What is a ecosystem? Definition:
An ecosystem (Greek oikos = house, systema = connected) consists of the combination of biotope and biocenosis. In other words, the living space and the organisms living in it together form a Цcosystem.
Biotope and biocenosis never appear in isolation, but only in combined form as the ecosystem. For the lack of one, would make the existence of the other impossible (Without living space / living beings no living beings / habitat).
There are three main characteristics that can be used to describe ecosystems:
(1) Ecosystems are open
Ecosystems are seamlessly integrated into other ecosystems.
Living things can switch between the ecosystems and interact.
There is an energy flow between the ecosystems.
(2) Ecosystems are dynamic
Цcosystems can change due to the influence of inside and outside.
(3) Ecosystems are complex
Biotic and abiotic factors are in permanent interaction with each other and create a complex network between living beings and the environment.
In each ecosystem there is a material cycle consisting of producers, consumers and destructors.
producers, which primarily include plants and algae, ensure high production of biomass through their growth or multiplication. All they need is sunlight and inorganic substances (nutrients) that they receive from their environment.
On the other hand, the group of consumers into at least two subgroups: plant (herbivore) and carnivore (carnivore). While herbivores feed on producers, carnivores eat other consumers. Examples of herbivores include cattle, crickets, elephants, antelopes; Examples of carnivores are ice bear, crocodiles, fruit, dogs, cats and many other animals.
Last are still the decomposers to call. Their task is the removal and remineralization of dead, organic material. Accordingly, they decompose the dead producers & consumers, and convert them back into inorganic substances, which closes the cycle. The destructors include, in particular, bacteria and fungi.
The material cycle in the ecosystem has its own article. There, all the events mentioned here are explained in detail again.
Terrestrial Ecosystems - Aquatic Ecosystems
Ecosystems can be divided into two categories:
Terrestrial ecosystems :
Terrestrial (lat. Terra) ecosystems include all those that are located on land and are not primarily water. These include the ecosystems forest (in the forms deciduous forest, mixed forest, coniferous forest, rainforest and others) and desert (semi-desert, desert, salt desert, steppe).
The aquatic (lat. Aqua = water) ecosystems can be differentiated between limnic and marine ecosystems. The limnetic lakes include lakes, rivers and streams, marine all oceans and saline seas. The essential distinguishing feature here lies in the salinity of the waters.