red and edematous. The patient reportedly was febrile and nauseated and had severe headaches. Treatment included oral diphenhydramine hydrochloride and alternating local applications of heat and ice. After 30 days, ecchymotic residua were still visible, but local tenderness was diminished. Migraine-like headaches persisted for 4 months. Pesticide applicators who inspected the house reported that it was infested with T. agrestis spiders.

Case 2. On October 8, 1992, a 42-year-old woman residing in Bingham County, Idaho, who had a history of phlebitis felt a burning sensation on her left ankle while at work at a convenience store. She rolled up the leg of her pants and found a crushed brown spider, subsequently identified as T. agrestis. The pain on her ankle persisted, and within 3 hours she was dizzy and nauseated and had a severe headache. An erythematous lesion with a vesicular center was noted several hours later by the next day the vesicle had ruptured, leaving an open ulcer with a diameter of approximately 2 mm. During the next 10 weeks the ulcer deepened and expanded to a diameter of approximately 30 mm, circumscribed by a blackish margin. The patient sought medical care on December 26, 1992, and received a course of antibiotics. The ulceration continued to enlarge, and swelling of the leg and toes impaired walking. A venogram in July 1993 indicated deep venous thrombosis, which did not respond to standard therapy. The lesion healed slowly between May and November 1994, but left a cratered scar. The patient remains unable to work in situations requiring standing or walking.

Case 3. In late January 1988, a 56-year-old resident of Spokane, Washington, was bitten by a "bug" on her right thigh. Within 24 hours, she developed a severe headache, nausea, and altered mentation. Although symptoms persisted, she did not seek medical attention until February 16, 1988, when she began to bleed from her ears and other orifices. She was admitted to a hospital with a diagnosis of aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. An eschar on her leg was consistent with necrosis from a spider bite. Despite transfusion therapy, the patient developed severe internal hemorrhage and died in early March 1988. T. agrestis spiders were abundant along railroad tracks adjacent to the patient's home during an inspection of the patient's neighborhood of residence.

Spider Bites Reported to Poison-Control Centers During 1994

Some persons who suspect they have been bitten by spiders and some physicians who treat spider bites contact poison-control centers for advice or information most of these centers use a standard coding scheme for classifying calls. In 1994, poison-control center log reports compiled by the American Association of Poison Control Centers listed 9418 spider bites (Table_1) (1). Of these, a disproportionate number (1027 <10.9%>) was reported to poison-control centers in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, which comprise approximately 4% of the U.S. population. A specific kind of spider was noted for 246 of these bites, including 66 (27%) that were classified as brown recluse bites (there is no coding category for hobo spiders). Adapted from: CD Summary 199514(no. 22), Center for Disease Prevention and Epidemiology, Oregon Health Div, Oregon Dept of Human Resources.

Reported by: DK Vest, Idaho Falls, Idaho. WE Keene, PhD, M Heumann, MPH, Center for Disease Prevention and Epidemiology, Oregon Health Div, Oregon Dept of Human Resources S Kaufman, MD, West Linn Pediatric Clinic, West Linn, Oregon.

Editorial Note

Editorial Note: Although envenomating spider bites in the Pacific Northwest often are erroneously attributed to brown recluse spiders, most such bites are caused by hobo spiders (formerly also known as "aggressive house" spiders). In Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, venomous spider bites usually are reported from areas with well-established populations of hobo spiders (2). T. agrestis spiders often are found in the homes of persons with these bites recluse spiders are never found (3). Lox. reclusa and other Loxosceles species are not found in the Pacific Northwest (Figure_1) (4).

The local effects of T. agrestis envenomation are similar to those of brown recluse bites -- a syndrome described as necrotic arachnidism (5). Although many bites occur without substantial envenomation, the cases described in this report illustrate the possible severe outcomes for hobo spider envenomation. Similar local reactions can result from the bite of yellow sac spiders (Cheiracanthium spp.), which are widely distributed in North America and elsewhere (6).

The bite of the hobo spider usually is initially painless. A small area of induration may appear within 30 minutes, surrounded by an area of expanding erythema that can attain a diameter of 5-15 cm. Blisters develop within 15-35 hours soon thereafter the blisters can rupture with a serous exudate encrusting the cratered wound. An eschar can develop with underlying necrosis and eventual sloughing of affected tissue. Lesions generally heal within 45 days, but can result in a permanent scar healing can require up to 3 years if the bite occurred in fatty tissue. The most common systemic symptom is a severe headache -- occurring as soon as 30 minutes after the bite, and usually within 10 hours -- that can persist for a week. Other symptoms can include nausea, weakness, fatigue, temporary memory loss, and vision impairment. Protracted systemic effects, including aplastic anemia, intractable vomiting, or profuse secretory diarrhea, are rare but may be associated with death (7).

Optimal treatment for necrotic spider bites is not well defined (5). Systemic corticosteroid therapy may be of benefit if any substantial hematologic abnormalities are noted other than a moderate leukocytosis. Surgical repair may be necessary in severe cases of ulcerative lesions, but should not be initiated until the primary necrotizing process is completed (5).

T. agrestis is native to Europe and probably was introduced into the Seattle area in the 1920s or early 1930s (8) it subsequently has spread as far as central Utah and the Alaskan panhandle (Figure_1). Hobo spiders build funnel-shaped webs in dark, moist areas, often in wood piles, crawl spaces, or around the perimeters of homes (9) they rarely climb vertical surfaces and are uncommon above basements or ground level. Hobo spiders are moderately large (7-14 mm body length 27-45 mm leg span) and brown with grey markings. They can move quickly (up to 1 m/second) (2), and can bite if provoked or threatened. Mature spiders are abundant from mid-summer through fall when males, which are more venomous than females, wander in search of females (9).

Practical control strategies should emphasize personal protection rather than attempted eradication of T. agrestis populations. Exposure can be reduced through the use of gloves and other clothing that covers the skin while working in crawl spaces and similar locations and through precaution when retrieving firewood or other items stored in potentially infested areas. Screens on basement and ground-floor windows and insulation strips under doors may reduce the risk for spider infestation.

Venomous spider bites are not reportable in any state, and there are no reliable estimates of the incidence of such bites or how often medical attention is sought for them. The addition of a specific designation for hobo spider envenomations in poison-control center report classifications may provide better information on how frequently these bites occur. Medical references should be updated to acknowledge causes of necrotic arachnidism other than Loxosceles spp.

References

Litovitz TL, Felberg L, Soloway RA, Ford M, Geller R. 1994 annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers. Am J Emerg Med 199513:551-97.

Akre RD, Myhre EA. Biology and medical importance of the aggressive house spider, Tegenaria agrestis, in the Pacific Northwest (Arachnida: Araneae: Agelenidae). Melanderia 199147:1-30.

Vest DK. Necrotic arachnidism in the Northwest United States and its probable relationship to Tegenaria agrestis (Walckenaer) spiders. Toxicon 198725:175-84.

Gertsch WJ, Ennik F. The spider genus Loxosceles in North America, and the West Indies (Araneae, Loxoscelidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 1983175:264-360.

Wasserman GS, Anderson PC. Loxoscelism and necrotic arachnidism. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 198321:451-72.

Edwards RJ. The spider family Clubioninae of the United States, Canada, and Alaska (Araneae: Clubionidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 1958118:365-436.

Vest DK. Protracted reactions following probable hobo spider (Tegenaria agrestis) envenomation . American Arachnology 199348:10.

Exline H. New and little known species of Tegenaria (Araneida, Agelenidae). Psyche 193643:21.

Table_1
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