Structure and function of the human ear
The sense organ ear is responsible in humans for the perception of sounds.
Sound waves are transmitted to the cochlea through the ear canal, via the eardrum and the calyx, where they are converted by the sensory cells into electrical impulses (transduction). In simple terms, sound waves can be described as follows: Air molecules are set in motion and impact on other air molecules, which in turn impinge on other air molecules, etc. These sound waves or impacted air molecules strike the eardrum and are then passed on mechanically by the hand knobs. In the cochlea, the mechanical energy, from the hair cells, is converted into electrical energy, until the excitements finally reach the auditory center in the brain via the cranial nerve (auditory cortex).
The sensory ear can be in AuЯenohr, middle ear and inner ear be divided.
Construction / anatomy of the ear
auricle: consists of mobile cartilage and is an indispensable element for locating the position of sounds (directional hearing). The sound waves hit the auricle and are moderated to varying degrees depending on the direction of the sound source.
OhrlдppchenThe earlobe acts as a resonating body that amplifies the incoming sound waves. Earlaps are phenotypically both grown and free.
external walk: about 2cm long, starting from the auricle to the eardrum.
eardrum: forms the border between outer ear and middle ear. The eardrum consists of a thin membrane and transmits sound waves to cuddles. The membrane covers the entire entrance, so that foreign bodies can not penetrate into the middle ear if the eardrum is intact.
GehцrknцchelchenThe hammerheads include the hammer, anvil and stirrup; These three bones transfer the vibrations into the inner ear; The goblets are among the smallest bones in the human body.
hammer: is located on the inside of the eardrum and lies there.
anvil: receives the vibrations of the hammer and passes them on to the stirrup.
Steigbьgel: receives the movements of the anvil and transfers them to the cochlea (inner ear)
Croaker (cochlea): snail-shaped; In the cochlea there are special sensory cells that convert mechanical vibrations into electrical excitations and transmit them to the horn. The sensitive hair cells are located almost throughout the snail. The ability to regenerate is extremely low: once destroyed hair cells, e.g. through extreme volume, usually remain permanently inoperable.
Vestibular system: also called vestibular apparatus; the equilibrium orane is filled with lymph fluid. During movements of the head, the liquid, depending on the direction of the movement, hits on different hair cells. From this, the brain calculates the position of the head.
Cervical nerve (vestibulocochlear nerve): eighth cranial nerve; consists of the cochlear nerve and the vestibular nerve; The hearing nerve conducts the electrical excitations from the cochlea and the organ of balance to the brain.