Information

Book: Anatomy and Physiology I (Lumen) - Biology


Book: Anatomy and Physiology I (Lumen)

In Anatomy, what is a Lumen? (with pictures)

Lumina are the spaces inside of tubular-shaped structures within the body. For example, the "open cavity" through which food travels down the esophagus to the stomach is a lumen. A lumen in anatomy can also refer to an aperture or an opening within a fixed structure, such as the circular hole in a vertebral bone through which the spinal cord courses.

One of the largest lumina in anatomy is the open space within the aorta, which is the largest vessel of the body. Blood flows from the left side of the heart through the aorta to the rest of the body. Tears in the aorta can cause serious and even life-threatening conditions. For instance, a small tear into the aorta's tunica intima, the innermost tissue layer of the blood vessel, can result in a collection of blood between the wall tissue layers called an aneurysm. An aneurysm can increase in size until either it blocks off the entire lumen of the vessel or can rupture open. The rupturing of the aorta, known as aortic dissection, can result in death.

Another example of a massive lumen is the foramen magnum, the largest aperture at the base of the skull. This bony hole is the anatomical demarcation of where the brain stem becomes the spinal cord. This is an important structure through which the transmission of nerve impulses to the body occurs. Any major swelling or increases in pressure within the skull cavity can displace the brain downward through the foramen magnum, resulting in death. This condition is known as the Arnold-Chiari malformation.

Medium-sized lumina can be represented by open cavities within the esophagus, the small intestine, the large intestine and the colon. The stomach would not normally be considered a lumen due to the bulbous shape of the organ, but technically, due to the passageway or channel-like nature of it, one could call the open space within it a lumen. The transmission of nutrients passes through the walls of the gastrointestinal tract. Perforations within this lumen can result in the need for emergency surgery.

Smaller examples of lumina include ducts and channels traveling between organs. A prime specimen of this group is the Cystic duct, which courses from the gallbladder, an organ that collects bile, to the bile duct, which empties into the duodenum at small opening in the duodenum's wall called the major duodenal papilla. This lumen allows for the passage of bile from the gallbladder to the intestines in order to help with the digestion of food.

Tiny lumina make up the majority of the lumen structures within the body. This group of lumina include the open spaces within anatomical tubes, such as arteries and veins, where blood can pass from one area of the body to the next. The tiniest of these lumina can be found in the kidney. Lumina of this size make up the glomeruli apparatuses, the extraordinarily tiny blood vessels that allow for the filtration of sodium, water and ammonia from the blood to form urine.


Anatomy Mnemonics pdf

Anatomy is the subject of structures. And human anatomy is the subject of studying and learning different structures of human body and their location and relations with other structures. Like if you are studying some particular muscle in the upper limb, you would have to learn its origin and insertion and also the arteries and nerves etc supplying that muscle. Also you would have to learn the name of structures that are related to it means the nearly by muscles, bone etc like which structure lies to its lateral, medial, anterior and posterior surfaces. Also you would have to study its surface anatomy and its diseases/disorders.

Learn all the can be done from some great book of human clinical anatomy like gray’s anatomy and snell anatomy etc. Also you would need to consult an anatomy atlas to see different structures in diagrams and pictures so that you don’t forget it.

But the problem is that, after reading all the books and using atlas you would still forget many things like branches of artery, nerve, features of some diseases etc. For this purposes mnemonics are life saving. After learning some interesting mnemonics, you would never forget these structures and their sequence. Therefore we are presenting a great book or you can say collection of anatomy mnemonics in pdf format. You can download this anatomy mnemonics pdf below using the download button, but first lets check out some of the features of this collection.


Office Hours

Course Description:

Biol 2401-Anatomy & Physiology I-(4-3-3) This course is the first part of a two course sequence. It is a study of the structure and function of the human body including cells, tissues and organs of the following systems: integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous and special senses. Emphasis is on interrealationships among systems and regulation of physiological functions involved in maintaining homeostasis.

Skills and Prerequisites:

This course has both course and skill prerequisites. The course prerequisite is that you must pass the pre-A&P Assessment Test. The skill prerequisite is skill &ldquoO." Skill O means you must have reading, writing, and math skills at ACC placement skill level 5 or above, or, you must have passed a state-approved assessment test (TASP or COMPASS) in these areas, or, you must be exempt from assessment through transcript hours from another college, or, you must have appropriate ACT, SAT, TAKS, or TASS scores.

You do not have to bring proof of your skill levels&mdashthey are provided to the instructor during the first week of classes. If you do not have the skill and course prerequisites you will have to withdraw from the class. If you do not withdraw, the instructor will withdraw you and, depending on the date, you may lose your tuition for the course.

Instructional Methodology:

This course is a modified flipped classroom, requiring internet access. Students review content online before class and then during class work with other students to complete hands-on activities, case studies, assignments, and receive guided instruction. This approach allows students to spend more time interacting with instructors and their peers. Students are expected to actively engage in collaborative learning.

Fundamental concepts will be re-emphasized throughout the course. Critical thinking skills will be taught and tested throughout the entire semester.

In general, the course will proceed as follows:

BEFORE LECTURE CLASS

Students use a set of guided notes that they fill in while working through a chapter, either on line via Smart Book or using a hard copy of the text. The e-text has interactive activities and embedded questions. Students may repeat a chapter as many times as they want.

DURING LECTURE CLASS

Instructors will often use a class response system to determine topics and concepts where students need further review or explanation. After the instructor reviews those topics and concepts, the students work in groups or individually to complete hands-on activities, concept maps, case-studies, tables, etc.

AFTER LECTURE CLASS

Students review and master the objectives for the module covered during the class. Mandatory review activities available on McGraw-Hill&rsquos Connect&trade and on Blackboard should be completed in order to master the material. Learning activities available at the Open Lab should also be completed on a weekly basis.

Students take a timed, graded, single-attempt, online "GRADED Lecture Quiz" over a given chapter. The dates for these graded quizzes are indicated online on the Connect course home.

Students must actively read over the lab handout. They may also review Anatomy & Physiology Revealed (APR) on Connect.

Instructors review material as needed. Students work in groups to complete the lab. Students use their Visual Analogy Guide, textbook, and online resources to complete the lab.

To master the lab objectives, students MUST attend Open Lab, and use the practice activities on APR and on Blackboard. Tutors are available to assist the students during Open Lab.

Textbooks and Supplies:

Required Book:

Anatomy & Physiology, 2th Edition by McKinley, McGraw-Hill Publishing Co WITH Connect, ISBN-9781259935596

IMPORTANT: At the ACC bookstore, make sure you buy the textbook that includes &ldquoConnect&rdquo. This website contains an electronic version of your textbook, outstanding videos and tutoring materials, and assignments that you will be required to complete as part of the course.

Recommended Book:

Visual Analogy Guide to Human Anatomyand Physiology, 2nd or 3rd edition, by Paul Krieger, Morton Publishing Co.

Required Materials:

You can buy these at the ACC bookstores or even cheaper at HEB, Home Depot, Walmart, etc.

  1. Closed-toe shoes
  2. Two or three notebook binders: 1 ½-inch three-ring binders as needed.
  3. Tab dividers as needed.
  4. Colored pencils.
  5. Access to computer or a mobile device with Internet.
  6. Lecture Exams:

The Lecture Exam dates are indicated on the Lecture/Lab Schedule which is handed out on the first day of class and posted on Blackboard.

There will be 4 Lecture Exams worth 120 pts. each. There will also be one COMPREHENSIVE MANDATORY final lecture exam that can replace the lowest lecture exam score, but not a missed exam. The comprehensive optional final exam covers course objectives across all five units.

In case your optional comprehensive final lecture exam turns out to be your lowest grade, the optional comprehensive grade will not be counted.

The Lecture Exams will usually include the following types of questions: multiple choice, drawing and labeling, ranking, fill-in-the-blank, matching, short answer, and essay. Each Lecture Exam will have 2 parts, both administered during class time: Part A: online multiple choice questions followed by Part B: questions on written paper.

These Lecture Exams will test your understanding of concepts of anatomy as well as the application of these concepts. Questions will be from lectures as well as assigned readings/activities.

I will try to grade the Lecture Exams within one week. You will have the opportunity to review, but not keep the Lecture Exam. Reviews will occur in class or in my office. Failure to return the graded Lecture Exams at the end of the review session will result in a &lsquozero&rsquo for that test.

Graded Lecture Quizzes:

The Graded Lecture Quizzes will be timed and taken online (on CONNECT), as announced in class and on the Connect course home.

There will be 15 Graded Lecture Quizzes throughout the semester. Once you submit the assignment you will receive your grade.

Each Graded Lecture Quiz will include about 15 multiple choice questions on topics and concepts listed in the objectives. These must be completed before the announced deadline. There are NO make-up Graded Lecture Quizzes.

The Lab Exam dates are indicated on the Lecture/Lab Schedule which is handed out on the first day of class and posted on Blackboard.

There will be 4 Lab Exams during the semester. Each Lab Exam is worth 50 pts.

The Anatomy portion of lab exams include identification of parts of models, specimens, slides and micrographs. The Physiology portion of the lab exams will be fill in the blank, short answer, and based on the 6 lab reports and background information. Unit 1 has the most of these reports. There will NOT be a word list or multiple choice questions.

I will try to grade the Lab Exams to you within one week. You will have the opportunity to review but not keep the Lab Exams. Reviews will occur in class or in my office. Failure to return the graded Lab Exams at the end of the review session will result in a &lsquozero&rsquo for that test.

Graded Lab Reports

The Graded Lab Reports will be due the class period following that experiment as announced on the schedule.

There will be about 6 Graded Lab Reports throughout the semester. Unit One has the highest concentration of these reports.

Lecture Reviews and Lab Reviews

You will have access to practice work on Connect to help you learn and understand the material covered in class. You can repeat these reviews as many times as you want.

Makeup Exams:

Only ONE makeup Unit Exam is permitted to any student during the semester. Makeup Exams are given on the last day of class (AFTER the optional comprehensive final exam if you choose to take that exam).

You must e-mail me BEFORE you miss a Unit Exam and you must provide appropriate documentation for your absence. Missing a Unit Exam because you &ldquoare not ready&rdquo is not a valid reason for taking a make-up exam. There are NO makeup Lab Exams. If you miss a Lab Exam, your grade on it will be a zero.

There are no retest exams. Once you take an exam, you may not take it again to try for a better grade.

Spelling must be correct on all exams (0.25 pts. will be taken off on each misspelling).

Curves and Extra Credit:

There will be NO curve on any of the exams or quizzes during the semester. There will be NO curve on any of the final course grades. Extra credit points will only be given for showing improvement on lecture exam grades. For every 10 points of improvement from one exam to the next, 5 points will be added.


Book: Anatomy and Physiology I (Lumen) - Biology

Required Text (used both semesters):
Shier, Butler, and Lewis. 2015. Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology, 14th ed. McGraw-Hill Book Co. ISBN 9780078024290 . [Amazon] Also acceptable: Shier, Butler, and Lewis. 2013. 13th ed. ISBN 9780073378275 ] [ Amazon] . Companion website for 13th ed. (Connect)

Required Lab Manual (used both semesters):
Marieb, Mitchell, and Smith. 2015. Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual: Cat Version. 12th e d. ISBN 9780321980878 [Amazon] (Sp iral bound) (Optional: with new copies, access to the “Mastering A&P” website with online PhysioEx 9.0 and online PAL Practice Anatomy Lab 3.0.) Also acceptable: 11th ed. ISBN 9780321821843 11th edition with online MasteringA&P Access

Optional (used both semesters): Interactive Physiology 10-System CD (ISBN-13: 978-0321506825). [Used from Amazon about $5.00] Online access: http://ims.cos.edu/thea/home/index.html (link checked 8 May 2017)

  • Lab 10: Muscle Physiology and Physiogrip
  • Lab 11 Nervous Tissue, Nerve Function
  • Lab 12 Brain Anatomy, EEG
  • Lab 13 Eye and Ear
  • Lab 14: Endocrine Glands
  • Final Lab Exam Information
  • Biol 217 Syllabus 2017 (pdf)
  • Fall 2017 Study Lab Schedule for Room AH107
  • Web Resources for A&P I Course Topics
  • Anyone can access the shared volume from any CBU networked Macintosh or PC on campus that can handle file sharing. This includes campus-wide wireless access for your laptop as well as all the PCs in the Computer Center, the Science Building, Buckman, the Library, and Nolan Hall. A person could also connect to this from their CBU dorm room.
    • Map a network drive (Windows)::
      • Open Computer and click map network drive on the menu bar [If you don't have a shortcut to Computer on the desktop, use the file folder icon to windows explorer. Then click the help "?" at the upper right of the menu bar and search help for "map network drive". The help box will display a link and instructions.]
      • At the Map Network Drive dialog box:
        o Drive: (just leave whatever drive letter is shown)
        o Type in Folder: winfile2iology
        o Click this check box: Connect using different credentials
        o Click Finish
        o type in User name: cbuyourusername (this is your cbu email username)
        o Password: your cbu email password (this is your Active Directory password)
        o Click OK
      • Macintosh:
        1. Make sure that you are in finder and not in an application. In the toolbar, the top left hand corner should say "Finder" in bold. If it does not, just click on the desktop background.
        2. Four places over to the right from the word "Finder" in the toolbar it should have the word "Go," click on that and scroll down to the bottom and click on "Connect to server."
        3. A pop up box will appear. In that box you should have a space to type in that says "Server Address." In that space type in the address "smb://winfile2.cbu.edu/biology" and hit connect. You should now be on the Biology Shared Directory.
        • What's Available : Open the Resources folder for your Biology course. Lecture Resources include PowerPoint lecture slides for each course Unit. Lab Resources include required Digital Images and tutorials sorted by lab topic. (In AH 107, use the ACDSee image browser.)
        • For use off campus, use AH 107 a computer to copy files onto a flash drive.
        • For on-campus use, you do not have to save copies of the images or PowerPoint slides! They will be on winfile2iology the next time you need them. (Please do NOT copy course materials into your CBU directory space!)
        • Cat Dissection Videos
        • Net Anatomy.com: Radiographic, Cross Sectional, and Gross Anatomy (Excellent!) George Washington Univ.
        • WebAnatomy (Univ. Minn.) Self Tests, some based on images
        • Human Dissection Videos (U Mich)
        • Get Body Smart Interactive A&P
        • UNM A&P Resources
        • Hardin MD U Iowa (metadirectory of info on diseases)
        • Histology by A&P topic (WebAnatomy)
        • Dr. Jensen's Practice Lab Exams
        • RN Magazine Web Site
        • Medicine for the Public NIH Lecture Series
        • Medical Encyclopedia (MSN, WebMD)
        • Medline Plus Health information from NIH
        • Models of Human Anatomy: Photos with pop-up labels
        • Health and Disease Information from the Mayo Clinic
        • Life Sciences Dictionary
        • Dictionary of medical eponyms (with many biographies)
        • On line practice A&P MC quizzes
        • PDR Health (info on drugs and diseases)
        • Anatomy Atlases (formerly Virtual Hospital)
        • Basic Cross-Sectional Anatomy and Imaging of the Abdomen & Thorax (U. of Auckland)
        • Gross Anatomy images, labeled (U. Arkansas)
        • Interactive A&P Exams (Link Publishing)
        • Links to sites on A&P I topics (NHC)
        • Merck Source: Health info. plus ADAM encyclopedia, Dorland's medical dictionary, Merck Manual.
        • RN Web (free access to Continuing Educ. articles)
        • Anatomy Games (U. Minnesota)
        • Anatomy drill and practice (Wiley) Ch. by ch. resource for the entire course.
        • Nucleus Medical Art Animations on many anatomy and medical topics (YouTube)
        • Virtual Microscopy for Intro anatomy (Indiana)
        • Virtual anatomy lab (models) for Intro anatomy (Indiana)

        • Lab #1: Marieb Ex. 1, 2 Anatomical Terms, Body Cavities
        • Required : Log on toMoodleand take the practice quiz!
          • Medical Terminology tutorial (Des Moines Univ.) Free online
          • Medical Terminology Course (free online) material from U.S. Army manual, Basic Medical Terminology
          • Chemicals of Life (text Ch. 2): Web Sites
            • Also see Lab #3 for links to tutorials on acids, bases, and pH
            • The kinds of fats and why it matters (including cis- vs. trans- unsaturated fatty acids)
            • Dietary fat intake in the development of coronary artery disease
            • What is PET: Positron Emission Tomography
            • PET Image gallery
            • What is Radioiodine (I -131) Therapy and how is it used? Medical uses of I-131
            • Macromolecules: narrated animated tutorials (WHFreeman)
            • Protein folding: What is it and when, in protein synthesis does it occur? What accounts for secondary, tertiary, and quaternary protein structure? (The Scientist, 8 Sept. 2003)
            • Solving the mysteries behind protein folding is leading to links to some diseases. (The Scientist, 8 Sept. 2003)
            • Molecular Movies Showcase


            • Lab #2:Marieb Ex. 3, 4 Microscopy, Cell Structure, Mitosis
            • Students must provide their own disposable gloves (latex or nitrile examination gloves) for this lab.
            • Web Assignments: Inner Life of a Cell (version with no narration, music)
                • Cellular Visions: The Inner Life of a Cell
                • Inner Life of Cell animation version with narration and labels
                • Inner Life of Cell version with still shots and explanatory text
                • Oil immersion procedure
                • Human Body: Anatomy (cell components, shape, size)
                • Explorations: Cell cycle
                • Cytology: Demonstrating staining of various cell components refer to annotated list in Supplement.
                • Mitosis
                • Marieb Ex. 5, PhysioEx Ex 1 Osmosis, pH, Buffers
                • Students must provide their own disposable gloves (latex or nitrile examination gloves) for this lab.
                • LINK to Lab #3 Results and what to study for the Quiz and Midterm.
                    Don't miss this!You need to read this to prepare for the Lab Quiz, the lab Midterm Exam, and the lecture exam.
                • Tutorials on fundamental chemistry topics.
                  • Molarity and solutions
                  • The Bicarbonate Buffering System (Arizona)
                  • Animation Ions released from a weak acid buffer the effect of strong acid

                  1 & 2 (simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion) can both be referred to as "passive transport" - no energy consumption is directly involved
                  2 & 3 (facilitated diffusion and active transport) can both be referred to as "carrier mediated" - a carrier protein/pore is involved, and transport exhibits properties of saturation and competition

                  • Overview of Metabolic Pathways
                  • Cell resppiration rap (YouTube)
                  • ". gram for gram, fats provide more energy than carbohydrates."
                  • "When you weigh a carbohydrate, more oxygen is included in that weight. When you weigh a fat, you get more carbon atoms per gram and therefore, gram for gram, the fats will give even more energy (over twice as much) than will the carbohydrates. Generally, fats provide about 9 kilocalories per gram and carbohydrates provide about 4 kilocalories per gram. (Using nutritional units, that is 9 Calories/gram for fats and 4 Calories/gram for carbohydrates.)"
                    Source: http://dl.clackamas.edu/ch106-07/carbohyd1.htm


                  Goblet cell, microvilli


                  Compact Bone


                  Hyaline Cartilage


                  Integument

                  • Marieb Ex. 6, 7 Tissues, Integument
                  • 1. The microscope slides and CD's used in Lab #4 (Tissues and Skin) are available for your use during study lab times (i.e., any time 8:00 am--5:00 pm when there is not another class in AH107). Lecture slides are available on the shared directory.
                    • You can use the digital images on the shared directory from any computer on campus.
                    • Study Hole Ch. 5 and 6 plus Marieb Exercises and PAL on the “Mastering A&P” website . Also, work on the Hole Ch. 5&6 worksheets and read the Lab #4 material in the Supplement.
                    • PAL on the “Mastering A&P” website
                    • Animal Tissues
                    • Tissues tutorial from Hole's A&P textbook web site.
                    • Epithelial tissues tutorial
                    • Connective Tissue tutorial
                    • Skin tutorial
                    • Integument: Atlas of Microscopic Anatomy (Univ. of Iowa)
                    • LUMEN Histology site
                    • Histology Web Links
                    • Virtual Microscopy for Intro anatomy (Indiana)
                    • General Histology Web Anatomy TutorialTest yourself on identifying histology images and get instant feedback.
                    • General Histology Interactive Review from Univ. Minn.
                    • Integumentary System Interactive with labeled photomicrographs (N. Harris College)
                    • Embryonic and Adult Stem Cells (Special issue of Nature)
                    • Anatomy and Histology of Normal Skin (Loyola) Excellent!
                    • Web Anatomy Tutorial Skin diagram
                    • Epidermis layers (UCDavis)
                    • Skin diseases, etc. (Amer. Osteopathic College of Dermatology)
                    • Biology of hair (commercial site describes the growth cycle of hair, etc.)
                    • Hair Evidence in Forensic Science
                    • Friction Ridges (fingerprints): How they form, histology of thick skin, etc.
                    • Why Skin Comes in Colors (evolution of human differences in skin color)
                    • The Biology of Skin Color
                    • How to perform a skin self-exam (ABC's of skin cancer recognition)
                    • Dear 16-year old me (melanoma awareness)
                    • Ch. 5 part 1 Simple Epithelia
                    • Ch 5 part 2 Stratified Epithelia and Glandular Epithelium
                    • Ch 5 part 3 Connective Tissue Proper
                    • Ch 5 part 4 Special C.T., Muscle, and Nervous Tissue
                    • Ch 6 Integumentary System
                    • Digital images where I'll ask " Name the Tissue " and/or " Identify the Source " [3-4 points]
                      (Know the examples listed in the Supplement.)
                    • Short answer questions where I'll name the location and you name the tissue and/or
                      I name the tissue and you name one or more locations where it is found . [approx. 1/2 the quiz]
                      (Know the examples listed in the Supplement.)
                    • Explain, define and use terms for classifying tissues (I'll ask about one or more specific
                      tissue examples and/or terms) [Approx. 3 points]
                    • Don't worry that I've "left out" some of the details on skin: (nearly)
                      ALL the anatomical wonders of skin WILL be included on the Lab Midterm!










                    • Lab 5: Marieb Ex. 8, 9 Bone and Skeleton: Skull
                    • Lab 6: Marieb Ex. 9, 10, 11 Skeleton and Joints
                      Hole Chapters 7 & 8.
                      Supplements
                    • Lab #5 deals with the skeletal system, especially the skull. (Yes, ALL the little holes, nooks, crannies, and things you never realized actually HAVE names.)
                      • Quiz # 5 will cover the skull
                        (ID bones, parts of bones, sutures, and foramina from diagrams, photos, and/or real skulls or model skulls).

                      Sex Characteristics of the Skull

                      • The study of the skeletal system and joints continues in Lab #6.
                        • For joints, the emphasis is on the knee joint in preparation for the midterm exam.
                        • Human bones, medical-grade plastic casts of human bones (please handle with care use only the designated "safe" pointers and tools)
                        • Dissectible skull Disarticulated skull bones (please keep each bone in it's labeled plastic bag)
                        • Fetal skull and medical-grade plastic cast of fetal skull
                        • X-rays
                        • Models of knee joint (lab 6)
                        • Videotapes/DVDs:
                          • Wm. C. Brown Skeletal System
                          • Acland's Atlas of Human Anatomy (Disk 4) The Head and Neck, Part 1. Skull bones Shows excellent detail. (DVD)
                            Lower extremity ( knee joint begins at 46 min.)
                          • Acland's Atlas of Human Anatomy (Disk 3)Trunk and Abdomen
                          • Links for Labs #5 & #6: Skull, Skeletal System and Joints(more links in Moodle)
                            • Human Anatomy Online (Gold Standard) Dissection of Human Cadaver
                            • Osteology of the skull (playlist)
                            • Skull Module : Rotate photos of skull and individual skull bones.
                            • Skeletal System Interactive with photos (Penn State)
                            • "Bone Curriculum" from American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
                              • Tutorial on Bone growth and Remodeling
                              • Practice tests (try the matching exercises to practice labeling images)
                              • Study the following Lecture PowerPoint Slides:
                                • Chapter 7 part 1 Bone histology and physiology
                                • Chapter 7 part 2 Bone identification
                                • Chapter 8 Joints (Lab exam emphasis is on the Knee Joint)
                                • Just for fun: http://www.chezmaya.com/applet/valentin.htm
                                  Addictive. the skeleton responds to your cursor . notice, however, that this "puppet" is impossibly limber.

                                These overriding trends are similar in many parts of the world, but other changes, especially over the past 10,000 years, are distinct to specific ethnic groups. “These variations are well known to forensic anthropologists,” Hawks says as he points them out: In Europeans, the cheekbones slant backward, the eye sockets are shaped like aviator glasses, and the nose bridge is high. Asians have cheekbones facing more forward, very round orbits, and a very low nose bridge. Australians have thicker skulls and the biggest teeth, on average, of any population today. “It beats me how leading biologists could look at the fossil record and conclude that human evolution came to a standstill 50,000 years ago,” Hawks says.
                                Source: Discover "They don't make Homo sapiens like they used to" online 9 Feb. 2009

                                Lab 7: Midterm Lab Exam & Begin Study of Human Muscles

                                BIOL 217 A&P Lab Midterm Exam

                                • Covers all topics from the first six lab sessions.
                                • Includes handouts, Marieb lab manual, Supplement, digital images, and textbook/lecture slide information on the lab topics.
                                • 100 points (1/3 of the lab course grade)
                                • Topics
                                  • Anatomical terms, membranes, body cavities [

                                  • Diagrams
                                  • Anatomical Models
                                  • Microscope slides
                                  • Digital images (from the shared directory and lecture slides )
                                  • Skull (adult and fetal)
                                  • Bones (individual)
                                  • Written questions (short answer/objective)

                                  • (Homework: human muscles worksheets and Marieb Review Sheet)
                                  • Marieb Ex. 13, 12 Human Muscle Anatomy (Hole Ch. 9 and Ch. 9 slides)
                                  • The study of muscles begins in Lab #7, following the Lab Midterm Exam.
                                  • Web Sites (more are listed below):
                                    • PAL on the “Mastering A&P” website
                                    • Muscle Tissue Review slides @ Univ. Texas Houston
                                    • Clarifications on superficial fascia vs. deep fascia
                                    • Materials for Labs 7, 8, and 9: (Handouts &/or in Supplement)
                                      • List of Human muscles to know for lecture and lab: in Supplement
                                      • Worksheet for Hole Chapter 9: Muscular System . [Also for Lab #10-Muscle Physiology] Handout (also on shared directory)
                                      • Human Muscles Lab Worksheet (diagrams to label) in Supplement
                                      • Human Musculature DVD (Benjamin/Cummings 25 min.). Fill in the worksheet: (list of muscles identified on the DVD) in Supplement.
                                      • Human Muscles of the Upper Extremity/Muscles of the Lower Extremity ( Worksheet to complete using the models. ) in Supplement
                                      • Interactive Physiology (CD in lab): Muscular Systemhttp://ims.cos.edu/thea/home/index.html [Also for Lecture Exam #3 preparation and Lab #10-Muscle Physiology] (Interactive Physiology worksheets are on the shared directory).
                                      • You will learn the muscles by hands-on activity. Following the photographs provided, you will place single strings of clay, one at a time, onto the bones of a human plastic skeleton to make the assigned individual muscles. Building a muscle takes about 2 minutes. By examining where the muscles connect to the bone (the origins and insertions), you will be able to derive what the muscle actually does (action).
                                        • Links to the GetBodySmart website show you the animations.http://www.getbodysmart.com/ap/muscularsystem/menu/menu.html
                                        • Video tutorials are here: http://feetsofclay.estrellamountain.edu/video/video-tutorials
                                        • Photos and details for each muscle are linked from here: http://feetsofclay.estrellamountain.edu/muscles (Each individual muscle page has a photo of the muscle in clay plus info on origin and insertion as well as a link to the Get Body smart site to see diagrams and animations of the actual muscle..
                                        • Flashcards for all the muscles are available here: http://feetsofclay.estrellamountain.edu/flashcards
                                        • Lab Quiz # 6 HUMAN MUSCLES: Names and actions for superficial muscles of the neck, chest, trunk, and shoulder. Superficial muscles of the forelimb superficial and deep muscles of the abdomen, hip, and leg. The quiz will require recall memory. (Name the muscles indicated on diagrams or models.) Quiz # 6 will be given at the start of Lab 9.
                                        • Lab Quiz # 7 HUMAN MUSCLES. Muscles to ID will be selected from all the human muscles on the list.
                                        • More DVD's(Human Muscles):
                                          Students may also use the DVD's in AH107 during Study Lab times.
                                          • Human Muscles (Benjamin/Cummings 25 min.) . Fill in the worksheet. [We'll view this as a group during lab #7]
                                          • Human Muscles (1 hr.) [View as you are working during lab #8]
                                          • Cadaver Atlas video series. Muscles of the upper extremity, Muscles of the lower extremity, Muscles of trunk, etc.
                                          • PAL on the “Mastering A&P” website
                                          • Interactive Physiology CD: Muscular System [Also for Lecture Exam #3 preparation and Lab #10-Muscle Physiology] (Interactive Physiology worksheets are on the shared directory)
                                          • Virtual Lab Practical on Muscles for A&P I(click around the "slide" to see closeups of each station).
                                          • Human Muscle animations(Get Body Smart)
                                          • Human Anatomy online (Gold Standard) Dissection of Human Cadaver
                                          • ADAM Practice Practical (Installed on AH107 PC's)
                                          • Atlas Plus : A dvanced T ools for L earning A natomical S tructure. CD
                                          • Anatlab : The Anatomy Lab. Human anatomy laboratory and tutorial. CD
                                          • Harper Collins Physiology Animations : Module III Events at the Neuromuscular Junction [Also for Lab #10-Muscle Physiology] (Installed on AH107 Computers)
                                          • Web sites: Muscle Review: Vocabulary and practice questions.
                                            • Human Dissection Videos (Medical Gross Anatomy, U Mich)
                                            • Web Resources: Human Muscle Anatomy
                                              • Required human muscles
                                                • Click on the main diagram to see more detailed information


                                                • Marieb Ex. 12, 14 Muscle Physiology: Biopac and PhysioEx
                                                • BIOPAC Lesson 1: Muscle contraction, EMG.
                                                  • Use the BIOPAC instructions(see Marieb).
                                                  • Outline of Lesson 1 (Electromyography I) from BioPacVideo Demo
                                                  • Threshold and spatial summation.
                                                  • Temporal summation.
                                                  • Twitch.
                                                  • Be able to draw well labeled graphs (label axes include UNITS!) .
                                                  • PAL on the “Mastering A&P” website
                                                  • Muscle Physiology Web Anatomy Tutorial
                                                  • Muscle Physiology Simulation Quiz
                                                  • Sliding Filament Animation
                                                  • Physiology of Muscle Contraction
                                                  • Muscle physiology tutorials (Get Body Smart)
                                                  • Interactive Physiology (CD in lab): Muscular Systemhttp://ims.cos.edu/thea/home/index.html (Interactive Physiology worksheets are on the shared directory)
                                                  • Harper Collins Physiology Animations : Module III Events at the Neuromuscular Junction (Installed on AH107 PC's)

                                                  "We've all felt it at some point -- the ache and burn of muscle fatigue after a long run or intense workout. Conventional wisdom holds that lactic acid -- generated when physical exertion deprives our muscles of oxygen and they switch from aerobic to anaerobic means to create energy -- is to blame for the pain. Now, a report in the 20 Aug 2004 Science shows that, on the contrary, accumulation of lactic acid actually helps to maintain muscle function. Using a preparation of skinned rat skeletal muscle fibers, Pedersen et al. demonstrated that the increased acidity associated with lactic acid production decreases the activity of chloride ion channels and helps muscles maintain their electrical excitability and ability to contract. These chloride channels normally help maintain the balance of electrical signals (which also involves sodium and potassium ions) that prevents spontaneous contractions in rested muscles. An accompanying Perspective by D. Allen and H. Westerblad highlighted the report and reviewed the history of lactic acid in muscle fatigue research."

                                                  • Marieb Ex. 15, 19, 20, 21 N.S. Histology, Spinal Cord, Reflexes and Reaction time (Biopac Lesson 11).
                                                  • DVD's: Histology Video Series, vol. 9: Nervous Tissue (DVD) Brain and Nervous System (Spektrum Videothek)
                                                  • References: Hole, Nervous System chapters and powerpoint lecture slides.
                                                  • Digital images on the shared directory (Carolina Slide Sets plus other images) : Neurons, Neuroglia, Spinal cord, Spinal ganglion, Cerebrum, Cerebellum.
                                                  • PowerPoint Slides sets: Nervous System Histology
                                                  • PAL on the “Mastering A&P” website
                                                  • http://ims.cos.edu/thea/home/index.html (Interactive Physiology worksheets are on the shared directory)
                                                  • N.S. histology and N.S. physiology images on the shared directory
                                                  • Reflexes: The general advice Dr. Lee Weller gives to students who are just learning to demonstrate stretch reflexes is that these are best elicited when:1. the muscle being tested is relaxed
                                                    2. the muscle being tested is slightly stretched
                                                    3. the stimulus is brief and 'sharp'
                                                  • Tips on Testing Reflexes (from Marc H. Walters, M.D.) :
                                                    • Clinicians usually call these stretch reflexes the Deep Tendon Reflexes . It can help elicit the reflexes in the arms if you ask the subjects to clench their teeth. Hold the hammer loosely, letting the hammer swing (rather than holding tight and making your wrist action do the work).
                                                    • For the biceps jerk : Have the subject rest their arm in their lap with their elbow flexed grasp their elbow with your thumb directly on their biceps tendon, and hit your thumb. (Instead of my thumb, I often do it by placing my 2nd and 3rd fingers over the tendon). You often feel their tendon jerk, and may not see much elbow flexion.
                                                    • For the triceps jerk : Hold the subject's arm out to their side by supporting their brachium let their forearm dangle down. The elbow should be relaxed, at 90 degrees. (Position the arm so the triceps tendon is facing straight up). Tap on the tendon directly. To double-check that the subject is relaxed, let go of their arm: if they are relaxed, it will drop to their side. If they are tense, they'll continue to hold their arm out.For the brachioradialis: H old the subject's arm out in front of them by hanging onto their thumb only. the rest of their arm should hang relaxed. You should really feel the weight of their arm if they are relaxed. Tap your hammer onto the radial side of the forearm, which should be pointing straight up. (You don't have to be very precise with your aim). (My physical diagnosis book says to grab the patient's wrist instead of their thumb they say to support the arm in partial pronation). You see elbow flexion and supination.
                                                    • With reflexes, emphasize the importance of checking for symmetry : a herniated disc, etc. will often diminish the strength on one side and not the other.
                                                    • Use this grading scale :0 = Absent
                                                      1 = Hypoactive
                                                      2 = Normal (accept a wide range for this)
                                                      3 = Hyperactive
                                                      4 = Clonus (rhythmic contractions) -- you see these in upper motor neuron lesions such as in spinal cord injury patients -- when you test the reflex arcs whose integration centers are below the level of the injury. The injury cuts the descending, inhibitory fibers that normally keep our reflexes in check. That's the whole thing behind spastic paralysis. as opposed to flaccid paralysis, which is a lower motor neuron problem.
                                                    • Example: A C5 cord lesion would destroy the integration center for biceps jerk, but you'd see clonus in the knee and ankle jerks.
                                                    • PAL on the “Mastering A&P” website
                                                    • Neuron Structure and Function (interactive) (Icarus, U. Toronto)
                                                    • LUMEN Histology site : Part 6 Neural Tissue
                                                      An excellent resource!
                                                    • Nervous Tissue from U Oklahoma http://casweb.cas.ou.edu/pbell/Histology/Outline/nerve.html
                                                    • Virtual Microscope - Nervous Tissue
                                                    • Nervous System Histology Interactive (NHC)
                                                    • Spinal cord at Utah: cross sections (to see labels, select images w/ outlines)
                                                    • Neurobiology (Dr. Matthews)
                                                    • Neuron Function (Dr. Ritchison)
                                                    • Interactive neuron (Children's Hospital Boston)
                                                    • Nervous System Interactive Quiz (Univ. Wisconsin)
                                                    • Basic Neural Processes Tutorials @ Hanover. A "collection of tutorials on basic neural functions…. The current topics are: Quiz on Structure of the Neuron and Brain Study and Check your Knowledge of the Human Brain Review of Physical Factors Involved in the Action Potential The Normal Brain Structure Atlas. Part of the Whole Brain Atlas at Harvard and a growing glossary of terms can be found here."
                                                    • Neuroanatomy Study Slides Created for Neuroscience class at Tulane School of Medicine. Three views of each slide include cropped view of slides showing the most important region of each slide, with labels and arrows.
                                                      Slides of thoracic spinal cord are especially useful for CBU students in Biol 217, Biol 211, etc.
                                                    • HyperBrain : Neuroanatomy resource (U. Utah School of Medicine)
                                                    • Types of NeuronsGallery of Neurons
                                                    • Nervous Tissue @ U. Texas, Houston. Histology review slides.
                                                    • Nervous Tissue Atlas of Microscopic Anatomy (Univ. Iowa)
                                                    • Central Nervous System Atlas of Microscopic Anatomy (Univ. Iowa)
                                                    • Nervous System Glossary of Terms(Univ. Iowa)
                                                    • Cadaver dissection video: deep back and spinal cord (U Mich)
                                                    • Labeled Brain and Spinal Cord Slices View the Coronal Sections of Brain and Cross Sections of Cord. (Crump Inst.)
                                                    • Nervous System Web Anatomy Tutorial Quiz yourself on neurophysiology (action potential), etc.
                                                    • Action Potential
                                                    • Action Potential animation (Wikipedia)
                                                    • Action Potential: Interactive animation (Harvard)
                                                    • Online Quiz (nervous system)
                                                    • Cranial Nerves (with photos of skull foramina)
                                                    • Neurological Exam: Clinical Skills Tutorial
                                                    • How do nerve cells communicate?
                                                    • Brain Briefings Soc. for Neurosci. series of illustrated Newsletters explaining how basic neuroscience discoveries lead to clinical applications.
                                                    • Synaptic Cleft Rap :-)
                                                    • For Lab Quiz #9:
                                                      • Know anatomical components of a reflex arc (at the spinal cord level). Be able to interpret diagrams.
                                                      • Know structure (morphology), function, and location of representative cells of nervous tissue.
                                                      • Ch 10 Nervous Sys: Struct & Funct NS Histology
                                                      • Ch 11 Nervous Sys: Divisions of NS
                                                      • 1) The BBB develops early in the embryo through an interaction between glial astrocytes and capillary endothelial cells
                                                      • 2) The BBB is created largely by the elaborate tight junctions between the capillary endothelial cells which form continuous-type capillaries within the brain.
                                                        • 2a) Research involving TEM demonstrates these tight junctions between the endothelial cells of the capillaries . TEM studies also demonstrate that these tight junctions are more like the tight junctions seen between epithelial cells as compared to those of endothelial cells elsewhere in the cardiovascular system.
                                                        • 3a) Research also demonstrates that the normal functioning of the tight junctions of the endothelial cells depends on the normal functioning of the astrocytes. In several brain diseases the BBB loses its effectiveness. Examination of brain tissue in these instances reveals loss of the tight junctions in the endothelial cells as well as alterations in the morphology of the astrocytes.

                                                        • Marieb Ex. 17, 18 Brain Anatomy & Function. Models, sheep brain dissection, EEG (Biopac)
                                                        • EEG Follow BIOPAC procedures in Marieb.
                                                          • Outline of Lesson 3 (EEG I) from BioPac
                                                          • Outline of Lesson 4 (EEG II) from BioPac
                                                          • Dissection: Beef spinal cord and Preserved sheep brains: Whole sagittal section selected frontal sections.
                                                            • Video: Sheep brain dissection (Dr. McArthur)
                                                            • Human brain models. Human brainstem models, ventricles of brain, etc. Human skull model with nerves.
                                                            • PAL on the “Mastering A&P” website
                                                            • Neuroanatomy Lab (Temple Univ.): Interactive labeled images of whole and sectioned human brain. Practice Quizzes.
                                                            • Sheep Brain Dissection (Tutorial @ U Scranton)
                                                              Excellent! Large color photographs with good labels.
                                                            • Interactive Brain Atlas @ Washington Excellent!!
                                                              You can see cadaver photos and other images with structures labeled and outlined, etc..
                                                              See both the "Brain" section and the "Neuroanatomy Syllabus."
                                                              Brain Anatomy Page of the Interactive Atlas
                                                            • Brain Atlases at Utah
                                                              Sagittal sections MRI (to see labels: select images with outlines)
                                                              Coronal sections (stained sections) select images with outlines
                                                              Coronal sections MRI (select images with outlines)
                                                              Neuroanatomy @ Utah: interactive photo images, click names to locate structures.
                                                            • HyperBrain Neuroanatomy Syllabus (@ Utah) The site opens windows with labeled photographs as you read the detailed descriptions. Study "External Feaures" and "Midsagittal section."
                                                            • Whole Brain Atlas @ Harvard
                                                              Be sure to see: "Normal Brain: Atlas of normal structure and blood flow," "Top 100 Brain Structures," and "Can you name these brain structures?"
                                                            • Brain Browser Atlas @ Harvard (Requires Java)
                                                            • Labeled Brain and Spinal Cord Slices View the Coronal Sections of Brain and Cross Sections of Cord. (Crump Inst.)
                                                            • Cadaver dissection video: Scalp, Cranial Cavity, Meninges & Brain (U Mich)
                                                            • Neuroanatomy tutorial http://www.gwc.maricopa.edu/class/bio201/brain/1neuro.htm
                                                            • Cranial Nerves tutorial http://www.gwc.maricopa.edu/class/bio201/cn/cranial.htm
                                                            • Blood Brain Barrier
                                                            • Brain Anatomy Tutorial (The Plastinated Brain) Sectional and surface anatomy
                                                            • Brain and Nervous System (Dr. Ritchison)
                                                            • BrainVoyager Brain Tutor (free download)
                                                            • Cranial Nerves (Yale Univ. School of Medicine)
                                                            • Cerebral spinal fluid animation.
                                                            • Narcolepsy (well illustrated article from Jan. 2000 Sci Amer)
                                                            • Brain Backgrounders: Basic neuroscience answers from Soc. for Neuroscience.
                                                            • Functions of the Amygdala: recent research indicates that "the circuitry between the frontal cortical regions of the brain may be critical in regulating emotion and in guiding emotion-related behaviors."
                                                            • Mind, Brain, and Behavior (U Mass Med School)
                                                            • Brain and Mind
                                                            • Brain and Nervous System: Basics and Explore Disorders (Mayo Clinic Health Center)
                                                            • Brain Briefings from Soc. for Neuroscience.
                                                            • Imaging Early Alzheimer's
                                                            • Alzheimer's Disease: Molecular Basis (full text Amer. Sci. July-Aug 2003)
                                                            • EEG waves as defined by frequency
                                                            • EEG Mapping the Brain
                                                            • Hearing Colors and Tasting Shapes (Full text, Scientific American, May 2003) People with synesthesia--whose senses blend together--are providing valuable clues to understanding the organization and functions of the human brain.
                                                            • More and more evidence supports the idea that sleep helps learning.
                                                            • Nicotine and Smoking: The Biology of Addiction
                                                            • Brain Briefings Soc. for Neurosci. series of illustrated Newsletters explaining how basic neuroscience discoveries lead to clinical applications.
                                                            • Taming Stress: An emerging understanding of the brain's stress pathways points toward treatments for anxiety and depression beyond Valium and Prozac. By Robert Sapolsky (full text, Sci. Amer. Sept. 2003)
                                                            • Brain Anatomy Function (labeled diagrams)
                                                            • The difference in a "psychopath" brain. (Sci Amer video)
                                                            • For Lab Quiz #10 :
                                                              • Human brain diagrams to label (possible quiz material = sagittal sec., frontal sec., and ventral, lateral, and dorsal surface views)
                                                              • Sheep brain diagram to label including cranial nerves [name and number] (possible quiz material = surface views, sagittal sec., frontal sec.)
                                                              • Marieb Ex. 23, 24 Eye and Ex. 25 Ear (Ex. 22, 26 Other Senses).
                                                              • Students must provide their own disposable gloves (latex or nitrile examination gloves) for this lab.
                                                              • Hole (text) chapter 12.
                                                              • Readings:
                                                                • How the Human Eye Focuses. Scientific American Article (in file box):
                                                                • Seeing, Hearing, and Smelling. Report from Howard Hughes Medical Institiute. Excellent web site. (Adobe Acrobat file on the shared directory)
                                                                • Cow eyes to dissect
                                                                • Histology of the Eye
                                                                  • Microscope slides
                                                                    • H-3 Anterior eye and Retina. retina (identify the layers), cornea, ciliary apparatus, lens
                                                                    • Powerpoint Tutorial on the shared directory
                                                                    • Computer Resources
                                                                      • Digital Images on the shared directory
                                                                      • ADAM Practice Practical
                                                                      • Human Anatomy (Gold Star brand): Cadaver dissection CD
                                                                      • Nervous System (Interactive Physiology) CD
                                                                      • Web sites (see below): Eye dissection etc.
                                                                      • Purkinje tree (penlight)
                                                                      • Blind spot (index card with + and l)
                                                                      • Near point (index card with pin holes, ruler)
                                                                      • Visual acuity (eye chart)
                                                                      • Astigmatism (chart)
                                                                      • Color blindness (test books)
                                                                      • Pupillary reflexes (pen light)
                                                                      • Ophthalmoscopes
                                                                        • Desk study of the ophthalmoscope (define diopter)
                                                                        • Examination of retina (use "green spot" light of ophthalmoscope)
                                                                        • Locate optic disc do not attempt to locate fovea
                                                                        • PAL on the “Mastering A&P” website
                                                                        • Vision: Interactive Tutorial (U Western Ontario)
                                                                        • The Joy of Visual Perception. Excellent! Includes detailed diagrams and interactive demonstrations. Look at the sections on visual acuity (including lens demos),.retina, etc.
                                                                        • Dissection of Cow's Eye. Go to the Step-by-step dissection procedures. Click on the photos for larger images.
                                                                        • How the Eye Works . From Emory.
                                                                        • Eye Histology from UCDavis
                                                                        • Eye Histology Review Slides @ U. Texas, Houston
                                                                        • Eyesight Insight. See the sections on eye anatomy and function.
                                                                        • Anatomy, Physiology, & Pathology of the Human Eye Includes color vision test, Amsler grid test, and blind spot test.
                                                                        • Visual Systems (Neuroanatomy @ Washington). See the following sections: Eyeball, Ophthalmoscopic view of the fundus of the retina, Retina, and Fovea. (Excellent photomicrographs select "label all").
                                                                        • Webvision The organization of the retina and visual system (Kolb) Extensively illustrated information on the anatomy and function of the retina.
                                                                        • Eye Test Simulator (ocular motion, pupillary response)
                                                                        • Neurological Eye Simulator (from UCDavis)
                                                                          • Eye motion and neurological testing
                                                                          • Extrocular muscles simulator
                                                                          • Microscope slides:
                                                                            • H-38 Meissner's corpuscles (touch receptors in fingertip)
                                                                            • H-79 Taste buds (on circumvallate papillae of tongue)
                                                                            • H-86 Pacinian corpuscle (w.m.) in mesentery
                                                                            • Are taste maps of the tongue valid? (Recent evidence says "no.")
                                                                            • Diagram(s) of eye to label
                                                                            • Short answer, fill-in, identifying functions of structures of the eye.
                                                                            • EAR Lab Activities
                                                                              • Examination of external auditory meatus and tympanic membrane
                                                                              • Hearing tests (conduction deafness vs. nerve deafness):
                                                                                • Watch tick method (can be performed with a tuning fork if no watch is available)
                                                                                • Rinne test
                                                                                • Weber test
                                                                                • NystagmusNystagmus Demonstration
                                                                                • Proprioceptive influences
                                                                                • Microscope slides:
                                                                                  • H-72 Internal Ear. Examine cochlea in detail (also shown: vestibule, semicircular duct, etc.) [Useful website: Cochlear Anatomy] Crista ampullares (2 slides)
                                                                                  • Computer Resources (in AH107)
                                                                                    • ADAM Practice Practical
                                                                                    • Human Anatomy (Gold Star brand): Cadaver dissection CD-ROM
                                                                                    • Nervous System (Interactive Physiology) CD-ROM
                                                                                    • PAL on the “Mastering A&P” website
                                                                                    • Auditory systems (Neuroanatomy @ Washington) . See the sections on Peripheral auditory structures, Middle ear ossicles, Inner ear in situ, Labyrinth and cochlea, Cochlea, Cochlear duct, Organ of Corti, Hair cells. (Excellent photomicrographs select "label all").
                                                                                    • Ear Anatomyhttp://www.ear-anatomy.com/
                                                                                    • Cochlear Fluids Research Lab. Refer to the section on Anatomy of the Inner Ear, Cochlear Anatomy, etc.
                                                                                    • Basilar membrane vibrantions at different frequencies, animation
                                                                                    • The Cochlea (Mammano & Nobili)
                                                                                    • Cochlear Mechanics. Includes excellent diagrams and animations.
                                                                                    • Hearing Damage (Pete Townsend, etc.)
                                                                                    • Sound from Silence: Development of Cochlear Implants (NAS)
                                                                                    • Ear Tubes
                                                                                    • Hearing Loss (U Washington)
                                                                                    • Auditory Perception
                                                                                    • Ear Anatomy and Disorders
                                                                                    • Audiogram (hearing tests)
                                                                                    • Special Senses Interactive Quiz (Univ. Wisconsin)
                                                                                    • Hearing Colors and Tasting Shapes (Full text, Scientific American, May 2003)
                                                                                    • Special Senses (Tutorials on smell, vision, hearing, taste by Dr. Jacob)
                                                                                    • Physiology of the Sense of Taste (Illustrated Tutorial by Dr. Jacob)
                                                                                    • Making Sense of Taste. Well illustrated Scientific American article (March 2001).
                                                                                      • Are taste maps of the tongue valid? (Recent evidence says "no.")
                                                                                      • Anatomy: Diagrams of ear to label
                                                                                      • Be able to explain the results and significance of the hearing and equilibrium tests.

                                                                                      Marieb Ex. 27 Endocrine Glands (Ex. 28 in part). Histology and Function

                                                                                      Also text Chapter 13.

                                                                                      • Histology of the Endocrine Glands:
                                                                                        • Endocrine Histology DVD
                                                                                        • Endocrine Histology powerpoint slide sets (Moran and Temply U.)
                                                                                        • Microscope Slides:
                                                                                          • H-11 Thyroid: follicular and parafollicular cells
                                                                                          • H-11 Parathyroid
                                                                                          • H-125 Pancreas: Islets of Langerhans (Mallory Azan stain)
                                                                                          • H-44 Pancreas (human)
                                                                                          • (Omit slide of thymus)
                                                                                          • H-37 Adrenal gland: cortex with zones and medulla (human)
                                                                                          • H-83 Ovary: corpus luteum and follicle cells
                                                                                          • H-85 Ovary
                                                                                          • H-62 Testis (rat): Interstitial cells of Leydig
                                                                                          • H-40 Pituitary: Adenohypophysis (pars distalis) and Neurohypophysis (pars intermedia and pars nervosa)
                                                                                          • (Omit slide of pineal)
                                                                                          • Paul Langerhans (1847-1888)"Langerhans’ main scientific achievements consist in his studies of human and animal microscopical anatomy. In this field he was among the first successful investigators to explore the new area of research with novel methods and staining techniques."
                                                                                            http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/1987.html
                                                                                          • ". Paul Langerhans discovered the islets while in the context of a medical histology course he was taking. He refused to accept the glib explanation of the peculiar appearance of cells in a pancreatic section as a ‘staining artifact’ by his august Herr Professor. Systematic comparative anatomy of many animals by Langerhans established the biological significance of the islets long before the notion of endocrine secretion was in hand." Alan Magid, Ph.D.
                                                                                          • "Paul Langerhans (1847-1888) published his doctoral thesis in 1869 describing a subset of pancreatic cells, now named the islands or islets of Langerhans. Islets of Langerhans contain insulin producing beta cells which are of fundamental importance to diabetes research today. Also while still a medical student working in Virchow's laboratory in Berlin, in 1868 he published a description of structures in human skin, now called Langerhans' granular layer and Langerhans' stellate corpuscles. The former of these structures contains the 'Langerhans' cells' now found to be antigen presenting cells in tumor immunology."
                                                                                            http://www.pnri.org/seminars/lang-vir/langvir.html

                                                                                          Course Objectives : The Biol 217-218 two semester course sequence offers a comprehensive study of human anatomy and physiology at the cell, tissue, and organ system levels of organization. The first semester topics include cells, cell metabolism, tissues, and the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, sensory, and endocrine systems. Dissection of preserved mammalian specimens is required.

                                                                                          If you take A&P, you need to take both semesters. The Biol 217-218 sequence is a Group I Biology Elective designed for pre-nursing, pre-physical therapy, pre-pharmacy, pre-optometry, and other pre-health students as well as students preparing for secondary school teaching in biology. Students who want the strongest preparation for medical school, dental school, or other graduate school programs in biology should select upper division biology courses including BIOL 312 (Human Physiology) instead of the Biol 217-218 sequence. Consult your academic advisor to be certain that Biol 217-218 is the best course selection for you.

                                                                                          Prerequisites: BIOL 111 and 112 (Principles of Biology I and IIand their laboratory courses) and Chem 113 (Principles of Chemistry I and lab). Students who have not achieved grades of "C" or better in each of the prerequisite courses are advised to repeat the necessary courses before attempting further coursework in biology. BIOL 217, BIOL 217L and Chem 113 and Lab are prerequisites for BIOL 218 and BIOL 218L (offered Spring semester).


                                                                                          Book: Anatomy and Physiology I (Lumen) - Biology

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                                                                                          Table of Contents

                                                                                          About the Authors. Preface. Acknowledgments. UNIT 1: PROLOGUE. Chapter 1. An Introduction to the Human Body. Chapter 2. The Chemical Level of Organization. Chapter 3. The Cellular Level or Organization. Chapter 4. The Tissue Level of Organization. UNIT 2: BODY SYSTEMS. Chapter 5. The Integumentary System. Chapter 6. Introduction to the Skeletal System. Chapter 7. The Axial Skeleton. Chapter 8. The Appendicular Skeleton. Chapter 9. Articulations. Chapter 10. Muscle Tissue. Chapter 11. The Muscular System. Chapter 12. Introduction to the Nervous System. Chapter 13. The Central Nervous System. Chapter 14. The Peripheral Nervous System. Chapter 15. Sensory, Motor, and Integrative Systems. Chapter 16. The Special Senses. Chapter 17. The Endocrine System. Chapter 18. The Cardiovascular System: The Blood. Chapter 19. The Cardiovascular System: The Heart. Chapter 20. The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels. Chapter 21. The Lymphatic System and Immunity. Chapter 22. The Respiratory System. Chapter 23. The Digestive System. Chapter 24. The Urinary System. UNIT 3: EPILOGUE. Appendix A: Measurements. Appendix B: Periodic Tables. Glossary. Credits. Index.


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                                                                                          Anatomy & Physiology Textbook , MCQ & Test Bank

                                                                                          Anatomy and Physiology is a dynamic textbook for the two-semester human anatomy and physiology course for life science and allied health majors. The book is organized by body system and covers standard scope and sequence requirements. Its lucid text, strategically constructed art, career features, and links to external learning tools address the critical teaching and learning challenges in the course.

                                                                                          * Complete Textbook by OpenStax
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                                                                                          Unit 1: Levels of Organization
                                                                                          1. An Introduction to the Human Body
                                                                                          2. The Chemical Level of Organization
                                                                                          3. The Cellular Level of Organization
                                                                                          4. The Tissue Level of Organization
                                                                                          Unit 2: Support and Movement
                                                                                          5. The Integumentary System
                                                                                          6. Bone Tissue and the Skeletal System
                                                                                          7. Axial Skeleton
                                                                                          8. The Appendicular Skeleton
                                                                                          9. Joints
                                                                                          10. Muscle Tissue
                                                                                          11. The Muscular System
                                                                                          Unit 3: Regulation, Integration, and Control
                                                                                          12. The Nervous System and Nervous Tissue
                                                                                          13. Anatomy of the Nervous System
                                                                                          14. The Somatic Nervous System
                                                                                          15. The Autonomic Nervous System
                                                                                          16. The Neurological Exam
                                                                                          17. The Endocrine System
                                                                                          Unit 4: Fluids and Transport
                                                                                          18. The Cardiovascular System: Blood
                                                                                          19. The Cardiovascular System: The Heart
                                                                                          20. The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation
                                                                                          21. The Lymphatic and Immune System
                                                                                          Unit 5: Energy, Maintenance, and Environmental Exchange
                                                                                          22. The Respiratory System
                                                                                          23. The Digestive System
                                                                                          24. Metabolism and Nutrition
                                                                                          25. The Urinary System
                                                                                          26. Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
                                                                                          Unit 6: Human Development and the Continuity of Life
                                                                                          27. The Reproductive System
                                                                                          28. Development and Inheritance


                                                                                          GALILEO Open Learning Materials

                                                                                          This lab manual was created for Anatomy and Physiology I at the University of Georgia under a Textbook Transformation Grant and revised through a Scaling Up OER Pilot Grant.

                                                                                          1. Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology
                                                                                          2. Cells
                                                                                          3. Histology – Epithelial & Connective Tissues
                                                                                          4. Histology – Muscle & Nervous Tissues
                                                                                          5. The Integumentary System
                                                                                          6. Introduction to the Skeletal System
                                                                                          7. Introduction Joints
                                                                                          8. The Lower Limb – Bones
                                                                                          9. The Lower Limb – Muscles
                                                                                          10. The Lower Limb – Joints
                                                                                          11. The Lower Limb – Nerves
                                                                                          12. The Lower Limb – Movement
                                                                                          13. The Upper Limb – Bones
                                                                                          14. The Upper Limb – Muscles
                                                                                          15. The Upper Limb – Joints
                                                                                          16. The Upper Limb – Nerves
                                                                                          17. The Upper Limb – Movement
                                                                                          18. Muscle Physiology
                                                                                          19. Axial Skeleton
                                                                                          20. Axial Musculature
                                                                                          21. Intervertebral Discs
                                                                                          22. Central Nervous System – The Spinal Cord
                                                                                          23. Central Nervous System – The Brain
                                                                                          24. Motor Control
                                                                                          25. The Senses – Vision
                                                                                          26. The Senses - Hearing

                                                                                          Accessible files with optical character recognition (OCR) and auto-tagging provided by the Center for Inclusive Design and Innovation.


                                                                                          Anatomy and Physiology: The Neuromuscular Junction

                                                                                          A myofiber is an extraordinarily sophisticated piece of cellular machinery, but, in the end, it still only does what it is told! Each muscle cell that contracts is connected to a motor neuron. Muscles, when they contract, go whole hog, which means each cell is in an all-or-nothing mode. In order for a large muscle to have a strong contraction means that every cell in that muscle must be told to contract weaker contractions mean fewer cells contract. So how does a nerve cell tell a muscle cell to contract?

                                                                                          First, the nerve and muscle cells must make contact, yet the two cells don't actually touch. The junction between a neuron and a muscle fiber is called the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) (see Figure 8.3). The junction, just as in the junction between neurons, is called a chemical synapse, and there is always a space between the cells called a synaptic cleft.

                                                                                          Figure 8.3 The parts of a neuromuscular junction. (Michael J. Vieira Lazaroff)

                                                                                          The membranes of the two cells in a synapse are named because of the direction of the nerve impulse: the presynaptic membrane (the neurolemma) and the postsynaptic membrane (the sarcolemma). The message transmitted from the neuron to the myofiber is a chemical one called a neurotransmitter, and they work by changing the permeability of the postsynaptic membrane. This type of synapse, with a synaptic cleft, is a chemical synapse heart cells, and many nerve cells, have electrical synapses, in which the cells actually touch and travel through communicating junctions called gap junctions.

                                                                                          Neurotransmitters and Exocytosis

                                                                                          Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that travel across the synaptic cleft between neurons and neurons, or neurons and myofibers. A neurotransmitter called acetylcholine (ACh) is used at the neuromuscular junction. Acetylcholine is initially produced in the Golgi bodies (in the cell body), and then travels down the axon to the axon terminal bud in synaptic vesicles since there is no E.R., and no Golgi bodies, in the terminal bud, the synaptic vesicles are recycled using both endocytosis, exocytosis, and mitochondria to recycle the ACh.

                                                                                          So what does it mean to change ?the permeability of the postsynaptic membrane?? To start off, have another look again at active transport. You might remember that active transport is the movement of molecules against the concentration gradient, from a low concentration to a high concentration. In this case, using a nifty little engine called the Na + /K + pump, sodium ions are kept at a high concentration in the synaptic cleft. The sarcolemma, when in this state, is considered polarized. Now remember, keeping up this membrane polarized takes energy, in the form of ATP. Ironically, this energy is used to keep the muscle relaxed.

                                                                                          At this point it is a good idea to look at what the word relaxed actually means. Most people envision relaxed as being somewhat akin to a teenager crashed on a couch, but that is nothing like relaxed muscle. Survival depends on the ability to react quickly in emergency situations, and a quick mobilization of muscles is crucial to that ability. In that sense, a relaxed muscle is a lot like a bow and arrow, with the arrow pulled back ready to be released. The bow and arrow, even though they are not moving, are primed to move quickly just like a muscle, this state also requires energy.

                                                                                          The big advantage to active transport, in this situation, is that it creates a situation in which the sarcolemma can become depolarized all the more quickly. Diffusion alone is not the fastest way to move the sodium back to a state of equilibrium. The fastest way, without a doubt, is through facilitated diffusion. Facilitated diffusion requires a channel for the sodium to pass through, but if the channel were always open it would be awfully hard to maintain active transport. There has to be a way to open and close the channel when needed. When the muscle is relaxed, the channel is closed it is only opened when the muscle cell needs to contract. It makes sense that such a channel should be kept under lock and key. The neurotransmitter is the chemical message that tells the cell to contract the neurotransmitter, a cool molecule called acetylcholine (ACh), is the key. The ACh is kept in synaptic vesicles in the axon terminal bud. When the axon receives the message, via a similar change in the polarization of the neurilemma, the synaptic vesicle fuses with the neurilemma and releases its contents (the ACh) into the synaptic cleft through exocytosis. The key has been released all the key needs now is a lock.

                                                                                          ACh, Receptors, and Facilitated Diffusion

                                                                                          All along the postsynaptic membrane, the sarcolemma, are receptors for the acetylcholine (ACh). The ACh binds with the ACh receptors, which open the channel, allowing the sodium ions to flood through the postsynaptic membrane via facilitated diffusion. Once again, the combination of active transport and facilitated diffusion makes this and depolarization incredibly fast (only two milliseconds!).

                                                                                          The only problem with this scenario is how the muscle gets relaxed again. This is easier to understand when you think about the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (ACh-esterase). When the ACh is released into the synaptic cleft, it is broken down very quickly by the acetylcholinesterase. In order to maintain a sustained contraction, the motor neuron needs to release an almost continuous supply of ACh?luckily there's a constant recycling of the neurotransmitter, or it would not be possible to contract a muscle for more than a few milliseconds!

                                                                                          My, Oh, Myogram!

                                                                                          Have you ever heard of a muscle twitch? A myogram is a graphic representation of the speed and strength of a muscle contraction (see Figure 8.4). To understand a myogram, let's start by looking at a muscle twitch. In this graph, the X-axis indicates time, and the Y-axis indicates the strength of the muscle contraction. If you look at the following figure, you will notice that a flat line indicates the relaxed muscle, and that the quick contraction and relaxation are indicated by the bell curve.

                                                                                          What you may not notice right away is the location of the stimulus by the motor neuron. If you look carefully you'll notice that the contraction does not start right after the stimulus, but that there is a delay called the latent period, before the muscle contraction actually starts. What is happening here, during the latent period? Think about it, for there are several steps, in order: exocytosis of the ACh, ACh binds to the ACh receptors, the channels open, and Na + ions flood through the newly opened channels (facilitated diffusion).

                                                                                          The rise of the curve is called the contraction period, and the decline is called the relaxation period. The relaxation period, however, is a reversal of the latent period: The ACh is broken down by the acetylcholinesterase, the ACh receptor channels close, and active transport returns the Na + ions to the synaptic cleft. So why is this period so much longer than the latent period? Remember, since active transport has to move the ions upstream, it does take longer, but also remember that facilitated diffusion is so much faster when it is preceded by active transport!

                                                                                          Excerpted from The Complete Idiot's Guide to Anatomy and Physiology 2004 by Michael J. Vieira Lazaroff. All rights reserved including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form. Used by arrangement with Alpha Books, a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc.


                                                                                          Watch the video: Κυκλοφορικό Σύστημα. Μέρος Α: Καρδιά: Δομή και Λειτουργία (January 2022).