Information

22.3: Tropical Rainforest - Biology


Learning Objective

  • Recognize distinguishing characteristics of tropical rainforests & plant adaptations of the biome.

Also referred to as tropical wet forest, this biome is found in equatorial regions. Tropical rainforests are the most diverse terrestrial biome. This biodiversity is still largely unknown to science and is under extraordinary threat primarily through logging and deforestation for agriculture. Tropical rainforests have also been described as nature’s pharmacy because of the potential for new drugs that is largely hidden in the chemicals produced by the huge diversity of plants, animals, and other organisms. The vegetation is characterized by plants with spreading roots and broad leaves that fall off throughout the year, unlike the trees of deciduous forests that lose their leaves in one season. These forests are “evergreen,” year-round, meaning they retain they leaves throughout the year.

The temperature and sunlight profiles of tropical rainforests are stable in comparison to that of other terrestrial biomes, with average temperatures ranging from 20oC to 34oC (68oF to 93oF). Month-to-month temperatures are relatively constant in tropical rainforests, in contrast to forests further from the equator. This lack of temperature seasonality leads to year-round plant growth, rather than the seasonal growth seen in other biomes. In contrast to other ecosystems, a more constant daily amount of sunlight (11–12 hours per day) provides more solar radiation, thereby a longer period of time for plant growth.

The annual rainfall in tropical rainforests ranges from 250 cm to more than 450 cm (8.2–14.8 ft) with considerable seasonal variation. Tropical rainforests have wet months in which there can be more than 30 cm (11–12 in) of precipitation, as well as dry months in which there are fewer than 10 cm (3.5 in) of rainfall. However, the driest month of a tropical rainforest can still exceed the annual rainfall of some other biomes, such as deserts.

Tropical rainforests have high net primary productivity because the annual temperatures and precipitation values support rapid plant growth (Figure (PageIndex{1})) . However, the high rainfall quickly leaches nutrients from the soils of these forests, which are typically low in nutrients. Any nutrients that reach the soil (fallen leaves, tree branches, or dead animals) quickly decompose and are used by plants as raw material. Thus, the nutrients are always above ground, and not stored in the soil.

Tropical rainforests are characterized by vertical layering of vegetation and the formation of distinct habitats for animals within each layer. On the forest floor is a sparse layer of plants and decaying plant matter. Above that is an understory of short, shrubby foliage. A layer of trees rises above this understory and is topped by a closed upper canopy—the uppermost overhead layer of branches and leaves. Some additional trees emerge through this closed upper canopy. These layers provide diverse and complex habitats for the variety of plants, animals, and other organisms within the tropical wet forests. Many species of animals use the variety of plants and the complex structure of the tropical wet forests for food and shelter. Some organisms live several meters above ground rarely ever descending to the forest floor.

Rainforests are not the only forest biome in the tropics; there are also tropical dry forests, which are characterized by a dry season of varying lengths. These forests commonly experience leaf loss during the dry season to one degree or another. The loss of leaves from taller trees during the dry season opens up the canopy and allows sunlight to the forest floor that allows the growth of thick ground-level brush, which is absent in tropical rainforests. Extensive tropical dry forests occur in Africa (including Madagascar), India, southern Mexico, and South America.

Figure (PageIndex{1}): Species diversity is very high in tropical wet forests, such as these forests of Madre de Dios, Peru, near the Amazon River. (credit: Roosevelt Garcia)

Adaptations

Plants living in tropical rainforests have many unique adaptations. For example, due to the poor nutrient soil, they cannot have deep roots. They withstand many rain events and compete with other plants for sunlight, causing them to sometimes grow at an angle. Due to all these restrictions, trees often have buttresses, which are large aerial extensions of the lateral surface roots, to help stabilize the tree. Another common adaptation are epiphytes. These are plants that live on the surface of other plants, using moisture and nutrients from the air or rain. They grow on plants instead of the shady forest floor, where they cannot obtain enough sunlight. Epiphytes do not have any attachment to the ground and are not parasitic on the plant. Orchids, bromeliads, and mosses are common epiphytes. Some plants have leaves with drip tips, pointy tips that help remove water off the leaves quickly to reduce the cumulating of fungi and bacteria. It also helps protect the leaves from breakage during heavy rains.


Growth Strategies of Tropical Tree Species: Disentangling Light and Size Effects

Affiliations Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, United States of America, Center for Tropical Forest Science, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America

Affiliations UR105 Forest Ecosystem Goods and Services, Cirad, Montpellier, France, DRP Forêt et Biodiversité, Cirad-Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar

Affiliation Center for Tropical Forest Science, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America


Abstract

The freshwater ichthyofauna of the Fiji islands remained poorly documented before the establishment of the Pacific-Asia Biodiversity Transect (PABITRA) network. The PABITRA approach assesses biodiversity along ocean-to-mountain transects and promotes sustainable land use on islands across the Pacific. Multiple surveys of freshwater fish species along the Viti Levu PABITRA transect have contributed six new occurrence records and one new species to the known freshwater fishes of Fiji since 2002. In total, 21 indigenous species of fish (9% endemic) from 10 families and no introduced fishes were found in the three PABITRA sites. Diversity was highest (16 species) at Savura forest reserve and decreased further inland into Sovi and Wabu. The assemblage found is dominated by highly migratory species (95%) that traverse the different aquatic habitats (marine, estuarine, lowland and upland streams) covered by the PABITRA transect. This high degree of connectivity highlights several growing issues affecting aquatic fauna on the high island of Viti Levu. The reduction in forest cover along the gateway transects, especially in the terminal reaches, and infrastructure development such as dams and weirs have deleterious effects on the migration routes of the Fijian ichthyofauna. Several species collected are important food sources and have cultural totemic importance to local inhabitants along the vertical transect. This paper documents the ichthyofauna of the Fiji gateway transect, ecological characteristics of this assemblage, IUCN Redlist conservation assessment status and highlights factors affecting the fragility and resilience of these communities, particularly focusing on the importance of life-history patterns and watershed conditions.

Additional keywords: diadromy, fish, landscape.


Electronic supplementary material is available online at https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.4304237.

Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

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Results

Intensification of flooding was seen from 2011 to 2015 during high-water seasons of February–May. When water level exceeded 117.65 m asl, 75% of the PV2 study site flooded, leaving only 25% dry levee forests. We defined this water level as intensive floods. The years of 2011–2015 was the only period in the 40-year data set of the Servicio de Hidrografía that had 5 consecutive years of intensive floods other consecutive periods had only 2 years (1986–1987, 1993–1994, 1999–2000).

Intensification of floods was also seen in the relationship between peak flood pulses and the duration of intensive flood levels. Throughout 2011–2015, water levels were significantly higher and duration of inundation above 117.65 m asl was significantly longer than in previous years (F1,36 = 6.95, p = 0.01, and F1,36 = 10.31, p = 0.002, respectively) (Fig. 2). The 2 highest water levels also had the longest duration and occurred during the consecutive floods of 2011–2015. The highest flood pulse occurred in 2012 at 118.97 m asl and lasted 66 days, and in 2015 the second highest water level was observed at 118.67 m asl and lasted 99 days. At 118.37 m asl all surveyed plots in the study site were flooded, including the elevated levee forests. Very few dry patches of levee forest remained in the Samiria River basin, and we defined these years as historic flood levels.

There was also an intensification of low water during the dry seasons of August–October. The 40-year data set of the Servicio de Hidrografía showed a slight negative regression in the trough of low-water seasons (r 2 = 10.0, p = 0.02). The lowest troughs in water level occurred during the dry seasons of 2010 (105.43 m asl) and 2005 (106.09 m asl). The average trough for all years was 108.19 m asl (SD 1.08) m asl, and the annual variation of water level was 9.17 m (SD 1.19) between peaks of high water and troughs of low water.

Terrestrial mammal populations decreased by over 95% during 2009–2015, coinciding with the recent consecutive years of high water levels (r 2 = 0.73, p = 0.013). In 2009, density was 5.18 ind/ km 2 (SD 0.60) and in 2014 it was 0.02 ind/ km 2 (SD 0.01). No terrestrial mammals were sighted in 2015. White-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), red brocket deer (Mazama americana), black agouti (Dasyprocta fuliginosa), paca (Cuniculus paca), giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga trydactila), and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) numbers declined on transects and in camera-trap surveys during consecutive years of high flood levels. Results from transect surveys concurred with camera-trap surveys (r 2 = 97.5, p = 0.001). The annual number of terrestrial mammals captured on camera traps prior to the historic flood of 2012 was 625 ind/1000 camera days (hereafter mcd) (range 402–848), whereas the yearly capture rate after 2012 was 67 ind/mcd (range 58–72). The lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) was the only terrestrial ungulate to have stable numbers. Jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor), and ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) populations numbers fluctuated during the consecutive years of high floods and did not have significant time series regressions (Table 1).

  • Tayassu pecari
  • white-lipped peccary
  • Pecari tajacu
  • collared peccary
  • Mazama americana
  • red brocket deer
  • Tapirus terrestris
  • lowland tapir
  • Dasyprocta fuliginosa
  • black agouti
  • Cuniculus paca
  • Paca
  • Myrmecophaga trydactila
  • giant anteater
  • Dasypus novemcinctus
  • nine-banded armadillo
  • Panthera onca
  • Jaguar
  • Puma concolor
  • Puma
  • Leopardus pardalis
  • Ocelot
  • a Survey types: T, terrestrial transect (individuals per square kilometer) C, camera traps (individuals per 1000 camera days).
  • b Range p < 0.05, mean p > 0.05.
  • c Abbreviations: neg, negative ns, not significant.

Populations of arboreal species, including macaws, game birds, primates, and other arboreal mammals remained stable during consecutive years of high floods. Total macaw numbers were stable from 2009 to 2015 (9.82 ind/point [SD 3.89] r 2 = 0.01, p = 0.781). However, there was a negative interspecific relationship between Red-bellied Macaw (Orthopsitaca manilata) and Chestnut-fronted Macaw (Ara severus) during years of consecutive high floods Red-bellied increased during years of intensive floods and Chestnut-fronted decreased (r 2 = 0.55, p = 0.054). Total densities of game birds, including Tinamous (Tinamus spp.), Spix's Guan (Penelope jacquacu), Piping Guan (Pipile cumanensis), and Razor-billed Curassows (Mitu tuberosum) were stable from 2009 to 2015 (3.41 ind/km 2 [SD 1.84] r 2 = 0.43, p = 0.105). Tinamous, the most terrestrial of the assemblage, was the only game birds that declined during this period (Table 2).

  • Orthopsitaca manilata
  • Red-bellied Macaw
  • Ara severus
  • Chestnut-fronted
  • Macaw
  • Ara ararauna
  • Blue & Yellow
  • Macaw
  • Tinamus spp
  • Tinamous
  • Mitu tuberosum
  • Razor-billed
  • Curassow
  • Penelope jacquacu
  • Spix's Guan
  • Pipile cumanensis
  • Piping Guan
  • a Survey types: T, terrestrial transect (individuals per square kilometer) P, point counts (individuals per 15-minute point).
  • b Range p < 0.05 mean p > 0.05.
  • c Abbreviations: neg, negative ns, not significant pos, positive.

The total densities of primates were stable during consecutive years of high floods (145.50 ind/km 2 [SD 32.66] r 2 = 0.35, p = 0.155), as were densities of primate species, including woolly monkey (Lagothrix poeppigii), howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus), brown capuchin (Cebus apella), saki monkey (Pithecia monachus), squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis), and saddled-back tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis). Likewise, other arboreal mammal densities were stable (7.34 ind/km 2 [SD 0.00] r 2 = 0.15, p = 0.374,) as were individual species, including Amazon squirrel (Sciurus spadiceus), brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus), common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis), coati (Nasua nasua), and tyra (Eira barbara) (Table 3).

  • Lagothrix poeppigii
  • woolly monkey
  • Alouatta seniculus
  • howler monkey
  • Cebus apella
  • brown capuchin
  • Pithecia monachus
  • saki monkey
  • Saimiri boliviensis
  • squirrel monkey
  • Saguinus fuscicollis
  • saddled-back tamarin
  • Sciurus spadiceus
  • Amazon squirrel
  • Bradypus variegatus
  • brown-throated sloth
  • Didelphis marsupialis
  • common opossum
  • Nasua nasua
  • Coati
  • Eira Barbara
  • Tyra
  • a Survey types: T, terrestrial transect (individuals per square kilometer) C, camera traps (individuals per 1000 camera days).
  • b Mean p > 0.05.
  • c Abbreviation: ns, not significant.

Populations of aquatic species made up of fish, dolphins, waterfowl, caimans, and otters generally increased or remained stable during consecutive years of high water levels from 2010 to 2015. After the drought of 2010, fish stocks in the Samiria River basin benefitted from consecutive years of intensive floods and increased year on year to 2015 in number and biomass (Table 4). The most common species were tiger wolf fish (Hoplias malabaricus), gold wolf fish (Hopleryhtrinus unitaeniatus), white piranha (Serrasalmus humeralis), black piranha (Serrasalmus rhombeus), red piranha (Pygocentrus nattereri), black prochilodus (Prochilodus nigricans), common armoured catfish (Liposarcus pardalis), and oscar (Astronotus ocellatus).

  • Phalacrocorax brasilianus
  • Neotropical
  • Cormorant
  • Ardea alba
  • Great Egret
  • Inia geoffrensis
  • pink river dolphin
  • Sotalia fluviatilis
  • grey river dolphin
  • Pteronura brasiliensis
  • giant river otter
  • Caiman crocodilus
  • spectacled caiman
  • Melanosuchus niger
  • black caiman
  • a Survey types: N, gill net survey of individuals (individuals per net hour) N, gill net survey of biomass (kilograms per net hour) T, terrestrial transect (individuals per square kilometer) ST, shore-line transect (individuals per kilometer).
  • b Range p < 0.05 mean p > 0.05.
  • c Abbreviations: neg, negative ns, not significant pos, positive.

Total waterfowl numbers increased during consecutive years of high flood levels (302.99–783.75 ind/km r 2 = 0.77, p = 0.020) and were associated with increased fish stocks (r 2 = 58.3, p = 0.045) Neotropical Cormorants (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) increased the most (Table 4).

Populations of both pink river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis) and grey river dolphin (Sotalia fluviatilis) maintained stable populations during consecutive years of high flood levels (4.48 ind/km [SD 1.56] r 2 = 0.26, p = 0.29). Giant river otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) populations increased in consecutive years of intensive floods year on year from 2010 to 2015 (Table 4).

The spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) populations showed a long-term decrease that began before the intensification of river levels. Their mean density from 2004 to 2008 was 1.1 ind/km (SD 0.3), whereas it was 0.5 ind/km (SD 0.2) from 2009 to 2015. The spectacled caiman continued to decrease during years of consecutive flooding. Black caiman (Melanosuchus niger) had stable populations during consecutive years of high flood levels (Table 4).

The drought of 2010 had the opposite effect on wildlife as the years of consecutive floods. During and following the drought in the dry season of 2010, populations of aquatic fauna decreased. Fish stocks decreased from an annual biomass of 10.45 kg/net hour (SD 1.35) in 2009 to a biomass of 9.23 kg/net hour (SD 1.29) in 2010. Similar decreasing trends were observed in the populations of the pink river dolphin, which fell from 3.30 ind/km (SD 1.81) in 2009 to 1.83 ind/km (SD 1.28) after the drought. Waterfowl also decreased from 287.7 ind/km (SD 34.1) prior to the drought to 112.5 ind/km (SD 33.6) afterward. After 2 consecutive years of high floods (2011–2012), populations of all these species groups were back to predrought levels.

Terrestrial and arboreal species did not show any obvious declines during the drought of 2010. The terrestrial mammals had an initial decrease after the intensive flood of 2009 from 5.2 ind/km 2 (SD 3.1) to 2.0 ind/km 2 (SD 1.2) in 2010. During the drought, terrestrial mammals maintained their populations with a 2011 density of 1.5 ind/km 2 (SD 1.0). Then, after the historic flood of 2012 the terrestrial mammals crashed to a density of 0.3 ind/km 2 (SD 0.3). Trends in species populations from 2009 to 2015 are provided in Supporting Information.

Household surveys showed how Cocama indigenous people in the Samiria River basin have increased fishing and decreased hunting as a result of shifts in wildlife populations. In 2009, 84% of Cocama families fished, whereas 67% hunted. In 2012, 100% of families fished and 57% hunted, and in 2015, 100% of families fished and only 33% continued to hunt. In 2015, fish was the most important animal protein consumed by households an average extended family caught 4251 kg (SD 2329) of fish annually, whereas the average annual wild meat they hunted was 135 kg (SD 267).


Contents

As stated in the foundation document: [10]

The purpose of Olympic National Park is to preserve for the benefit, use, and enjoyment of the people, a large wilderness park containing the finest sample of primeval forest of Sitka spruce, western hemlock, Douglas fir, and western red cedar in the entire United States to provide suitable winter range and permanent protection for the herds of native Roosevelt elk and other wildlife indigenous to the area to conserve and render available to the people, for recreational use, this outstanding mountainous country, containing numerous glaciers and perpetual snow fields, and a portion of the surrounding verdant forests together with a narrow strip along the beautiful Washington coast.

Coastline Edit

The coastal portion of the park is a rugged, sandy beach along with a strip of adjacent forest. It is 60 miles (97 km) long but just a few miles wide, with native communities at the mouths of two rivers. The Hoh River has the Hoh people and at the town of La Push at the mouth of the Quileute River live the Quileute. [11]

The beach has unbroken stretches of wilderness ranging from 10 to 20 miles (16 to 32 km). While some beaches are primarily sand, others are covered with heavy rock and very large boulders. Bushy overgrowth, slippery footing, tides and misty rain forest weather all hinder foot travel. The coastal strip is more readily accessible than the interior of the Olympics due to the difficult terrain, very few backpackers venture beyond casual day-hiking distances. [ citation needed ]

The most popular piece of the coastal strip is the 9-mile (14 km) Ozette Loop. The Park Service runs a registration and reservation program to control usage levels of this area. From the trailhead at Ozette Lake, a 3-mile (4.8 km) leg of the trail is a boardwalk-enhanced path through near primal coastal cedar swamp. Arriving at the ocean, it is a 3-mile walk supplemented by headland trails for high tides. This area has traditionally been favored by the Makah from Neah Bay. The third 3-mile leg is enabled by a boardwalk which has enhanced the loop's visitor numbers. [ citation needed ]

There are thick groves of trees adjacent to the sand, which results in chunks of timber from fallen trees on the beach. The mostly unaltered Hoh River, toward the south end of the park, discharges large amounts of naturally eroded timber and other drift, which moves north, enriching the beaches. Even today driftwood deposits form a commanding presence, biologically as well as visually, giving a taste of the original condition of the beach viewable to some extent in early photos. Drift-material often comes from a considerable distance the Columbia River formerly contributed huge amounts to the Northwest Pacific coasts.

The smaller coastal portion of the park is separated from the larger, inland portion. President Franklin D. Roosevelt originally had supported connecting them with a continuous strip of park land.

The park is known for its unique turbidites. It has very exposed turbidities with white calcite veins. Turbidites are rocks or sediments that travel into the ocean as suspended particles in the flow of water, causing a sedimentary layering effect on the ocean floor. Over time the sediments and rock compact and the process repeats as a constant cycle. The park also is known for its tectonic mélanges that have been deemed 'smell rocks' by the locals due to its strong petroleum odor. Mélanges are large individual rocks that are large enough that they are accounted for in map drawings. The Olympic mélanges can be as large as a house.

Glaciated mountains Edit

Within the center of Olympic National Park rise the Olympic Mountains whose sides and ridgelines are topped with massive, ancient glaciers. The mountains themselves are products of accretionary wedge uplifting related to the Juan De Fuca Plate subduction zone. The geologic composition is a curious mélange of basaltic and oceanic sedimentary rock. The western half of the range is dominated by the peak of Mount Olympus, which rises to 7,965 feet (2,428 m). Mount Olympus receives a large amount of snow, and consequently has the greatest glaciation of any non-volcanic peak in the contiguous United States outside of the North Cascades. It has several glaciers, the largest of which is Hoh Glacier at 3.06 miles (4.93 km) in length. Looking to the east, the range becomes much drier due to the rain shadow of the western mountains. Here, there are numerous high peaks and craggy ridges. The tallest summit of this area is Mount Deception, at 7,788 feet (2,374 m).

Temperate rainforest Edit

The western side of the park is mantled by temperate rainforests, including the Hoh Rainforest and Quinault Rainforest, which receive annual precipitation of about 150 inches (380 cm), making this perhaps the wettest area in the continental United States (however, parts of the island of Kauai, such as the summit of Mount Waiʻaleʻale, in the state of Hawaii receive more rain). [12]

As opposed to tropical rainforests and most other temperate rainforest regions, the rainforests of the Pacific Northwest are dominated by coniferous trees, including Sitka Spruce, Western Hemlock, Coast Douglas-fir and Western redcedar. Mosses coat the bark of these trees and even drip down from their branches in green, moist tendrils.

Valleys on the eastern side of the park also have notable old-growth forest, but the climate is notably drier. Sitka Spruce is absent, trees on average are somewhat smaller, and undergrowth is generally less dense and different in character. Immediately northeast of the park is a rather small rainshadow area where annual precipitation averages about 16 inches. [13]

According to the A. W. Kuchler U.S. Potential natural vegetation Types, Olympic National Park encompasses five classifications: Alpine Meadows & Barren, aka Alpine tundra (52) potential vegetation type with an Alpine Meadow (11) potential vegetation form a Fir/Hemlock (4) vegetation type with a Pacific Northwest conifer forest (1) vegetation form a cedar/hemlock/Douglas fir vegetation type with a Pacific Northwest conifer forest (1) vegetation form Western spruce/fir vegetation type (15) with a Rocky Mountain conifer forest (3) vegetation form and a spruce/cedar/hemlock (1) vegetation type with a Pacific Northwest conifer forest (1) vegetation form. [14]

Because the park sits on an isolated peninsula, with a high mountain range dividing it from the land to the south, it developed many endemic plant and animal species (like the Olympic Marmot, Piper's bellflower and Flett's violet). The southwestern coastline of the Olympic Peninsula is also the northernmost non-glaciated region on the Pacific coast of North America, with the result that – aided by the distance from peaks to the coast at the Last Glacial Maximum being about twice what it is today – it served as a refuge from which plants colonized glaciated regions to the north.

The park also provides habitat for many species (like the Roosevelt elk) that are native only to the Pacific Northwest coast. As a result, scientists have declared it a biological reserve and study its unique species to better understand how plants and animals evolve. The park is home to sizable populations of black bears and black-tailed deer. The park also has a noteworthy cougar population, numbering about 150. [15] Mountain goats were accidentally introduced into the park into the 1920s and have caused much damage on the native flora. The NPS has activated management plans to control the goats. [16] The park contains an estimated 366,000 acres (572 sq mi 1,480 km 2 ) of old-growth forests. [17]

Forest fires are infrequent in the rainforests of the park's western side however, a severe drought after the driest spring in 100 years, coupled with an extremely low snowpack from the preceding winter, resulted in a rare rainforest fire in the summer of 2015. [18]

Subalpine fir in a meadow on Hurricane Ridge

According to the Köppen climate classification system, Olympic National Park encompasses two classifications: a temperate oceanic climate (Cfb) in the western half, and a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Csb) in the eastern half. [ citation needed ] According to the United States Department of Agriculture, the plant hardiness zone at Hoh Rainforest Visitor Center is 8a with an average annual extreme minimum temperature of 14.5 °F (-9.7 °C). [19]

Climate data for Elwha Ranger Station, 1948-2006
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 64
(18)
67
(19)
69
(21)
78
(26)
87
(31)
93
(34)
96
(36)
97
(36)
91
(33)
76
(24)
70
(21)
65
(18)
97
(36)
Average high °F (°C) 40.7
(4.8)
44.9
(7.2)
50.3
(10.2)
56.9
(13.8)
63.5
(17.5)
68.1
(20.1)
73.8
(23.2)
74.1
(23.4)
68.5
(20.3)
56.9
(13.8)
46.4
(8.0)
42.0
(5.6)
57.2
(14.0)
Average low °F (°C) 31.1
(−0.5)
32.3
(0.2)
34.1
(1.2)
37.3
(2.9)
42.0
(5.6)
46.6
(8.1)
49.9
(9.9)
50.9
(10.5)
47.5
(8.6)
41.1
(5.1)
35.7
(2.1)
32.7
(0.4)
40.1
(4.5)
Record low °F (°C) 2
(−17)
8
(−13)
15
(−9)
26
(−3)
29
(−2)
32
(0)
36
(2)
36
(2)
32
(0)
21
(−6)
10
(−12)
8
(−13)
2
(−17)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 9.02
(229)
6.90
(175)
6.02
(153)
3.27
(83)
1.84
(47)
1.20
(30)
0.75
(19)
1.21
(31)
1.77
(45)
5.27
(134)
9.17
(233)
9.88
(251)
56.3
(1,430)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 7.1
(18)
2.0
(5.1)
1.2
(3.0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1.1
(2.8)
3.1
(7.9)
14.5
(36.8)
Average precipitation days (≥ .01 in) 17 15 16 13 11 9 5 6 8 14 18 17 149
Source: "ELWHA RANGER STN, WASHINGTON". Western Regional Climate Center.
Climate data for Hoh Rainforest Visitor Center (elevation: 745 ft / 227 m), 1981-2010
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 44.7
(7.1)
47.9
(8.8)
51.4
(10.8)
55.8
(13.2)
61.8
(16.6)
65.4
(18.6)
70.8
(21.6)
72.2
(22.3)
67.4
(19.7)
58.8
(14.9)
48.9
(9.4)
43.9
(6.6)
57.5
(14.2)
Daily mean °F (°C) 39.8
(4.3)
41.2
(5.1)
43.5
(6.4)
46.8
(8.2)
52.1
(11.2)
56.1
(13.4)
60.5
(15.8)
61.3
(16.3)
57.5
(14.2)
50.8
(10.4)
43.2
(6.2)
38.8
(3.8)
49.3
(9.6)
Average low °F (°C) 34.8
(1.6)
34.4
(1.3)
35.6
(2.0)
37.8
(3.2)
42.4
(5.8)
46.8
(8.2)
50.1
(10.1)
50.5
(10.3)
47.6
(8.7)
42.7
(5.9)
37.6
(3.1)
33.8
(1.0)
41.2
(5.1)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 20.59
(523)
14.45
(367)
14.78
(375)
10.60
(269)
6.39
(162)
4.68
(119)
2.16
(55)
2.76
(70)
4.15
(105)
13.11
(333)
22.55
(573)
19.07
(484)
135.29
(3,436)
Average relative humidity (%) 85.1 76.0 76.8 74.1 71.9 73.9 68.8 69.9 69.0 74.2 83.0 83.1 75.5
Average dew point °F (°C) 35.7
(2.1)
34.2
(1.2)
36.7
(2.6)
39.0
(3.9)
43.3
(6.3)
47.9
(8.8)
50.2
(10.1)
51.4
(10.8)
47.4
(8.6)
42.9
(6.1)
38.4
(3.6)
34.1
(1.2)
41.8
(5.4)
Source: PRISM Climate Group [20]

Prior to the influx of European settlers, Olympic's human population consisted of Native Americans, whose use of the peninsula was thought to have consisted mainly of fishing and hunting. However, recent reviews of the record [ citation needed ] , coupled with systematic archaeological surveys of the mountains (Olympic and other Northwest ranges) are pointing to much more extensive tribal use of especially the subalpine meadows than seemed formerly to be the case. Most if not all Pacific Northwest indigenous cultures were adversely affected by European diseases (often decimated) and other factors, well before ethnographers, business operations and settlers arrived in the region, so what they saw and recorded was a much-reduced native culture-base. Large numbers of cultural sites are now identified in the Olympic mountains, and important artifacts have been found.

When settlers began to appear, extractive industry in the Pacific Northwest was on the rise, particularly in regards to the harvesting of timber, which began heavily in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Public dissent against logging began to take hold in the 1920s, when people got their first glimpses of the clear-cut hillsides. This period saw an explosion of people's interest in the outdoors with the growing use of the automobile, people took to touring previously remote places like the Olympic Peninsula.

The formal record of a proposal for a new national park on the Olympic Peninsula begins with the expeditions of well-known figures Lieutenant Joseph P. O'Neil and Judge James Wickersham, during the 1890s. These notables met in the Olympic wilderness while exploring, and subsequently combined their political efforts to have the area placed within some protected status. On February 22, 1897, President Grover Cleveland created the Olympic Forest Reserve, which became Olympic National Forest in 1907. [21] Following unsuccessful efforts in the Washington State Legislature to further protect the area in the early 1900s, President Theodore Roosevelt created Mount Olympus National Monument in 1909, primarily to protect the subalpine calving grounds and summer range of the Roosevelt elk herds native to the Olympics.

Public desire for preservation of some of the area grew until President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a bill creating a national park in 1938. Even after ONP was declared a park, though, illegal logging continued in the park, and political battles continue to this day over the incredibly valuable timber contained within its boundaries. Logging continues on the Olympic Peninsula, but not within the park. A book detailing the history of the fight for ONP's timber is Olympic Battleground: The Power Politics of Timber Preservation by Carsten Lien.

There are several roads in the park, but none penetrate far into the interior. The park features a network of hiking trails, although the size and remoteness means that it will usually take more than a weekend to get to the high country in the interior. The sights of the rain forest, with plants run riot and dozens of hues of green, are well worth the possibility of rain sometime during the trip, although months of July, August and September frequently have long dry spells.

An unusual feature of ONP is the opportunity for backpacking along the beach. The length of the coastline in the park is sufficient for multi-day trips, with the entire day spent walking along the beach. Although idyllic compared to toiling up a mountainside (Seven Lakes Basin is a notable example), one must be aware of the tide at the narrowest parts of the beaches, high tide washes up to the cliffs behind, blocking passage. There are also several promontories that must be struggled over, using a combination of muddy steep trail and fixed ropes.

During winter, the viewpoint known as Hurricane Ridge offers numerous winter sports activities. The Hurricane Ridge Winter Sports Club operates Hurricane Ridge Ski and Snowboard Area, a not for profit alpine ski area which offers ski lessons, rentals, and inexpensive lift tickets. The small alpine area is serviced by two rope tows and one poma lift. A large amount of backcountry terrain is accessible for skiers, snowboarders, and other backcountry travelers when the Hurricane Ridge Road is open. Winter access to the Hurricane Ridge Road is currently limited to Friday through Sunday weather permitting. The Hurricane Ridge Winter Access Coalition is a community effort to restore seven-day-a-week access via the Hurricane Ridge Road (the only park road accessing alpine terrain in winter).

Rafting is available on both the Elwha and Hoh Rivers. Boating is common on Ozette Lake, Lake Crescent, and Lake Quinault. [ citation needed ]

Views of the Olympic National Park can be seen from the Hurricane Ridge viewpoint. The road leading west from the Hurricane Ridge visitor center has several picnic areas and trail heads. A paved trail called the Hurricane hill trail is about 1.6 miles long (one-way) with an elevation gain of about 700 feet. It is not uncommon to find snow on the trails even as late as July. Several other dirt trails of varying distances and difficulty levels branch off of the Hurricane hill trail. The picnic areas are open only in the summer, and have restrooms, water and paved access to picnic tables.

The Hurricane Ridge visitor center has an information desk, gift shop, restrooms, and a snack bar. The exhibits in the visitor center are open daily.

The Elwha Ecosystem Restoration Project is the second largest ecosystem restoration project in the history of the National Park Service after the Everglades. It consisted of removing the 210 feet (64 m) Glines Canyon Dam and draining its reservoir, Lake Mills and removing the 108 feet (33 m) Elwha Dam and its reservoir Lake Aldwell from the Elwha River. Upon removal, the park will revegetate the slopes and river bottoms to prevent erosion and speed up ecological recovery. The primary purpose of this project is to restore anadromous stocks of Pacific Salmon and steelhead to the Elwha River, which have been denied access to the upper 65 miles (105 km) of river habitat for more than 95 years by these dams. Removal of the dams was completed in 2014.


Abstract

Activity patterns in ectotherms rely on the structure of the thermal environment and thermoregulatory opportunities during activity periods. A dichotomy between diurnal and nocturnal ectotherms is not clear in every case, and temperature can directly affect the daily activity period in these organisms during both photophase and scotophase. In the present study we evaluate the thermal ecology of six tropical night lizards (genus Lepidophyma) from Mexico. Our results indicate a thermoconformer strategy in most of the studied species. In these species, thermal tolerances are associated with environmental temperatures to which they are exposed. Furthermore, thermal quality of the environment directly determines the daily activity period. Therefore, we argue that diurnal activity in Lepidophyma species is determined by local thermal conditions.


Resumo

Área foliar individual (AF) é uma variável chave em estudos sobre a ecofisiologia de arbóreas, porque influencia diretamente a interceptação de luz, a fotossíntese e a evapotranspiração das árvores adultas e das mudas. Foram analisadas as dimensões foliares (comprimento - C e largura - L) de indivíduos adultos e de mudas de sete espécies arbóreas de florestas neotropicais (Brosimum rubescens, Manilkara maxima, Pouteria caimito, Pouteria torta, Psidium cattleyanum, Symphonia globulifera e Tabebuia stenocalyx), com o objetivo de testar a viabilidade de modelos de regressão linear para estimar a AF de indivíduos adultos e mudas. No sul da Bahia, Brasil, um primeiro conjunto de dados foi coletado entre março e outubro de 2012. A partir das sete espécies analisadas, apenas duas (P. cattleyanum e T. stenocalyx) apresentaram relações muito semelhantes entre e AF e CL, em ambos os estádios ontogenéticos. Para estas duas espécies, um segundo conjunto de dados foi coletado em agosto de 2014, a fim de validar os modelos únicos que englobam folhas de indivíduos adultos e mudas. Nossos resultados mostram a possibilidade de desenvolvimento de modelos para a predição da área foliar, abrangendo diferentes estádios ontogenéticos para espécies arbóreas tropicais. O desenvolvimento destes modelos foi mais dependente das espécies do que das diferenças entre o tamanho das folhas de mudas e de indivíduos adultos.

Palavras-chave:
alometria foliar tamanho da folha formato da folha estádio ontogenético crescimento arbóreo


22.3: Tropical Rainforest - Biology

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Faculty Profiles

I have worked on the coral reefs of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans since 1982, and have written more than 180 scholarly research articles on coral reefs. My area of expertise is in the population and community ecology of scleractinian corals. I was the Environmental Editor for the international journal Coral Reefs from 2006 to 2013 and have been Director of the Institute for Global Ecology.

My research interests are broad but ultimately linked to the ecology of reef-building corals, including the effects of land-use change and global-climate change. Most recently, my students and I have been particularly interested in examining which processes capture population performance under climate change, and the degree to which these processes vary with habitat, region, and across time. As in the past, under certain circumstances adaptation is expected. But success will depend on a number of conditions, including the nature of the regional gene pool, the life-history characteristics of the organisms involved, the frequency and strength of the disturbances, and the local and regional oceanography. Essentially, we are striving to understand coral-reef systems and identify important processes to provide information that will give corals' their best chance of survival through this modern period of extensive human pressure.

Additional Duties

Director of the Institute for Global Ecology

Co-Director of Ocean 2100, a pillar of excellence at the Florida Institute of Technology

Current Research

Rob van Woesik's primary scientific goal is to assess the dynamics of coral populations and identify key processes that regulate those dynamics. He is particularly interested in climate change, thermal stress, adaptation, reef recovery, and refugia from climate change. Understanding reef systems and key processes on coral reefs will lead to predictive and accurate models of changes in coral-reef communities.

Selected Publications

van Woesik R, Köksal S, Ünal A, Cacciapaglia CW, Randall CJ (2018) Predicting coral dynamics through climate change. Nature Scientific Reports 8, 17997

van Woesik R, Cacciapaglia CW (2018) Keeping up with sea-level rise: Carbonate production rates in Palau and Yap, western Pacific Ocean. PLoS ONE 13(5): e019707

Cacciapaglia C and R van Woesik (2018) Marine species distribution modeling and the effects of genetic isolation under climate change. J Biogeography 45: 154-163

Randall CJ & van Woesik R (2017) Some coral diseases track climate oscillations in the Caribbean. Scientific Reports 7: 5719, doi:10.1038/s41598-017-05763-6

van Woesik R & Randall CR (2017) Coral-disease hotspots in the Caribbean. Ecosphere. doi: 10.1002/ecs2.1814

van Woesik R and K. R. McCaffrey (2017) Repeated thermal stress, shading, and directional selection in the Florida reef tract. Frontiers in Marine Science. doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2017.00182

van Woesik R (2017) Contemporary coral bleaching: why diversity matters. Biodiversity. DOI: 10.1080/14888386.2017.1307142

Cacciapaglia C and R van Woesik (2016) Climate-change refugia: shading reef corals by turbidity. Global Change Biology 22(3): 1145-1154

Randall CJ and R van Woesik (2015) Contemporary white-band disease in the Caribbean has been driven by climate change. Nature Climate Change 5: 375-379

Cacciapaglia C and R. van Woesik (2015) Reef-coral refugia in a rapidly changing ocean. Global Change Biology 21, 2272-2282

Mumby PJ and R. van Woesik (2014) Consequences of ecological, evolutionary and biogeochemical uncertainty for coral reef responses to climatic stress. Current Biology 24(10): 413-423

Randall, C.J., A. Jordan-Garza, E. Muller, R. van Woesik (2014) Relationships between the history of thermal stress and the relative risk of Caribbean coral diseases. Ecology 95(7): 1981-1994

van Woesik R (2013) Quantifying uncertainty and resilience on coral reefs using a Bayesian approach. Environmental Research Letters 8 (4): doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/4/044051

van Woesik R, P. Houk, A. L. Isechal, J. W. Idechong, S.Victor, Y. Golbuu (2012) Climate-change microrefugia: nearshore reefs bleach less than outer reefs during a 2010 regional thermal stress event in Palau. Ecology and Evolution 2(10): 2474-2484

van Woesik R and A. G. Jordan-Garza (2011) Coral populations in a rapidly changing environment. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 408: 11-20

van Woesik R, K. Sakai, A. Ganase, Y. Loya (2011) Revisiting the winners and loser a decade after coral bleaching. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 434: 67-76

Mosblech NA, Bush, MB, R van Woesik (2011) On Metapopulations and Microrefugia: paleoecological insights. J Biogeography. 38(3): 419-429

van Woesik R (2010) Calm before the spawn: global coral-spawning synchronization is explained by regional wind fields. Proc Royal Society B, 277: 715-722

Thompson D and van Woesik R (2009) Corals escape bleaching in regions that recently and historically experienced frequent thermal stress. Proc Royal Society B: 276(1669): 2893-2901

Rongo T, Bush M, van Woesik R (2009) Did Ciguatera prompt the late Holocene Polynesian voyages of Discovery? J Biogeography 36(8): 1423-1432

All publications

1. van Woesik R, Köksal S, Ünal A, Cacciapaglia CW, Randall CJ (2018) Predicting coral dynamics through climate change. Nature Scientific Reports 8, 17997

2. Li Y, Randall CJ, van Woesik R, Ribeiro E (2018) Underwater video mosaicing using topology and superpixel-based pairwise stitching. Expert Systems with Applications. DOI: 10.1016/j.eswa.2018.10.041

3. Gravinese PM, Enochs IC, Manzello DP, van Woesik R (2018) Warming and pCO2 effects on Florida stone-crab larvae. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Sciences 204: 193-201

4. van Woesik R, Cacciapaglia CW (2018) Keeping up with sea-level rise: Carbonate production rates in Palau and Yap, western Pacific Ocean. PLoS ONE 13(5): e019707

5. Cacciapaglia C and R van Woesik (2018) Marine species distribution modeling and the effects of genetic isolation under climate change. J Biogeography 45: 154-163

6. Randall CJ & van Woesik R (2017) Some coral diseases track climate oscillations in the Caribbean. Scientific Reports 7: 5719, doi:10.1038/s41598-017-05763-6

7. van Woesik R, Ripple K, Miller S (2017) Macroalgae reduces survival of nursery-reared corals in the Florida reef tract. Restoration Ecology. Doi:10.1111/rec.12590

8. van Woesik R and K. R. McCaffrey (2017) Repeated thermal stress, shading, and directional selection in the Florida reef tract. Frontiers in Marine Science. doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2017.00182

9. van Woesik R & Randall CR (2017) Coral-disease hotspots in the Caribbean. Ecosphere. doi: 10.1002/ecs2.1814

10. van Woesik R (2017) Contemporary coral bleaching: why diversity matters. Biodiversity. DOI: 10.1080/14888386.2017.1307142

11. Bush MB, Correa-Metrio A, van Woesik R, Shadik CR, McMichael CNH (2017) Human disturbance amplifies Amazonian El Nino–Southern Oscillation signal. Global Change Biology (2017), doi: 10.1111/gcb.13608

12. Holden PB, JB. Birks, SJ. Brooks, MB. Bush, GM. Hwang, F Matthews-Bird, B G. Valencia, and R van Woesik (2017) BUMPER v1.0: A Bayesian User-friendly Model for Palaeo-Environmental Reconstruction. Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., doi:10.5194/gmd-2016-227

13. Precht WF, BE. Gintert, ML. Robbart, R Fura, R van Woesik (2016) Unprecedented disease-related coral mortality in southeastern Florida. Scientific Reports 6, 31374, doi:10.1038/srep31374

14. Licuanan WY, R Robles, M Dygico, A Songco, R van Woesik (2016) Coral benchmarks in the center of biodiversity. Marine Pollution Bulletin, doi: 0.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.10.017

15. Randall CJ, A. G. Jordán-Garza, E. M. Muller, R van Woesik (2016) Does dark-spot syndrome experimentally transmit among Caribbean corals? PLoS ONE 11(1): e0147493. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147493

16. Cacciapaglia C and R van Woesik (2016) Climate-change refugia: shading reef corals by turbidity. Global Change Biology 22(3): 1145-1154

17. van Woesik R, Cacciapaglia C, Randall C (2016) ­Thermal-stress response of coral communities to climate change. Eds (R. Gorredo and Z. Dubinsky), In: The Cnidaria, past, present and future. The world of Medusa and her sister. Springer, pp 545-552, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-31305-4_33

18. R. van Woesik, Y Golbuu, G Roff (2015) Keep up or drown: adjustment of Pacific coral reefs to contemporary sea-level rise. Royal Society Open Science, DOI: 10.1098/rsos.150181

19. Gouezo M, Y Golbuu, R van Woesik, Lincoln Rehm, Shirley Koshiba, Christopher Doropoulos (2015) The impacts of two sequential super typhoons on coral-reef communities in Palau. Marine Ecology Progress Series 540: 73-85

20. Aronson R.B, Kathryn E. Smith, Stephanie C. Vos, James B. McClintock, Margaret O. Amsler, Per-Olav Moksnes, Daniel S. Ellis, Jeffrey W. Kaeli, Hanumant Singh, John W. Bailey, Jessica C. Schiferl, Robert van Woesik, Michael A. Martin, Brittan V. Steffel, Michelle E. Deal, Steven M. Lazarus, Jonathan N. Havenhand, Rasmus Swalethorp, Sanne Kjellerup, Sven Thatje (2015) No barrier to emergence of bathyal King Crabs on the Antarctic Shelf. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences doi: 10.1073/pnas.1513962112

21. Houk P, Camacho R, Johnson S, McLean M, Maxon S, Anson J, Joseph E, Nedlic O, Luckymis M, Adams K, Hess D, Kabua E, Buthung E, Yalon A, Graham C, Leberer T, Taylor B, van Woesik R (2015). The Micronesia Challenge: Assessing the relative contribution of stressors on coral reefs to facilitate science-to-management feedback. PLoS ONE 10(6): e0130823. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130823

22. Zavala-Garay J, J. Theiss, M. Moulton, C. Walsh, R. van Woesik, C. G. Mayorga-Adame, M. Garc´ıa-Reyes, D. S. Mukaka, K. Whilden, and Y. Shagude (2015). The dynamics of the Zanzibar channel. J Geophysical Research 120: 6091-6113.

23. van Woesik R and Cacciapaglia C (2015) Refining reef-coral refugia. Global Change Biology. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12946

24. Randall CJ and R. van Woesik (2015) Contemporary white-band disease in the Caribbean has been driven by climate change. Nature Climate Change 5: 375-379

25. Cacciapaglia C and R. van Woesik (2015) Reef-coral refugia in a rapidly changing ocean. Global Change Biology 21, 2272-2282

26. Roff G, Iliana Chollett, Christopher Doropoulos, Yimnang Golbuu, Robert S. Steneck, Lukes Isechal, Robert van Woesik, Peter J. Mumby (2015) Exposure-driven algal phase shift following a typhoon on a coral reef in Palau. Coral Reefs 34: 715-725, DOI 10.1007/s00338-015-1305-z

27. Robert van Woesik, William J. Scott IV, Richard B. Aronson (2014) Lost opportunities? Coral recruitment does not translate to reef recovery in the Florida Keys. Marine Pollution Bulletin 88: 110-117

28. Edmunds P.J., Adjeroud M., Baskett M., Baums I.B., Budd A., Carpenter RC, Fabina N., Fan T-Y., Franklin E.C., Gross K., Han X., Jacobson L., Klaus, J., McClanahan T., O’Leary J.K., van Oppen, M., Pochon X., Putnam H., Smith T., Stat M., H. Sweatman, van Woesik, R., and R.D. Gates (2014) Persistence and change in community composition of reef corals through past, present, and future climates. PLoS One 9(10): e107525.

29. EM Muller and R van Woesik (2014) Genetic susceptibility, colony size, and water temperature drive white-pox disease on the coral Acropora palmata. PLoS One 9(11): e110759.

30. Randall CJ, Jordan-Garza AG, R. van Woesik (2014) Ciliates associated with signs of disease on two Caribbean corals. Coral Reefs 34:243–247

31. Mumby PJ and R. van Woesik (2014) Consequences of ecological, evolutionary and biogeochemical uncertainty for coral reef responses to climatic stress. Current Biology 24(10): 413-423

32. Randall, C.J., A. Jordan-Garza, E. Muller, R. van Woesik (2014) Relationships between the history of thermal stress and the relative risk of Caribbean coral diseases. Ecology 95(7): 1981-1994

33. Toth LT, R. van Woesik, S. R. Smith, T. J. T. Murdoch, J. C. Ogden, W. F. Precht, R. B. Aronson (2014). Do no-take reserves benefit Florida’s corals? 14 years of change and stasis in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Coral Reefs 33: 565-577

34. Muller EM, C Rogers, R. van Woesik (2014) Early signs of recovery of Acropora palmata in St. John, US Virgin Islands. Marine Biology 161: 359-365

35. van Woesik R (2013) Quantifying uncertainty and resilience on coral reefs using a Bayesian approach. Environmental Research Letters 8 (4): doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/4/044051

36. van Woesik R, van Woesik K, van Woesik L, van Woesik S (2013) Effects of ocean acidification on the dissolution rates of reef-coral skeletons. PeerJ http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.208

37. Roth L, E.M. Muller, R. van Woesik (2013) Tracking Acropora fragmentation and population structure through thermal-stress events. Ecological Modelling 263: 223-232

38. Graham J and van Woesik R (2013) The effects of partial mortality on the fecundity of three common Caribbean corals. Marine Biology 160(10): 2561-2565

39. Ohki S, T. Irie, M. Inoue, K. Shinmen, H. Kawahata, T. Nakamura, A. Kato, Y.Nojiri, A.Iguchi, A. Suzuki, K. Sakai, R van Woesik (2013) Symbiosis increases coral tolerance to ocean acidification. Biogeosciences Discussion, 10, 7013–7030

40. Houk P & van Woesik R (2013) Progress and perspectives on question-driven coral-reef monitoring. BioScience 63(4): 297-303

41. Mumby PJ, Bejarano S, Golbuu Y, Steneck RS, Arnold SN, van Woesik R, Friedlander A (2012) The anatomy and suspected drivers of resilience on Micronesian coral reefs. Coral Reefs, 32: 213–226

42. Rongo T & van Woesik R (2013) The effects of natural disturbances, reef state, and herbivorous fish densities on ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga, southern Cook Islands. Toxicon 64: 87-95

43. Golbuu Y, Wolanski E, Idechong JW, Victor S, Isechal AL, Oldiais NW, Idip D, Richmond R, van Woesik R (2012) High reef density increases coral recruitment in Palau. PLoS One 7(11): e50998

44. Burman S, Aronson R, van Woesik R (2012) Biotic homogenization of coral assemblages along the Florida reef tract. Marine Ecology Progress Series 467: 89-96

45. Muller E & van Woesik R (2012) Caribbean coral diseases: primary transmission or secondary infection? Global Change Biology 18: 3529-3535

46. Mosblech NA, Bush MB, Gosling WD, Thomas L, van Calsteren P, Correa-Metrio A, Valencia BG, Curtis J, van Woesik R (2012) North Atlantic forcing of Amazonian precipitation through the last ice age. Nature Geosciences 5: 817-820

47. Rongo T & van Woesik R (2012) Socio-economic impacts of ciguatera in Rarotonga, southern Cook Islands. Harmful Algae 10(4): 345-365

48. van Woesik R, Houk P, Isechal AL, Idechong JW, Victor S, Golbuu Y (2012) Climate-change microrefugia: nearshore reefs bleach less than outer reefs during a 2010 regional thermal stress event in Palau. Ecology and Evolution 2(10): 2474-2484

49. McClanahan TR, Donner SD, Maynard JE, MacNeil MA, Maina JM, Baker AC, Alemu JB, Beger M, Campbell SJ, Darling ES, Eakin CM, Graham NAJ, Heron SF, Jupiter SD, Lundquist C, McLeod E, Mumby P, Paddack MJ, Selig ER, van Woesik R (2012) Using evidence-based resilience assessments to support coral reef management in a changing climate. PLoS One 7(8): e42889

50. van Woesik R, Irikawa A, Anzai R, Nakamura T (2012) Effects of coral-colony morphologies on mass transfer and susceptibility to thermal stress. Coral Reefs 31, 633-639

51. Toth LT, Aronson RB, Vollmer SV, Hobbs JW, Urrego DH, Cheng H, Enochs IC, Combosch DJ, van Woesik R, Macintyre IG (2012) ENSO-drove 2,500-year collapse of eastern Pacific coral reefs. Science 337: 81-84

52. van Woesik R, Franklin EC, O’Leary J, McClanahan TR, Klaus J, Budd AF (2012) Hosts of the Plio-Pleistocene past reflect modern-day coral vulnerability. Proc Royal Society B. 279: 2448-2456

53. van Woesik R & Jordan-Garza AG (2011) Coral populations in a rapidly changing environment. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 408: 11-20

54. van Woesik R, Sakai K, Ganase A, Loya Y (2011) Revisiting the winners and the losers a decade after coral bleaching. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 434: 67-76

55. Rongo T, & van Woesik R (2011) Ciguatera fish poisoning in Rarotonga, southern Cook Islands. Harmful Algae 10: 345-355

56. Irikawa A, Casareto BE, Suzuki Y, Aagostini S, Hidaka M, van Woesik R (2011) Growth anomalies on Acropora cytherea corals. Marine Poll Bull 62(8): 455-460

57. Jordan-Garza AG, Muller EM, Burma SG, van Woesik R (2011) Susceptibility of coral-disease models. PNAS 108(20): E110-111

58. Wild C, Ateweberhan M, Fitt WK, Colombo F, Palmer C, Bythell JC, Naumann M, Iglesias-Prieto R, Ortiz JC, Loya Y, Hoegh-Guldberg O, van Woesik R, (2011) Climate change interferes with the role reef-building corals play as ecosystem engineers. Mar Fresh Res 62: 205-215

59. Golbuu Y, van Woesik R, Richmond RH, Harrison P, Fabricius KE (2011) River discharge reduces coral diversity in Palau. Marine Pollution Bulletin 62: 824-831

60. Mosblech NA, Bush MB, van Woesik R (2011) On Metapopulations and Microrefugia: paleoecological insights. J Biogeography 38(3): 419-429

61. Green R, McArdle B, van Woesik R (2011) Sampling state and process variables on coral reefs. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 178: 455-460

62. Edwards HJ, Elliott IA, Eakin CM, Irikawa A, Madin JS, McField M, Morgan JA, van Woesik R, Mumby PJ (2011) How much time can herbivore protection buy for coral reefs under realistic regimes of hurricanes and coral bleaching? Global Change Biology 17: 2033-2048

63. Muller EM, van Woesik R (2011) Black-band disease dynamics: prevalence, incidence, and acclimization to light. Shading increases black-band disease progression on Diploria strigosa. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 397: 52-57

64. Roth L, Koksal S, van Woesik R (2010) Effects of thermal stress on key processes driving coral population dynamics. Marine Ecology Progress Series 411: 73-87

65. Done T, DeVantier LM, Turak E, Fisk DA, Wakeford M, van Woesik R (2010) Coral growth on three reefs: development of recovery benchmarks using a space for time approach. Coral Reefs 29: 815-833

66. Wagner DE, Kramer P, van Woesik R (2010) Species composition, habitat, and water quality influence coral bleaching in south-eastern Florida. Marine Ecology Progress Series 408: 65-78

67. Reed KC, Muller E, van Woesik R (2010) Coral immunology and resistance to disease. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 90(2): 85-92

68. van Woesik R, Shiroma K, Koksal S (2010) Phenotypic variance predicts symbiont population densities in corals a modeling approach. PLoS One 5(2): e9185. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009185

69. van Woesik R (2010) Calm before the spawn: global coral-spawning synchronization is explained by regional wind fields. Proc Royal Society B, 277: 715-722

70. Zvuloni A, van Woesik R, Loya Y (2010) Diversity partitioning of stony corals across multiple spatial scales around Zanzibar Island, Tanzania. PLoS One 5(3) e9941. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009941

71. van Woesik R (2009) Corals' prolonged struggle against unfavorable conditions. Galaxea 11: 53-58

72. Victor S, Golbuu Y, Yukihira H, van Woesik R (2009) Acropora size-frequency distributions reflect spatially variable conditions on coral reefs of Palau. Bull Mar Sci 85(2): 149-157

73. Houk P & van Woesik R (2009) Coral assemblages and reef growth in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (Western Pacific Ocean). Marine Ecology 31(2): 318-329

74. Thompson D & van Woesik R (2009) Corals escape bleaching in regions that recently and historically experienced frequent thermal stress. Proc Royal Society B: 276(1669): 2893-2901

75. Figueiredo J, van Woesik R, Lin J, Narciso L (2009) Artemia franciscana enrichment model - How to keep them small, rich and alive? Aquaculture 294: 212-220

76. Muller E & van Woesik R (2009) Shading reduces coral-disease progression. Coral Reefs 28: 757-760

77. Rongo T, Bush M, van Woesik R (2009) Did Ciguatera prompt the late Holocene Polynesian voyages of Discovery? J Biogeography 36(8): 1423-1432

78. Fitt WK, Gates R, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Bythell J, Jakar A, Grottoli AG, Gomez M, Fisher P, Franklin D, Lajeunesse T, Pantos O, Igelsias-Prieto R, Rodrigues LJ, Torregiani JM, van Woesik R, Lesser MP (2009) Response of two species of Indo-Pacific corals, Porites cylindrica and Stylophora pistillata, to short-term thermal stress: the host does matter in determining the tolerance of corals to bleaching. J Exp Mar Biol Ecology 373: 102-110

79. Wagner D, Mielbrecht E, van Woesik R (2008) Application of landscape ecology to spatio-temporal variance of water-quality parameters along the Florida Keys reef tract. Bull Marine Science 83(3): 553-569

80. Dodge RE, Birkeland C, Hatziolos M, Kleypas J, Palumbi SR, Hoegh-Guldberg O, van Woesik R, Ogden JC, Aronson RB, Causey BD, Staub F (2008) A Call to Action for Coral Reefs. Science 322: 189-190

81. Iwase A, Sakai K, Suzuki A, van Woesik R (2008) Phototrophic adjustment of the foliaceous coral Echinopora lamellosa in Palau. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 77: 672-678

82. Zvuloni A, Artzy-Randrup Y, Stone L, van Woesik R, Loya Y (2008) Ecological size-frequency distributions: how to prevent and correct biases in spatial sampling. Limnol & Oceanog 6: 144-153

83. Houk P & van Woesik R (2008) Dynamics of shallow-water assemblages in the Saipan Lagoon. Marine Ecology Progress Series 356: 39-50

84. Muller EM, Rogers CS, Spitzack AS, van Woesik R (2008) Bleaching increases likelihood of disease on Acropora palmata (Lamarck) at Hawksnest Bay, St. John, US Virgin Islands. Coral Reefs: 27: 191-195

85. Papina M, Meziane T, van Woesik R. (2007) Acclimation effect on fatty acids of the coral Montipora digitata and its symbiotic algae. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B: 147: 583-589

86. Golbuu Y, Victor S, Penland L, Idip D, Emaurois C, Okaji K, Yukihira H, Iwase A, van Woesik R (2007) Palau’s coral reefs show differential habitat recovery following the 1998-bleaching event. Coral Reefs 26: 319-332

87. Houk P, Bograd S, van Woesik R (2007). The Transition Zone Chlorophyll Front acts as a trigger for Acanthaster planci outbreaks in the Pacific Ocean: a historical confirmation. Journal of Oceanography 63: 149-154

88. van Woesik R, Lacharmoise F, Koksal S (2006) Annual cycles of solar insolation predict spawning times of Caribbean corals. Ecology Letters 9: 390-398

89. van Woesik R and Koksal S (2006) A coral population response (CPR) model for thermal stress. In: J. T. Phinney, O. Hoegh‐Guldberg, J. Kleypas, W. Skirving, and A. Strong, Coastal and Estuarine Studies 61: Coral reefs and climate change: science and management. Published by American Geophysical Union, Washington DC: p 129-144

90. Dikou A & van Woesik R (2006) Survival under chronic stress from sediment load: spatial pattern of hard coral communities, southern islands, Singapore. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52: 7-21

91. Houk P & van Woesik R (2006) Coral reef benthic video surveys facilitate long term monitoring in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands: toward an optimal sampling strategy. Pacific Science 60(2): 175-187

92. Dikou A & van Woesik R (2006) Partial colony mortality reflects coral community dynamics: A fringing reef study near a small river in Okinawa, Japan. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52: 269-280

93. van Woesik R, Nakamura T, Yamasaki H, Sheppard C (2005) Comment on ‘ Effects of geography, taxa, water flow, and temperature variation on coral bleaching intensity in Mauritius’ by McClanahan et (2005). Marine Ecology Progress Series 305: 297-299

94. Nakamura T, van Woesik R, Yamasaki H (2005) Photoinhibition of photosynthesis is reduced by water flow in the reef-building coral Acropora digitifera. Marine Ecology Progress Series 301: 109-118

95. Houk P, Didonato G, Iguel J, van Woesik R (2005) Assessing the effects of non-point source pollution on American Samoa’s coral reef communities. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 107: 11-27

96. van Woesik R (2004) Comment on coral reef death during the 1997 Indian Ocean dipole linked to Indonesian wildfires. Science 303: 1297

97. Bena C and R. van Woesik (2004). The impact of two bleaching events on the survival of small-coral colonies. Bulletin of Marine Science 75(1): 115-125

98. Nakamura S, Misumi O, Aoyama H, van Woesik R, Kuroiwa T (2004) Monokaryotic chloroplast (moc) mutation has no effect on non-Mendelian transmission of chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA in Chlamydomonas. Protoplasma 224: 107-112

99. Penland L, Kloulechad J, Idip D, van Woesik R (2004) Coral spawning in the western Pacific Ocean is related to solar radiation: evidence of multiple spawning events in Palau. Coral Reefs 23: 133-140

100. van Woesik R, A. Irikawa, Y Loya. (2004) Coral bleaching: signs of change in southern Japan. In, Coral Health and Disease (eds. Eugene Rosenberg & Yossi Loya), Springer, 119-141

101. Takahashi S, Nakamura T, Sakamizu M, van Woesik R, Yamasaki H (2004) Repair machinery of symbiotic photosynthesis as the primary target of heat stress for reef-building corals. Plant & Cell Physiology 45(2): 251-255

102. Nakamura T, Yamasaki H, van Woesik R. (2003) Water-flow treatment facilitates recovery from bleaching in the coral Stylophora pistillata. Marine Ecology Progress Series 256: 287-291

103. Gilmore AM, AWD Larkum, A Salih A, S Itoh, Y Shibata, C Bena, H Yamasaki, M Papina, R van Woesik (2003) Simultaneous time-resolution of the emission spectra of fluorescent proteins and zooxanthellar chlorophyll in reef building corals. Photochemistry and Photobiology 77: 515- 523

104. Papina M, T. Meziane, R. van Woesik (2003) Symbiotic zooxanthellae provide the host coral Montipora digitata with polyunsaturated fatty acids. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 135(3): 533-537

105. Nakamura S, H Aoyama, R van Woesik (2003) Strict paternal transmission of Chlamydomonas algae mitochondria DNA is explained by active degradation of maternal mitochondrial nucleoids. Protoplasma 221:205-210

106. LaJeunesse TC, WKW Loh, R. van Woesik, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, GW Schmidt, WK Fitt (2003) Low symbiont diversity in southern Great Barrier Reef corals relative to those of the Caribbean. Limnology and Oceanography 48(5): 2046-2054

107. van Woesik R (2002) Processes regulating coral communities. Comments on Theoretical Biology 7: 201-214

108. Papina M, Y. Sakihama, C. Bena, R. van Woesik and H. Yamasaki (2002) Separation of highly fluorescent proteins by SDS-PAGE in Acroporidae corals. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 131: 767-774

109. Ohde S, Greaves M, Masuzama T, Buckley H.A., van Woesik R, Wilson P.A., Pirazzoli P.A., Elderfield H (2002) The chronology of Funafuti Atoll: revisiting an old friend. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: 458:1-18

110. Titlyanov EA, Titlyanova TV, van Woesik R, Yamazato K (2002) Acclimation of the hermatypic coral Stylophora pistillata to bright light. Russian Journal of Marine Biology 28: S41-S47.

111. van Woesik R (2001) Coral bleaching: transcending spatial and temporal scales. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16(3): 120-122

112. Nakamura T and van Woesik R (2001) Differential survival of corals during the 1998-bleaching event is partially explained by water-flow rates and passive diffusion. Marine Ecology Progress Series 212 301-304

113. Titlyanov EA, Titlyanova TV, Yamazato K, van Woesik R (2001) Photoacclimation of the hermatypic coral Stylophora pistillata while subjected to either starvation or food provisioning. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 257: 163-181

114. Loya Y, Sakai K, Yamazato K, Nakano Y, Sambali H, van Woesik R (2001) Coral bleaching: the winners and the losers. Ecology Letters 4: 122-131

115. West K and van Woesik R (2001) Spatial and temporal variance of river discharge on Okinawa (Japan): inferring the temporal impact on adjacent coral reefs. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42(10): 864-872

116. Titlyanov EA, Titlyanova TV, van Woesik R, Yamazato K (2001) Photo-acclimation dynamics of the coral Stylophora pistillata to low and extremely low light. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 263: 211-225

117. Suefuji M and van Woesik R (2001) Coral recovery from the 1998-bleaching event is facilitated in Stegastes (Pisces: Pomacentridae) territories, Okinawa, Japan. Coral Reefs 20: 385-386

118. Titlyanov EA, Titlyanova TV, Letetkin VA, Tsukahara J, van Woesik R, Yamazato K (2000) Zooxanthellae population density and physiological state of the coral Stylophora pistillata during starvation, osmotic shock. Symbiosis 28: 303-322

119. van Woesik, R (2000) A metacommunity model predicts coral diversity regulated by post‑settlement mortality. Biodiversity and Conservation 9(9): 1219-1233

120. Yamashiro H., Yamamoto M., van Woesik R (2000) Tumor formation on the coral Montipora informis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 41: 211-217

121. Hibino K and van Woesik R (2000) Spatial differences and seasonal changes of net carbonate accumulation on some corals reefs of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 252(1): 1-14

122. van Woesik R, Tomascik T, Blake S (1999) Coral assemblages and physico-chemical characteristics of the Whitsunday Islands: Evidence of recent community changes. Marine and Freshwater Research 50: 427-440.

123. Titlyanov EA, Titlyanova TV, Tsukahara J, van Woesik R, Yamazato K (1999) Experimental increases of zooxanthellae density in the coral Stylophora pistillata elucidate adaptive mechanisms for zooxanthellae regulation. Symbiosis 26: 347-362

124. Ohde S and van Woesik R (1999) Carbon Dioxide flux and metabolic processes of a coral reef (Okinawa, Japan). Bulletin of Marine Science 65(2): 559-576.

125. Fallon S J., McCulloch M T., van Woesik R., Sinclair D J (1999) Corals at their latitudinal limits: Laser ablation trace element systematics in Porites from Shirigai Bay, Japan. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 172: 221-238

126. van Woesik R (1998) Lesion healing on massive Porites corals. Marine Ecology Progress Series 164: 213-220.

127. van Woesik R and Done TJ (1997) Coral communities and reef growth in the southern Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 16: 103-115

128. Tomascik T, van Woesik R, Mah AJ (1996) Rapid colonization of a recent lava flow following a volcanic eruption, Banda Islands, Indonesia. Coral Reefs 15: 169-175

129. Titlyanov EA, Titlyanova TV, Letetkin VA, Tsukahara J, van Woesik R, Yamazato K (1996) Degradation of zooxanthellae and regulation of their density in hermatypic corals. Marine Ecology Progress Series 139: 167-178

130. van Woesik R (1996) An earthquake effect on a coral reef, Japan. Coral Reefs 15(4): 224.

131. van Woesik R (1995) Coral communities at high latitude are not pseudopopulations: evidence of spawning at 32oN, Japan. Coral Reefs 14: 119-120.

132. van Woesik R, De Vantier LM, Glazebrook JS (1995) Effects of cyclone `Joy' on nearshore coral communities of the Great Barrier Reef. Marine Ecology Progress Series 128: 261-270.

133. van Woesik R (1994) Contemporary disturbances to coral communities of the Great Barrier Reef. Journal of Coastal Research 12: 233-252.

134. van Woesik R, Ayling AM, Mapstone B (1991) Impact of Tropical Cyclone `Ivor' on the Great Barrier Reef. Journal of Coastal Research 7 (2): 551-558.

135. Anand Mehta, Eraldo Ribeiro, Jessica Gilner, and Robert van Woesik (2007) Coral Reef Texture Classification Using Support Vector Machines. International Conference of Computer Vision Theory and Applications - VISAPP, pp.302-310, Barcelona, Spain, 2007.

136. Flot JF, Ozouf-Costaz, C, Tsuchiya, M, van Woesik R (2006) Comparative coral cytogenetics. Proc 10th Int Coral Reef Sym, Japan, pp 4-7.

137. Strong AE, Liu G, Kimura T, Yamano H, Tsuchiya M, Kakuma S, van Woesik R (2002) Detecting and monitoring 2001 coral reef bleaching events in Ryukyu Islands, Japan using satellite bleaching HotSpot remote sensing technique. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2002. IGARSS '02. 2002 IEEE International ,Volume: 1 , 24-28 June 2002, Pages:237 - 239

138. van Woesik R (2000) Processes regulating coral community diversity: towards bridging the empirical-theoretical gap. Proceedings of JAMSTEC (Japan Marine Science and Technology Center) International Coral Reef Symposium: Coral Reef Biodiversity and Health as Indicators of Environmental Change. Tokyo, Japan. Published by Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Science and Technology Agency, pp 125-137

139. van Woesik R (1994) Geographic location influences coral composition: A comparison between Bali and Sulawesi, Indonesia. Third International Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Symposium, Bali, Indonesia, pp. 280-290.

140. van Woesik R, De Vantier LM, Steven ADL (1991) Discharge from tourist resorts in Queensland, Australia: Coral community response. In Proceedings on Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism, University of Hawaii, Hawaii: 323-327.

141. Steven ADL, van Woesik R, Brodie J (1991) Water quality monitoring studies within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park: Case Studies. In Proceedings on Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism, University of Hawaii, Hawaii: 335-341.

142. Hopley D, van Woesik R, Hoyal DCJP, Steven ADL (1991) The effect of disturbing tropical rainforest catchments adjacent to fringing coral reefs through the development of a road, Great Barrier Reef. In Proceedings on Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism, University of Hawaii, Hawaii: 328-334.

143. van Woesik R, J Gilner, A Hooten (2009) Standard Operating procedures for repeated measures of process and state variables of coral reef environments. University of Queensland publication, pp 35.

144. van Woesik R, Penland L, Idip D, Victor S (2007) Coral spawning in Palau. In Kayanne et al eds, Coral Reefs of Palau. Monograph published by Palau International Coral Reef Center, p 73-78.

145. Takamori S and van Woesik R (2000) The recovery process of broken Acropora branches at Mizugama, Okinawa Island, Japan. Natural Environmental Science Research 13: 45-50

146. Kuroki T and van Woesik R (1999) Changes in zooxanthellae characteristics in the hermatypic coral Stylophora pistillata during a ‘bleaching event’. Galaxea 1: 97-101

147. van Woesik (1998) The nearshore reefs of Brunei Darussalam: A reef coral survey,1997. In Resources and conservation of coral reefs in Brunei Darussalam. Marine Parks Centre of Japan publication, pp. 3-31.

148. van Woesik R (1997) Coral assemblages of Tongatapu, Kingdom of Tonga. In The report of the project for resources survey and conservation of Tongan Marine Reserves. Marine Parks Center of Japan publication, pp. 3-42.

149. van Woesik R (1996) Coral survey of the Tubbataha Reefs, Philippines. In The report of the project for resources survey and conservation of Tubbataha Reefs National Marine Park. Marine Parks Centre of Japan publication pp. 1-45.

150. van Woesik R (1996) Towards a standardised monitoring program for data collection on coral communities: examples from the Great Barrier Reef. In JR Clark, University of Miami. Coastal Zone Management Handbook, CRC Press: 482 – 487

151. van Woesik R (1995) Scleractinian taxonomy. Japan International Cooperation Agency Textbook for special training course of conservation and sustainable management of coral reefs. No. 12: 1-10.

152. Done TJ, Ayling AM, van Woesik R (1991) Broadscale survey of impacts of Cyclone ‘Ivor’ on Coral Reefs. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publication no. 24, 40 pp.

153. van Woesik R (1991) Immediate impact of the January 1991 floods on the coral assemblages of the Keppel Islands. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publication no. 23, 30 pp.

154. Hopley D, van Woesik R, Hoyal DCJP, Rasmussen CE, Steven AL (1990) Sedimentation resulting from road development, Cape Tribulation Area. Great Reef Marine Park Authority Technical Memorandum, 70 pp.

155. Steven ADL, Brodie J, van Woesik R, Hopley D (1990) A pilot study of Baseline levels of water quality around Green Island. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research Publication no. 14. 61 pp.

156. van Woesik R and Steven A (1987) Towards a spatio-temporal Atlas of fringing reefs in the southern section of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Proceedings of the Fringing Reef Workshop, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, pp. 53-73.

157. Warner, M.E., Barshis, D.J., Davies, S.W., Grottoli, A.G., LaJeunesse, T.C., van Woesik, R (2017) Investigating coral bleaching in a changing climate: Our state of understanding and opportunities to push the field forward. Report of the NSF U.S. Investigator Workshop on Coral Bleaching, June 17–18, 2016. Hawaii Prince Hotel, Honolulu, HI, 26 pp.

158. Lesser MP and R van Woesik (2015) Modeling climate-change effects on coral disease. Reef Encounter. Vol 30 (2): 31-35

159. Voegtle H, Houk P, van Woesik R (2004) Assessment of Heron Island coral community data collected in March 2002: A pilot study. Report to WorldFish, pp 18.

160. van Woesik R, Voegtle H, Houk P,Obura D (2004) Assessment of Puerto Morelos coral community data collected in September 2002: A pilot study, Report to WorldFish, pp 25

161. van Woesik R (2002) Coral Bleaching. Florida Institute of Technology Research News Report.

162. Marchant J (editorial advisor van Woesik R) (2001) Damsels help corals in distress. New Scientist 172 (2318): 19

163. van Woesik R (2000) Helen Reef corals. Report to the Government of Palau, 16 pp.

164. van Woesik R and Tomascik T (1998) Contemporary influences on, and recent changes to, coral communities of the Whitsunday Islands. Report to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, 45 pp.

165. van Woesik R (1997) A comparative survey of coral reefs in south-eastern Bali, Indonesia, 1992 and 1997. A report to Nippon Koei, 44 pp.

166. van Woesik R (1993) Does turbidity affect corals? Reef Research 3(3): 22-24.

167. van Woesik R (1993) Coral assemblages on continental islands in the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Report to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, 36 pp.

168. van Woesik R (1992) Ecology of coral assemblages on continental islands in the southern section of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. PhD thesis, Department of Marine Biology/Sir George Fisher Centre, James Cook University of North Queensland, Australia, 227 pp.

169. De Vantier LM, van Woesik R, Steven ADL (1992) Monitoring study of coral communities of Middle Reef, Townsville. A report to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, 59 pp.

170. van Woesik R and De Vantier LM (1992) Resource assessment of nearshore coral communities in the Whitsunday region. Report to the Department of Environment and Heritage, 106 pp.

171. van Woesik R (1992) Direct and indirect effects of tropical cyclones. Reef Research 2(2): 8-9.

172. Done TJ, Ayling AM, van Woesik R (1991) Broad-scale survey of impacts of cyclone 'Ivor' on coral reefs. A report to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, 39 pp.

173. Done TJ, De Vantier LM, Fisk DA, van Woesik R (1991) Analysis of coral colonies, populations and communities: Interpretation of outbreak history and projection of recovery. A report to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, 22 pp

174. van Woesik R (1991) A preliminary investigation of One Tree Lagoon: A supporting document for the ENCORE (Elevated nutrients on coral reefs) proposed by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. A report to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, 19 pp.

175. van Woesik R, De Vantier LM, Steven ADL (1989) Surveys of the distribution, abundance and impact of the Crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) on fringing and adjacent midshelf reefs of the Whitsunday region. Report to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, 67 pp.

176. van Woesik R, Hopley D, Parnell K (1989) An assessment of the fate of discharge brine from the John Brewer Reef floating hotel, Great Barrier Reef. A report to Barrier Reef Holdings, 32 pp.

177. van Woesik R (1989) An assessment of the coral reef communities on the Keppel Isles. A report to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, 30 pp.

178. Steven ADL and van Woesik R (1989) A multi-disciplinary examination of Hayman Island fringing reef: influence of a secondary sewage discharge. A report to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, 87 pp.

179. Parnell K and van Woesik R (1988) The hydrodynamics of Nelly Bay, Magnetic Island, North Queensland, with reference to the Magnetic Island Quays proposal. Report to MacIntyre and associates, 37 pp

180. van Woesik R and Hopley D (1988) Turbidity levels in Nelly Bay, Magnetic Island, North Queensland, with reference to the Magnetic Islands Quay proposal. Report to MacIntyre and associates, 25 pp.

181. van Woesik R and Steven ADL (1987) A 1987 survey of high island fringing reefs in the southern section of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Report to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, 152 pp

182. van Woesik R and Steven ADL (1987) A preliminary report on the benthic and fish assemblages of Hamilton Island: a prerequisite for monitoring. A report to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, 24 pp.

183. van Woesik R and Steven ADL (1987) A survey of benthic flora and fauna of selected reefs in the Whitsundays: Long, Tancred, Hook, and Langford Islands. A report to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, 45 pp.


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