Information

2.3.1.3: Facilitation - Biology


Interactions in which one or both species benefit and neither is harmed are called facilitation. There are two types of facilitation: commensalism and mutualism.

Commensalism

Commensalism is a type of facilitation that occurs when one species benefits from an interaction, while the other neither benefits or is harmed. Many potential commensal relationships are difficult to identify because it is difficult to demonstrate that one partner is unaffected by the presence of the other. Birds nesting in trees provide an example of a commensal relationship (figure (PageIndex{a})). The tree is not harmed by the presence of the nest among its branches. The nests are light and produce little strain on the structural integrity of the branch, and most of the leaves, which the tree uses to get energy by photosynthesis, are above the nest so they are unaffected. The bird, on the other hand, benefits greatly. If the bird had to nest in the open, its eggs and young would be vulnerable to predators.


Figure (PageIndex{a}): The Southern Masked-Weaver is starting to make a nest in a tree in Zambezi Valley, Zambia. This is an example of a commensal relationship, in which one species (the bird) benefits, while the other (the tree) neither benefits nor is harmed. (credit: “Hanay”/Wikimedia Commons)

Another example or a commensal relationship involves the Little Blue Heron and the White Ibis, which are both wading birds. The Little Blue Heron catches more fish in the presence of the White Ibis, but the White Ibis is unaffected. Interestingly, Little Blue Herons attempt to catch fish more often in the presence of the species, but the success rate of their attempts does not change. Nevertheless, more frequent attempts still increases the total number of fish caught. The White Ibis may make fish more visible to Little Blue Herons, causing changes in their behavior (figure (PageIndex{b})).

Figure (PageIndex{b}): The Little Blue Heron (left) and the White Ibis (right) have a commensal relationship. Image by Russ (CC-BY).

Mutualism

In a mutualism, both species benefit from their interaction. For example, pollinators, such as bees, butterflies, and hummingbirds, benefit because they eat the collect pollen and/or nectar that they collect from flowers. The plants also benefit because their pollen is dispersed to other plants, allowing them to reproduce. Both the pollinators and the plants benefit, demonstrating a mutualism (figure (PageIndex{c})). Clownfish and anemones are another example of mutualisms. Clownfish gain protection from living among anemones. In return, clownfish clean the anemones and scare away predators. In addition, their waste provides nutrients (figure (PageIndex{d})).

Figure (PageIndex{c}): A male Broad-Tailed Hummingbird visits a scarlet gilia flower at the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory. The hummingbird gains food (nectar) while aiding the gilia flower with reproduction. Image by David W. Inouye (CC-BY).

Figure (PageIndex{d}): These clownfish have a mutual relationship with the sea anemones in which they live. image by Samuel Chow (CC-BY).

Attribution

Modified by Melissa Ha from Community Ecology from Environmental Biology by Matthew R. Fisher's (licensed under CC-BY)


AQA GCSE (9-1) Biology (8461) past exam papers. If you are not sure what tier you are sitting foundation or higher check with your teacher. You can download the papers and marking schemes by clicking on the links below.

June 2018 AQA Biology (9-1) Past Papers (8461)

AQA Biology (9-1) Specimen Papers (8461)

June 2017 AQA Biology Past Exam Papers (4401)

Science A – Unit 1 Biology B1 Foundation (BL1FP) June 2017 – Download PaperDownload Mark Scheme
Science A – Unit 1 Biology B1 Higher (BL1HP) June 2017 – Download PaperDownload Mark Scheme

Additional Science – Unit 2 Biology B2 Foundation (BL2FP) June 2017 – Download PaperDownload Mark Scheme
Additional Science – Unit 2 Biology B2 Higher (BL2HP) June 2017 – Download PaperDownload Mark Scheme

Biology – Unit 3 Biology B3 Foundation (BL3FP) June 2017 – Download PaperDownload Mark Scheme
Biology – Unit 3 Biology B3 Higher (BL3HP) June 2017 – Download PaperDownload Mark Scheme

June 2016 AQA Biology Past Exam Papers (4401)

Science A – Unit 1 Biology B1 Foundation (BL1FP) June 2016 – Download PaperDownload Mark Scheme
Science A – Unit 1 Biology B1 Higher (BL1HP) June 2016 – Download PaperDownload Mark Scheme

Additional Science – Unit 2 Biology B2 Foundation (BL2FP) June 2016 – Download PaperDownload Mark Scheme
Additional Science – Unit 2 Biology B2 Higher (BL2HP) June 2016 – Download PaperDownload Mark Scheme

Biology – Unit 3 Biology B3 Foundation (BL3FP) June 2016 – Download PaperDownload Mark Scheme
Biology – Unit 3 Biology B3 Higher (BL3HP) June 2016 – Download PaperDownload Mark Scheme

June 2015 (4401)

Science A – Unit 1 Biology B1 Foundation (BL1FP) – Download PaperDownload Mark Scheme
Science A – Unit 1 Biology B1 Higher (BL1HP) – Download PaperDownload Mark Scheme

Additional Science – Unit 2 Biology B2 Foundation (BL2FP) – Download PaperDownload Mark Scheme
Additional Science – Unit 2 Biology B2 Higher (BL2HP) – Download PaperDownload Mark Scheme


Introduction to Facilitation

Facilitation is a technique used by trainers to help learners acquire, retain, and apply knowledge and skills. Participants are introduced to content and then ask questions while the trainer fosters the discussion, takes steps to enhance the experience for the learners, and gives suggestions. They do not, however, do the work for the group instead, they guide learners toward a specific learning outcome.

The ASTD Handbook outlines five facilitation tactics to help keep learners engaged:

• Define success ahead of time, so activities can be designed to help learners achieve a specific goal.
• Prepare relentlessly, including self-preparation, preparing the learning environment, and preparing the content. When moving from an in-person classroom to a virtual environment, follow these facilitation tips.
• Start with impact so that learners are excited, empowered, and involved from the beginning.
• Keep learners engaged throughout the session by including a variety of learning experiences, such as questions, role plays, practice exercises, and opportunities for learners to share their experiences and learn from one another.
• Manage disfunction that occurs when a learner, whether consciously or unconsciously, expresses displeasure with the training purpose, content, method, or outside factors.


Within talent development, facilitation most often refers to a technique used during in-person or virtual classroom learning however, similar facilitation techniques can also be used in meetings or other group settings. In this context, facilitation can help a group improve how they work together, identify and solve problems, make decisions, and handle conflict. The role of the facilitator is to guide the group to work together more efficiently by creating synergy, generating new ideas, and arriving at consensus and agreement. Professional facilitators can be hired to play this role, but sometimes a senior leader, manager, consultant, coach, or another professional (whether internal or external to the organization) will be called upon to facilitate a meeting or discussion.

Whether in a classroom or a meeting, effective facilitators must focus on group dynamics and processes. They are ultimately accountable to the group and must earn the group’s trust.


Biology - annotated exemplar Level 3 AS91601

This annotated exemplar is intended for teacher use only. The student work shown does not always represent a complete sample of what is required. Selected extracts are used, focused on the grade boundaries, in order to assist assessors to make judgements at the national standard.

Low Excellence

For Excellence, the student needs to carry out a comprehensive practical investigation in a biological context, with guidance.

  • justifying the choices made throughout the investigation by evaluating either the validity of the method or the reliability of the data.
  • discussing biological ideas relevant to the investigation and either the findings of others, scientific principles, theories, or models

This student has explained and discussed biological ideas based on the student’s own findings (1) and findings from other source(s) (2).

Some choices made throughout the investigation are justified by evaluating the validity of the method (3).

For a more secure Excellence, the student could provide further justification of the choices made in the investigation by giving more reasons for the steps carried out to reduce bias and sources of error.

High Merit

For Merit, the student needs to carry out an in-depth practical investigation in a biological context, with guidance.

  • using a valid method that describes a valid collection of data
  • collecting, recording, and processing reliable data to enable a trend or pattern (or absence) to be determined
  • stating a valid conclusion based on the processed data related to the purpose
  • explaining biological ideas based on both the findings from the investigation and those from other source(s).

This student has used a valid method to collect, record and process reliable data to enable a pattern to be determined (1).

A valid conclusion is stated based on the processed data and relates to the hypothesis (2).

The biological ideas relating to the investigation are explained based on the student’s own findings (3) and the findings from other source(s) (4).

An attempt is made to justify some choices made during the investigation by evaluating the validity of the method (5).

To reach Excellence, the student could:

  • state a conclusion that discusses biological ideas relevant to the investigation and either the findings of others, scientific principles, theories or models
  • justify the choices made throughout the investigation more thoroughly by evaluating the validity of the method or the reliability of the data.

Low Merit

For Merit, the student needs to carry out an in-depth practical investigation in a biological context, with guidance.

  • using a valid method that describes a valid collection of data
  • collecting, recording, and processing reliable data to enable a trend or pattern (or absence) to be determined
  • stating a valid conclusion based on the processed data
  • explaining biological ideas based on both the findings from the investigation and those from other source(s).

This student has used a valid method to collect, record and process reliable data to enable a pattern to be determined (1).

A valid conclusion is stated that is based on the processed data and that relates to the hypothesis (2).

Some biological ideas relating to the investigation that are based on the student’s findings (3) and those from other sources (4) are described and explained.

For a more secure Merit, the student could elaborate further on the biological ideas based on the findings by explaining them and those from the other source(s) in more depth.

High Achieved

For Achieved, the student needs to carry out a practical investigation in a biological context, with guidance.

  • stating the purpose, linked to a scientific concept or idea and written as a hypothesis
  • using a method that describes the data that will be collected (pattern seeking activity), range of data/samples, and consideration of some other key factors
  • collecting, recording, and processing data relevant to the purpose of the investigation
  • interpreting the processed data and reporting on the findings of the investigation
  • identifying relevant findings from another source
  • stating a conclusion based on interpretation of the processed data which is relevant to the purpose of the investigation.

This student has developed a hypothesis that is linked to a scientific concept (1).

A valid method for a pattern seeking investigation is used to collect, record and accurately process data to enable a pattern to be determined (2).

A conclusion is stated that is based on interpretation of the processed data and relevant to the purpose of the investigation (3).

Some biological ideas relating to the investigation, based on the student’s findings (4) and those from other sources (5), are described and explained.

To reach Merit, the student could:

  • state a valid conclusion based on the processed data in relation to the purpose
  • give a more in-depth explanation of biological ideas based on both the findings from the investigation and those from other source(s).

Low Achieved

For Achieved, the student needs to carry out a practical investigation in a biological context, with guidance.

  • stating the purpose, linked to a scientific concept or idea and written as a hypothesis
  • using a method that describes the data that will be collected (pattern seeking activity), range of data/samples, and consideration of some other key factors
  • collecting, recording, and processing data relevant to the purpose of the investigation
  • interpreting the processed data and reporting on the findings of the investigation
  • identifying relevant findings from another source
  • stating a conclusion based on interpretation of the processed data which is relevant to the purpose of the investigation.

This student has written a hypothesis that is linked to a scientific concept (1).

A method for a pattern seeking investigation is used to collect, record and process data relevant to the purpose (2).

The student has made an attempt to interpret the processed data to report on the findings of the investigation (3).

A conclusion is stated that is based on interpretation of the processed data and relevant to the purpose of the investigation (4).

Some relevant findings from another source are identified (5).

For a more secure Achieved, the student could include more detail to:

  • interpret the processed data and report on the findings of the investigation
  • identify and describe relevant findings from another source.

High Not Achieved

For Achieved, the student needs to carry out a practical investigation in a biological context, with guidance.

  • stating the purpose, linked to a scientific concept or idea and written as a hypothesis
  • using a method that describes the data that will be collected (pattern seeking activity), range of data/samples, and consideration of some other key factors
  • collecting, recording, and processing data relevant to the purpose of the investigation
  • interpreting the processed data and reporting on the findings of the investigation
  • identifying relevant findings from another source
  • stating a conclusion based on interpretation of the processed data which is relevant to the purpose of the investigation.

This student has written a hypothesis linked to a scientific concept (1).

A method for a pattern seeking investigation is used to collect, record and process data relevant to the purpose (2).

The student has attempted to interpret the processed data to report on the findings of the investigation (3).

A conclusion is briefly considered that is based on interpretation of the processed data and relevant to the purpose of the investigation (4).


Program objectives

On completion of this program students should be able to:

Exhibit a broad and coherent knowledge base, with a level of depth in one or more science disciplines, suitable to undertake professional work and/or further study.

Apply a range of cognitive and technical skills which reflect the underlying principles of one or more science disciplines.

Display well developed cognitive, technical and communication skills to select and apply relevant methods and technologies and present information to a range of audiences.

Critically analyse, consolidate and evaluate information to construct and implement solutions to unpredictable and complex problems.

Work autonomously and collaboratively to construct and implement problem solving paradigms to address relevant issues.

Apply well directed judgement and responsibility, in diverse contexts, which are consistent with the social, moral and legal responsibilities of professional scientists.


Current Research

Suzanne&rsquos current area of research is investigating strategies that save students money and improve the educational experience. She has collaborated on numerous grants to develop free online textbooks and other open educational resources (OER). Suzanne&rsquos work on open educational resources was highlighted at California&rsquos Merlot website.

She has collaborated on a few different textbooks for OpenStax. This site includes free pdf textbooks for Introductory Biology, Majors biology, and other in development.

She has also helped develop the interactive biology textbook written for the Open Learning Initiative. From the homepage select &ldquoLearn with OLI&rdquo then select &ldquosee our open and free courses&rdquo. This site includes both an introductory biology text and an A&P text. You can read an interview with Suzanne at the developer&rsquos website.

Suzanne will soon develop a web site discussing and evaluating a variety of innovative teaching strategies. Her most exciting new project is occurring in the Honors Biology class. Over the course of the next few years, the honors students will design, develop and write a free online textbook of their own. This book will be written from the student perspective and will focus on content needed for our classes right here at Butte. If you are interested in participating in this project, you can either sign up for the honors class or contact Suzanne directly.


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Watch the video: Facilitation Skills: Best u0026 Worst Facilitator Practices (January 2022).