Information

What do spider digestive fluids look like?


What is the general appearance of the fluids that spiders use to digest their prey before they ingest it into the body?


In most species of spiders, this liquid is thick and brownish (Brown) This digestive juice helps spiders to feed of prey even larger than spiders.


Chapter 241 - Spiders

This chapter explores the Spiders, like insects, belong to the phylum Arthropoda, but they are in the class Arachnida. Arachnids are only distantly related to the other major terrestrial arthropod group, the insects, and represent a separate evolutionary transition from marine to terrestrial living, because their closest living relatives are thought to be the marine horseshoe crabs (xiphosurans) and sea spiders, pycnogonids. Spiders can easily be distinguished from other arachnids by their lack of visible segmentation and the marked constriction between the prosoma and the opisthosoma, dividing the body into cephalothorax and abdomen, respectively. Although much less diverse than insects in habits and morphology, spiders, which are in the order Araneae, nonetheless occupy nearly all terrestrial environments and can be found wherever there are other terrestrial arthropods to prey upon. Spiders are unique among arthropods in their use of silks at all stages of their lives. Silks are produced in the abdomen in specialized silk glands, each of which yields a different kind of silk. The general structure of a silk gland is a tail area that secretes the liquid silk proteins into a sac-like lumen, or storage area. Research into spider biology, particularly the diversity of silks, webs, and venoms, together with the associated ecology and behaviors, has increased greatly in recent decades. Moreover, phylogenetic advances are beginning to provide the context for comparisons between spider taxa and between spiders, other arachnids, and other terrestrial arthropods.


6 Male Black Widow Spider Pictures

A great deal of individuals are afraid crawlers considering that a few of them are dangerous. Other individuals are afraid the idea of being attacked. Allow's check out crawlers typically and also provide you some truths regarding typical crawlers.

Though crawlers have straightforward eyes, they generally are not well established. Rather, crawlers utilize resonances, which they could notice on the surface of their internet. The small bristles distributed across a crawler's physical body surface area, are really delicate tactile receptors. These bristles are delicate to a range of stimulations consisting of touch, resonance, and also air flow.

Crawlers particularly 6 Male Black Widow Spider Pictures are arthropods, so their emaciated system of their physical body is the outer layer. The difficult exoskeleton assists the crawler preserve wetness and also moist out. The bristles are not hair, however really component of their exoskeleton.

Words crawler is from an Aged English verb spinnan, suggesting "to rotate." Internet weavers utilize the small claws at the base of each leg, along with their scratched hairs, to stroll on their internet without staying with them.

Crawlers absorb their meals outside their physical body. After the victim is caught, crawlers launch intestinal enzymes from their digestive system and also cover the bug. These enzymes damaged the physical body, which enables the crawler gobble the fluid victim.

The been afraid arachnid isn't really dangerous. An arachnid's bite can be agonizing, however it isn't really anymore unsafe compared to a sting.

A Daddy-long-legs isn't really a crawler, though it looks a great deal like one. It does not have a midsection in between its front physical body component and also its abdominal area. Its legs are much longer and also thinner compared to a crawler's, and also it brings its physical body put up reduced.

Under a crawler's abdominal area, near the back, are small short ends called spinnerets. The crawler utilizes its legs to draw fluid silk made in its abdominal area from the spinnerets. The silk solidifies as it extends. Given that silk is constructed of healthy protein, a crawler consumes the utilized silk of an aged internet prior to rotating a brand-new one.

Not all crawlers rotate internet, however several usage silk in various other methods. Some shield their eggs in silken egg sacs. The Wolf Crawler brings her egg sac connected to her spinnerets. Several arachnids line their burrows with silk. Some trap-door crawlers make silken covers for their burrows.

On an American one-dollar expense, there is an owl in the top left-hand edge of the "1" enclosed in the "guard" and also a crawler concealed in the front top right-hand edge. The majority of crawlers come from the orb weaver crawler household, Household Aranidae. This is noticable "A Rainy Day.".

A hair from the internet of a gold crawler is as solid as a steel cable of the exact same dimension.
In the 1960s, pet habits scientists researched the results of different materials on crawlers.

When crawlers were fed flies that had actually been infused with high levels of caffeine, they rotated quite "stressed" internet. When crawlers consumed flies infused with LSD, they rotated internet with untamed, abstract patterns. Crawlers that were provided sedatives slept prior to finishing their internet.


Nightmarish Sea Spiders Pump Their Blood Using Their Guts

Earth’s oceans are well-stocked with otherworldly inhabitants, but few of these critters are quite as strange as sea spiders, which look like something that would lurk in the crawlspace under Slender Man’s house. With their impossibly spindly legs, sea spiders—which aren’t even actual spiders—stride across the ocean floor with eerily slow, deliberate steps . They eat by piercing stationary animals like sea anemones and sponges with their long proboscises, and sucking up chunks of tissue softened by digestive juices. Now, new research published in the journal Current Biology piles onto the weirdness, demonstrating that sea spiders move blood and oxygen around their bodies not by pumping their hearts, but by pumping their guts.

Sea spider digestive tracts weren’t exactly normal to begin with. There is precious little space in their tiny abdomens for organs, so sea spider guts branch out and feed down into the entire length of the animals’ legs. “In effect, sea spiders’ guts are ‘space-filling’ and ubiquitous in their bodies in the same way that our circulatory systems are space-filling and ubiquitous,” said lead author H. Arthur Woods of the University of Montana, Missoula in a press release.

This space-filling gut is responsible for a method of transporting oxygen-rich hemolymph—the equivalent of blood in arthropods like sea spiders—that’s totally new to science. The research team, made up of scientists from Montana, Hawai`i, and Australia, determined that sea spiders use strong, rippling contractions of their guts to slosh hemolymph (which exists in an open pool, not in blood vessels) back and forth throughout their gangly frames. The sea spider heart beats weakly, and is only able to push blood throughout the central body, so this gut pump picks up the slack.

This pump complements a sea spider respiratory system which, unsurprisingly, is also incredibly unusual, and helps address some unanswered questions about how these animals manage to exist at all. Sea spiders don’t have gills, and instead take in oxygen passively from the surrounding water via diffusion through their porous exoskeletons. The majority of the more than 1,000 species of sea spider are itsy bitsy, often smaller than your pinky nail. But some species in the bone-rattling waters off Antarctica can get as large as dinner plates . All that extra body volume presents issues for the achingly slow process of diffusion, which inspired Woods and his colleagues to explore how these lanky Antarctic titans manage to get enough oxygen. After a recent expedition to Antarctica’s McMurdo research station to study this case of “polar gigantism,” the research team gained an insight into how sea spiders may pull it off.


Meet death on eight legs – the fierce and awesome Camel Spider was born to give people nightmares

Large, hairy, and growing to 6-inches long, they are also called &ldquowind scorpions&rdquo for their amazing speed. The many legends surrounding the Camel Spider will give you nightmares. It has been told that they eat camel stomachs &ndash from the inside out &ndash and are said to scream as they speed across the desert floor, leap incredible distances to chase fleeing humans, and kill people by injecting them with venom then feeding on their bodies as they sleep. Of course, none of this is true but with jaws about a third of their body length, they can shred prey as big as rodents. I would say that&rsquos enough to give pause when you run across one.

Camel spiders are arachnids but belong to a different order than most other spiders. Despite consisting of around 1,000 species around the world, they are rarely spotted in the wild &ndash likely because of their speed. Scientist Lauren Esposito explained:

&ldquoIf you sit under a light trap a lot of times they&rsquore attracted to the movement of the moths that are attracted to the light. And they&rsquoll just come out of nowhere and grab something and run off again. They&rsquore super-fast.&rdquo

The Camel Spider&rsquos fangs consist of a pair of scissor-like, serrated blades that are powered by massive muscles capable of snapping rats, lizards, and birds to pieces with little effort. According to Esposito, their jaws are &ldquoalmost like the mouth in Predator, where it opens up in four directions.&rdquo Once the prey is chomped to bits, they use stomach digestive fluids to liquefy their victim then suck them into their stomachs.

The Camel Spider doesn&rsquot have any venom &ndash doesn&rsquot need it &ndash their bites are extremely painful from tissue trauma alone. And they use no silk to trap prey either. Just speed and those huge, awesome fangs.

However, at least one legend is partially true &ndash they do chase humans &ndash sort of. Scientists say camel spiders don&rsquot chase people to hurt them, they just want to be in your shade. When a person runs, the camel spider will chase their shadow and when the person stops, the camel spider will stop next to them, grinning, whistling, and coyly avoiding eye-contact while enjoying the cool, shaded air.

Here&rsquos the taxonomy of camel spiders:

Kingdom: Animalia

Subkingdom: Bilateria

Infrakingdom: Protostomia

Superphylum: Ecdysozoa

Phylum: Arthropoda

Subphylum: Chelicerata

Class: Arachnida

Order: Solifugae

Families: Ammotrechidae, Ceromidae, Daesiidae, Eremobatidae, Galeodidae, Gylippidae, Hexisopodidae, Karschiidae, Melanoblossiidae, Mummuciidae, Rhagodidae, Solpugidae


What do spider digestive fluids look like? - Biology

- Spiders date back to the carboniferous era (360 million years ago)

- All spiders can spin silk at all stages of their life, it is a fibrous protein

- There are approximately 40,000 species of known spiders

-Mesothelae
-Mygalomorphae
-Araneomorphae

- Spiders have a hard cuticle or body shell, called an exoskeleton.

- The cuticle covers the cephalothorax and legs and prevents the spider from losing moisture and drying out.

- Spiders have two body segments.

- The front segment is called the Cephalothorax. The spider’s eyes, mouth fangs, stomach, brain and the glands that make the poison are on this part of the body. The legs are connected to this part, as well.

- The second part of the body is called the Abdomen. The back end of the abdomen is where the spinnerets and the silk producing glands are .

- Spider’s legs are covered with many hairs. The hairs pick up vibrations and smells from the air.

- Spiders have 48 knees. Eight legs with six joints on each

- The exoskeleton provides the spider with structural support.

- Unlike insects, spiders have no antennae. They do, however, have two appendages near their mouths that are often confused with insect antennas. These structures, called pedipalps, are used by spiders to manipulate their prey while feeding.

- Spiders must molt their exoskeleton when they are growing as it does not stretch.

- Spiders have different types of respiratory systems. Some have book lungs, some have tubular tracheae, and others have both tracheae and book lungs.

- Book lungs are located by two hairless patches on the underside of the spider's abdomen. Each lung has an open slit for air intact and a stack of leaflet like, blood filled structures called lamellae. As air passes into the spider's body, blood passes through the lamellae is oxygenated.

- Spiders have seven leg segments, and their movements are controlled by muscles and by pressure changes in the body's circulatory fluid. Spiders use muscles to retract their legs, but they lack extension muscles. Spiders extend their legs by changes in body-fluid pressure.

- Spiders have an open circulatory system. The heart pumps blood through a series of vessels and arteries. Blood seeps between the spider's tissues, collects in little pockets on the underside of the body, and flows back to the heart.

-Spiders have a very narrow digestive tract and cannot consume solids, they inject enzymes into their pray and consume them as a liquid

- The male transfers sperm to the female using specially modified appendages near the mouth, called pedipalps. Because of this, it is easy to tell what sex a spider is: Female spiders have pedipalps which look like short legs, whereas male pedipalps look like "boxing gloves".

- Spiders will lay between 2 and 1000 eggs, depending on the species. Almost all female spiders protect their eggs by making a silk ‘bed’ and then covering them with a silk ’blanket’. She then wraps them in more silk to make the egg sac.

- Generally terrestrial, although some species live under water

- Some spiders spin webs of their silk to capture prey while others are ambush predators.


Giant Antarctic sea spiders breathe really strangely

Giant sea spiders may look strange, but their circulatory system is even weirder, new data show.

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Sea spiders just got weirder. The ocean arthropods pump blood with their guts, new research shows. It’s the first time this kind of circulatory system has been seen in nature.

It’s been no secret that sea spiders are bizarre — and more than a little creepy. Full grown, one could easily stretch across a dinner plate. They feed by sticking their proboscis into soft animals and sucking out the juices. They don’t have much room in their bodies, so their guts and reproductive organs reside in their spindly legs. And they don’t have gills or lungs. To cope, they absorb oxygen through their cuticle, or shell-like skin. Now scientists can add an especially odd circulatory system to this list.

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Amy Moran is a marine biologist at the University of Hawaii in Manoa. “It’s been unclear for a long time how they actually move oxygen through their bodies,” she says. After all, they animals’ hearts appeared too feeble to do the necessary blood pumping.

To study these animals, Moran and her colleagues traveled to the waters around Antarctica. There, they dove beneath the ice to collect them. They harvested several different species. Back in the lab, the researchers injected fluorescent dye into the animals’ hearts, then watched where the blood went when the heart was beating. The blood went only to the animal’s head, body and proboscis, they found — not its legs.

To study giant sea spiders, researchers dove into the frigid waters off Antarctica. Rob Robbins

Inside those long legs are tube-like digestive systems, similar to intestines. The scientists took a closer look at those legs. They saw that as the spiders digested food, the guts in the legs contracted in waves.

The researchers wondered if these contractions helped pump blood. To find out, they inserted electrodes into the animals’ legs. The electrodes used electricity to spark a chemical reaction with oxygen in the legs’ liquid. Then they measured the oxygen levels present. Sure enough, gut contractions were moving oxygen around the body.

In another test, the scientists put sea spiders in water with low levels of oxygen. Contractions in the animals’ leggy guts sped up. This is similar to what happens in people deprived of oxygen: Their heart beats faster. The same thing also happened when they studied several species of sea spiders from temperate waters.

There are a few other animals, such as jellyfish, in which the gut plays a role in circulation. But this has never been seen before in a more complex animal that has separate digestive and circulatory systems, Moran says.

She and her team described their findings July 10 in Current Biology.

Louis Burnett is a comparative physiologist at the College of Charleston in South Carolina. He, too, finds the new sea-spider observations exciting. “The way they [circulate oxygen] is unique,” he says. “It’s a pretty novel finding because not a whole lot is known about sea spiders and how they breathe.”

Don’t fear the sea spiders

If you find sea spiders creepy, you’re not alone. Moran says she has always “had a thing” about land spiders and is especially afraid of them jumping on her. But once she spent time with sea spiders, she got over her fear. For one thing, although they have eight legs, they’re not really spiders. Both are arthropods. But spiders belong to a group called arachnids (Ah-RAK-nidz). Sea spiders are something else: pycnogonids (PIK-no-GO-nidz).

Sea spiders are colorful and very slow. Moran even finds them kind of cute. Like cats, these animals spend a lot of time grooming themselves. And the males care for the eggs. To do this, they shape the eggs into “donuts” and wear them on their legs while crawling around.

“It took me a while to get used to them,” Moran says. “But now I find them quite beautiful.”

Power Words

Antarctica A continent mostly covered in ice, which sits in the southernmost part of the world.

arachnid A group of invertebrate animals that includes spiders, scorpions, mites and ticks. Many have silk or poison glands.

arthropod Any of numerous invertebrate animals of the phylum Arthropoda, including the insects, crustaceans, arachnids and myriapods, that are characterized by an exoskeleton made of a hard material called chitin and a segmented body to which jointed appendages are attached in pairs.

biology The study of living things. The scientists who study them are known as biologists.

circulation (adj. circulatory) A term that refers to the pumping of some fluid repeatedly throughout a system of vessels. (in medicine) The pumping of blood through the arteries and smaller types of vessels (and from there into other organs and tissues).

colleague Someone who works with another a co-worker or team member.

cuticle Term for a tough but bendable protective outer shell or cover of some organism, or parts of an organism.

electrode A device that conducts electricity and is used to make contact with non-metal part of an electrical circuit, or that contacts something through which an electrical signal moves.

fluorescent (v. fluoresce) Adjective for something that is capable of absorbing and reemitting light. That reemitted light is known as fluorescence.

gills The respiratory organ of most aquatic animals that filters oxygen out of water. Fish and other water-dwelling animals use gills to breathe.

marine Having to do with the ocean world or environment.

marine biologist A scientist who studies creatures that live in ocean water, from bacteria and shellfish to kelp and whales.

organ (in biology) Various parts of an organism that perform one or more particular functions. For instance, an ovary is an organ that makes eggs, the brain is an organ that makes sense of nerve signals and a plant&rsquos roots are organs that take in nutrients and moisture.

oxygen A gas that makes up about 21 percent of Earth's atmosphere. All animals and many microorganisms need oxygen to fuel their growth (and metabolism).

physiologist A scientist who studies the branch of biology that deals with how the bodies of healthy organisms function under normal circumstances.

proboscis A straw-like mouthpiece in bees, moths and butterflies used for sucking up liquids. The term can also be applied to an animal&rsquos long snout (such as in an elephant).

pycnogonids Animals that resemble spiders but belong to a different group of arthropods. More than 1,000 species have been identified to date. Some eat algae, others scavenge food from their environment, still others act as predators (that suck the life juices out of their prey).

reproductive organs The organs in a creature&rsquos body that allows it to make and deliver eggs or sperm, and where appropriate, to nurture developing eggs and fetuses.

temperate In geography, areas that are cooler than the tropics but warmer than polar regions.

unique Something that is unlike anything else the only one of its kind.

wave A disturbance or variation that travels through space and matter in a regular, oscillating fashion.


How to spin synthetic spider silk

Anna Rising (left) and Jan Johansson (right) hold up golden silk orb-weaver spiders, also called Nephila clavipes, at their lab at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden.

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January 30, 2017 at 7:10 am

In the comics, Spiderman hurls his spider silk at will. In real life, making artificial — or synthetic — spider silk is not nearly as easy. But researchers now have found a way to make the flexible yet super-strong strands.

Although Spiderman’s web-slinging powers are make-believe, scientists have now managed to do the real thing on a much smaller scale, in the lab. The results could have many possible uses. Courtesy of Marvel

“Now we can do it the way the way that spiders do it,” says Anna Rising.

She works at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in Uppsala and the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. As a medical biochemist, she studies chemical processes important in living things. Rising initially became a veterinarian. Then she got interested in the challenge of making synthetic spider silk. It could be a big help for medicine, for manufacturing and even for producing gear to protect soldiers.

Rising teamed with up Jan Johansson, another medical biochemist at those schools. Spider silk proteins interested him because of his work on Alzheimer’s disease. In that illness, a protein clumps in the brain. Those clumps block normal brain functions and damage nerve cells. And how the proteins come together is similar in both cases.

The idea for the new process developed as the scientists studied what spiders do naturally.

Each molecule of spider silk protein is like a long chain with three basic parts. The longest part has segments that repeat over and over (which are known as “repeats”). If you look at that long part under a high-powered microscope, it would look like towers of stacked Lego blocks connected by springs, explains Randy Lewis. He’s a biochemist at Utah State University in Logan and didn’t work on the project. The Lego-stack areas provide strength, he notes. The springy sections give the material elasticity, or stretch.

A separate part of the spider silk protein is found at the start of that long portion. Another part attaches to the end. Silk proteins can hook onto each other when the silk is spun. That makes long lengths of silk fibers.

Explainer: What is PCR?

Spiders have glands in their abdomens that contain the silk-making proteins in a water-based solution. To make synthetic spider silk, Rising’s team needed building blocks that would form a similar starting protein.

Rising started by collecting fishing spiders from South Africa. (Their scientific name is Euprosthenops australis.) Then she, Johansson and other researchers studied the spider’s silk and its genes. From this, they figured out which part of the spider’s genetic code would make the silk protein. To make lots of copies of those DNA segments, they used a process called the polymerase (Puh-LIM-ur-ace) chain reaction, or PCR.

Araneus ventricosus is one of two species whose DNA was used by researchers to design a new synthetic spider protein. Masaki Ikeda/Wikimedia (Gnu Free Documentation License)

Rising and Johannsson’s group then put that genetic material into bits their DNA that would enter into bacteria easily. The bacteria added these bits to its DNA and could now make parts of the natural silk. But there was one problem. The small amounts they made were not very soluble in water. That meant the team wouldn’t be able to mix it into a water-based solution like that contained in the spiders’ silk glands.

Meanwhile, Chinese researchers did similar work with an Asian spider, Araneus ventricosus. The two groups joined forces and designed a hybrid protein. They chose the parts from each spider species that would be most soluble in water. The starting part came from the African spider’s silk. The end part was from the Asian spider. For the middle, the researchers used two repeats from the African spider. (That spider’s natural silk protein has about 100 such repeats.)

The team coached bacteria to make this hybrid protein. Then they made a solution of the protein in water, concentrated at up to 50 percent. That’s similar to the concentration in spider glands.

Getting the proteins to make fibers

Next came the challenge of spinning the proteins into fibers. As a spider’s gland pumps out the solution, the solution’s pH falls. (The pH scale measures how acidic something is. The lower the pH, the more acidic it is.) Rising’s group figured it needed to do something similar.

Synthetic spider silk can be wound onto spools after it’s formed. Marlene Andersson

To mimic the way spider silk becomes more acidic as it’s spun out, the group’s new process pumps the solution through a thin tube. The diameter of the tube’s tip narrows at the end. That forces the protein solution into a jet stream. The stream empties into a beaker with an acidic, water-based solution. As the jet stream of protein goes through that liquid, its pH drops. The individual proteins then link up. This makes them fall out of the solution as fibers. The resulting strand of synthetic silk can be pulled out of the beaker and wound onto a spool or card.

The team’s study appears in the January 9 issue of Nature Chemical Biology.

Toward even stronger silk

Lewis’s group at Utah State had already managed to dissolve spider silk proteins in water. In 2015, these researchers reported making them into a silk using a different method. However, the protein level in that solution was much lower than what Rising’s group achieved.

Lewis notes that the silk protein made by Rising and Johansson’s group has only a couple of repeats. More repeats in that silk would strengthen the strands, he suspects.

/>This close-up shows how synthetic spider silk forms after a solution with protein hits an acidic bath and the pH falls. Marlene Andersson

Johansson agrees it might be better to have more repeats. What’s more, he thinks that keeping the protein highly soluble also is important. And the shorter repeating section probably helps with that. But silk made with their new process is already about one-third as strong as natural spider silk. Yet it has just two percent as many repeats as those in the South African spider’s silk.

The new work is important, Lewis says. “It provides an interesting opportunity for maybe simplifying the spinning process significantly.” And, he adds, if it works for large proteins, “it is a possible major advance.”

After all, raising spiders to gather natural silk is impractical. Each would have to be raised alone or they might eat each other. And there would be other challenges.

A synthetic silk could have lots of uses. “Spider silk has a unique combination of both strength and elasticity,” Lewis notes. In medicine, spider silk could work as sutures. It could repair tendons. It might help damaged nerves repair themselves. It might even form a framework for growing replacement tissues in a lab.

For the military, synthetic spider silk could go into protective gear. For instance, the strong fibers might help keep tiny fragments of explosive devices from penetrating to the skin and causing infections. In industry, spider-like silk could be used to make strong, lightweight parts for airplanes or cars. “One of the things we’ve discovered is you don’t even have to use [the silk] to make fibers,” Lewis says. The proteins could go into coatings, gels, films or adhesives.

More work must be done before this synthetic silk is ready for mass production. Yet after 13 years, Rising is glad her international team finally found a way to mimic how spiders spin their own silk. “It’s been one of the projects where everything basically just works,” she says.

This is one in a series presenting news on technology and innovation, made possible with generous support from the Lemelson Foundation.

Power Words

acidic An adjective for materials that contain acid. These materials often are capable of eating away at some minerals such as carbonate, or preventing their formation in the first place.

Alzheimer’s disease An incurable brain disease that can cause confusion, mood changes and problems with memory, language, behavior and problem solving. No cause or cure is known.

chemical A substance formed from two or more atoms that unite (become bonded together) in a fixed proportion and structure. For example, water is a chemical made of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom. Its chemical symbol is H2O. Chemical can also be an adjective that describes properties of materials that are the result of various reactions between different compounds.

concentration (in chemistry) A measurement of how much of one substance has been dissolved into another.

diameter The length of a straight line that runs through the center of a circle or spherical object, starting at the edge on one side and ending at the edge on the far side.

dissolve To turn a solid into a liquid and disperse it into that starting liquid. For instance, sugar or salt crystals (solids) will dissolve into water. Now the crystals are gone and the solution is a fully dispersed mix of the liquid form of the sugar or salt in water.

DNA (short for deoxyribonucleic acid) A long, double-stranded and spiral-shaped molecule inside most living cells that carries genetic instructions. It is built on a backbone of phosphorus, oxygen, and carbon atoms. In all living things, from plants and animals to microbes, these instructions tell cells which molecules to make.

fiber Something whose shape resembles a thread or filament of some kind. (in nutrition) Components of many fibrous plant-based foods. These so-called non-digestible fiber tends to come from cellulose, lignin, and pectin — all plant constituents that resist breakdown by the body’s digestive enzymes.

gel A gooey or viscous material that can flow like a thick liquid.

gene (adj. genetic) A segment of DNA that codes, or holds instructions, for producing a protein. Offspring inherit genes from their parents. Genes influence how an organism looks and behaves.

genetic Having to do with chromosomes, DNA and the genes contained within DNA. The field of science dealing with these biological instructions is known as genetics. People who work in this field are geneticists.

gland A cell, a group of cells or an organ that produces and discharges a substance (or “secretion”) for use elsewhere in the body or in a body cavity, or for elimination from the body.

hybrid An organism produced by interbreeding of two animals or plants of different species or of genetically distinct populations within a species. Such offspring often possess genes passed on by each parent, yielding a combination of traits not known in previous generations. The term is also used in reference to any object that is a mix of two or more things.

infection A disease that can spread from one organism to another. It’s usually caused by some sort of germ.

molecule An electrically neutral group of atoms that represents the smallest possible amount of a chemical compound. Molecules can be made of single types of atoms or of different types. For example, the oxygen in the air is made of two oxygen atoms (O2), but water is made of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom (H2O).

nerve A long, delicate fiber that communicates signals across the body of an animal. An animal’s backbone contains many nerves, some of which control the movement of its legs or fins, and some of which convey sensations such as hot, cold, pain.

pH A measure of a solution’s acidity. A pH of 7 is perfectly neutral. Acids have a pH lower than 7 the farther from 7, the stronger the acid. Alkaline solutions, called bases, have a pH higher than 7 again, the farther above 7, the stronger the base.

polymerase chain reaction (PCR) A biochemical process that repeatedly copies a particular sequence of DNA. A related, but somewhat different technique, copies genes expressed by the DNA in a cell. This technique is called reverse transcriptase PCR. Like regular PCR, it copies genetic material so that other techniques can identify aspects of the genes or match them to known genes.

protein Compound made from one or more long chains of amino acids. Proteins are an essential part of all living organisms. They form the basis of living cells, muscle and tissues they also do the work inside of cells. The hemoglobin in blood and the antibodies that attempt to fight infections are among the better-known, stand-alone proteins. Medicines frequently work by latching onto proteins.

silk A fine, strong, soft fiber spun by a range of animals, such as silkworms and many other caterpillars, weaver ants, caddis flies and — the real artists — spiders.

soluble Some chemical that is able to dissolve some liquid. The resulting combo becomes a solution.

solution A liquid in which one chemical has been dissolved into another.

species A group of similar organisms capable of producing offspring that can survive and reproduce.

spider A type of arthropod with four pairs of legs that usually spin threads of silk that they can use to create webs or other structures.

suture A stitch or row of stitches holding together the edges of a wound or surgical incision.

synthetic An adjective that describes something that did not arise naturally, but was instead created by people. Many have been developed to stand in for natural materials, such as synthetic rubber, synthetic diamond or a synthetic hormone. Some may even have a chemical makeup and structure identical to the original.

tendon A tissue in the body that connects muscle and bone.

tissue Any of the distinct types of material, comprised of cells, which make up animals, plants or fungi. Cells within a tissue work as a unit to perform a particular function in living organisms. Different organs of the human body, for instance, often are made from many different types of tissues. And brain tissue will be very different from bone or heart tissue.

unique Something that is unlike anything else the only one of its kind.

veterinarian A doctor who studies or treats animals (not humans).

Citations

Journal: M. Andersson et al. Biomimetic spinning of artificial spider silk from a chimeric minispidroin. Nature Chemical Biology. Published online January 9, 2017 . doi: doi:10.1038/nchembio.2269.

About Kathiann Kowalski

Kathiann Kowalski reports on all sorts of cutting-edge science. Previously, she practiced law with a large firm. Kathi enjoys hiking, sewing and reading. She also enjoys travel, especially family adventures and beach trips.

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What do spiders drink?

We studied a great deal about what spiders eat, but what about their drinking needs? Well, spiders generally don&rsquot need to drink water as frequently as humans do. Their water source is usually derived from their prey itself. Water is also produced as a byproduct of their metabolism.

Despite this conservative behavior in terms of water, some spiders do run the risk of desiccation particularly those belonging to mygalomorph species. In fact, female mygalomorphs spend most of their lives in a burrow where humidity levels remain high. Adult male mygalomorphs come out of the burrow in the night when humidity is also high or in the day during the rainy season. Funnel-web spiders are so fond of moisture that they are often spotted near swimming pools or leaky garden taps.


The role of the small intestine in the absorption of liquids

Fortunately for us, the small intestine is more than up to the task. It&rsquos quite an extensive organ, boasting a length of around 20 feet (6 meters). It also has a huge inner surface area of roughly 250 square meters &ndash the size of a tennis court! (Source) This large surface area helps to absorb water and other liquids quickly and efficiently.

Of the almost 10 liters of water that enters our stomach every day, 80-90% is absorbed by the small intestine. The remaining 10% (amounting to 1 liter of water) is passed on to the large intestine, which absorbs as much water as possible from the waste substances ready to be excreted from the body as feces.


Corn earworm causes damage to the leaves, flower, buds, pods and beans. Control methods • Application of Bacillus thuringiensis to control insects organicall.

The adults eat spiders, ants, caterpillars, flies and beetles. Locusts: Incomplete metamorphosis. Nymphs eat plants that are easy for them to digest. Adults .

The Homarus americanis consume food by positioning its mouth close to its prey which is how lobsters with omitted appendages consume their victims! When the .

2003. Sharks, Rays and Chimaeras of California. California:University of California Press.pp166-168 Frederic, Vandeperre., Alexandre, Aires-da-Silva., Jorge.

Species Name What is their common and their Genus species name? The common name of the Octopus Cyanea, also known as the Blue Octopus, is “Octopodidae”. The.

And now a boom in lighting technology is beginning to hint at unexpected alternatives to chemical pesticides: lasers and light-emitting diodes, or LEDs. Japa.

Even though monarch caterpillars didn’t eat corn specifically, the pollen from the corn blew onto milkweed plants they do eat (Whitman, 2000). Another potent.

Solitary wasps, by far the largest subgroup, do not form colonies. This group includes some of the wasp family's largest members, like cicada killers and the.

There are three differences between wasp and honey bee. The first difference between wasp and honey bee is sting. Honey bee can sting only once in its life d.

A report from the CDC in Atlanta, GA stated that non-vampire could also responsible as said here,” Among 165 from 6 genera and 10 species, 10.3% were antibo.


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