Any idea what plant is this?

I was asked by my biology teacher to find out it's name but it seems like a pretty common plant to me so I have no idea how to start. Any idea what type of plant it is?

It was found in Malaysia in my school compound

I have no idea how to start

You probably need an "identification key", or some kind of guide, that will help you identify the plant based on a series of questions or identification criteria.

To be able to use such keys or guides, you will need to familiarize yourself with technical vocabulary used in plant description. Some idea of the kind of ecosystem where the plant lives in would likely help too.

If the plant seems common, you will maybe find it on listings of common plants for your area.


Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Biology, study of living things and their vital processes. The field deals with all the physicochemical aspects of life. The modern tendency toward cross-disciplinary research and the unification of scientific knowledge and investigation from different fields has resulted in significant overlap of the field of biology with other scientific disciplines. Modern principles of other fields—chemistry, medicine, and physics, for example—are integrated with those of biology in areas such as biochemistry, biomedicine, and biophysics.

What is biology?

Biology is a branch of science that deals with living organisms and their vital processes. Biology encompasses diverse fields, including botany, conservation, ecology, evolution, genetics, marine biology, medicine, microbiology, molecular biology, physiology, and zoology.

Why is biology important?

As a field of science, biology helps us understand the living world and the ways its many species (including humans) function, evolve, and interact. Advances in medicine, agriculture, biotechnology, and many other areas of biology have brought improvements in the quality of life. Fields such as genetics and evolution give insight into the past and can help shape the future, and research in ecology and conservation inform how we can protect this planet’s precious biodiversity.

Where do biology graduates work?

Biology graduates can hold a wide range of jobs, some of which may require additional education. A person with a degree in biology could work in agriculture, health care, biotechnology, education, environmental conservation, research, forensic science, policy, science communication, and many other areas.

Biology is subdivided into separate branches for convenience of study, though all the subdivisions are interrelated by basic principles. Thus, while it is custom to separate the study of plants (botany) from that of animals (zoology), and the study of the structure of organisms (morphology) from that of function (physiology), all living things share in common certain biological phenomena—for example, various means of reproduction, cell division, and the transmission of genetic material.

Biology is often approached on the basis of levels that deal with fundamental units of life. At the level of molecular biology, for example, life is regarded as a manifestation of chemical and energy transformations that occur among the many chemical constituents that compose an organism. As a result of the development of increasingly powerful and precise laboratory instruments and techniques, it is possible to understand and define with high precision and accuracy not only the ultimate physiochemical organization (ultrastructure) of the molecules in living matter but also the way living matter reproduces at the molecular level. Especially crucial to those advances was the rise of genomics in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

Cell biology is the study of cells—the fundamental units of structure and function in living organisms. Cells were first observed in the 17th century, when the compound microscope was invented. Before that time, the individual organism was studied as a whole in a field known as organismic biology that area of research remains an important component of the biological sciences. Population biology deals with groups or populations of organisms that inhabit a given area or region. Included at that level are studies of the roles that specific kinds of plants and animals play in the complex and self-perpetuating interrelationships that exist between the living and the nonliving world, as well as studies of the built-in controls that maintain those relationships naturally. Those broadly based levels—molecules, cells, whole organisms, and populations—may be further subdivided for study, giving rise to specializations such as morphology, taxonomy, biophysics, biochemistry, genetics, epigenetics, and ecology. A field of biology may be especially concerned with the investigation of one kind of living thing—for example, the study of birds in ornithology, the study of fishes in ichthyology, or the study of microorganisms in microbiology.

Biology Research Paper Topics Really Are Important!

It doesn’t matter what area of biology you need to write about. This information applies to everything from zoology and botany to anatomy. The reality is that your professor will really appreciate good topics. And you can rest assured that he or she knows how to spot them. The moment the professor starts to read your paper, he or she will immediately realize that you really did your best to find an excellent topic. And if you write a good introduction paragraph (which contains a captivating thesis statement as well), you are in the best position to earn bonus points.

You may not be aware of it, but teachers are willing to treat great papers with more leniency. This means that you will not get penalized for minor mistakes if you come up with a great topic. In other words, you will get a better grade on your papers if you manage to come up with good research topics for biology. This is a fact and it is based on thousands of pieces of feedback from our readers.

How Do You Choose Good Biology Research Topics?

Choosing research topics for biology can be a daunting task. Frankly, the research paper topics biology students are looking for are not easy to come by. The first thing you want to avoid is going to the first website that pops up in Google and getting your ideas from there. Most of your peers will do the same. Also, avoid topics that are extremely simple. You will simply not have enough ideas to write about. Of course, you should avoid overly complex topics because finding information about them may be extremely difficult.

The best way to find a good topic, in our opinion, is to get in touch with an academic writing company. You will get access to a professional writer who knows exactly what professors are looking for. A writer will quickly give you an amazing research topic in biology.

Eloquent Examples of Popular Biology Research Topics

To make things as simple as possible for you, we’ve put together a list of biology research project ideas. You will find 100 topics on various subjects below. Of course, you can use any of our topics for free. However, keep in mind that even though we are doing our best to maintain this list fresh, other students will find it as well. If you need new topics for your next biology essay, we recommend you to get in touch with us. We monitor our email address, so we can help you right away. Also, you can buy a research paper from our service.

Biology Research Topics for High School

Are you looking for biology research topics for high school? These are relatively simple when compared to college-level topics. Here are a couple of topic ideas that high school students will surely appreciate:

  1. Identifying Three Dead Branches of Evolution.
  2. What Is Sleep?
  3. How Does Physical Exercise Affect the Metabolism?
  4. A Behavioral Study of Birds.
  5. How Does Music Affect Your Brain?
  6. Climate Change and Biodiversity.
  7. Are Bees Really Becoming Extinct?
  8. Rainforest Extinction Is Dangerous.
  9. The Benefits of Organic Farming.
  10. Can the Brain Repair Itself?
  11. The Effect of Bacteria on Depression.
  12. How Do Sea Animals Camouflage?

Research Topics in Biology for Undergraduates

Research topics in biology for undergraduates are more complex than high school or college topics. Our researchers did their best to find topics that are relatively complex. However, each one of the following topics has plenty of information about it online:

  1. What Is the Mechanism of Metastasis in Cancer Patients?
  2. How Do Tumor Suppressor Genes Appear?
  3. How Can We Destroy Cancer Cells Without Damaging Other Cells?
  4. The Benefits of Gene Therapy.
  5. Analyzing the Huntington’s Disease (the HTT Gene).
  6. How Does the down Syndrome (Trisomy of 21st Chromosome) Appear?
  7. Analyzing the Brain Activity During an Epileptic Seizure.
  8. How Are Our Memories Formed and Preserved?
  9. The Effect of Probiotics on Infections.
  10. Analyzing Primate Language.
  11. Analyzing Primate Cognitive Functions.
  12. The Link Between Darwin’s Theory and Biology.

Biology Research Topics for College Students

Biology research topics for college students are of moderate difficulty. They are easier than undergrad topics and more complex than high school topics. While compiling this list, we made sure you have more than enough information online to write the paper quickly:

  1. Using DNA Technology in the Field of Medical Genetics.
  2. The Effect of Drinking on Embryonic Development.
  3. How Are Genes Mapped and Cloned?
  4. Explain What Genetic Polymorphism Is.
  5. What Is a Hereditary Disease?
  6. The Effect of Drugs on Embryonic Development.
  7. Describing Oligogenic Diseases (like Hirschsprung Disease)
  8. What Is the Mendelian Inheritance?
  9. How Transcriptomics and Proteomics Changed Modern Medicine.
  10. The Risk Factors of Infertility Explained.
  11. How Does Aging Effect Infertility?
  12. What Do Ash Elements Do in a Plant?
  13. Explaining the Pigments in a Plant Cell.
  14. How Is Photosynthesis Done?
  15. The Role of Fats in Plant Cells.
  16. The Effect of Smoking on Embryonic Development.

Cell Biology Research Topics

Some of the best biology topics are cell biology research topics. The scientific community is constantly making progress in this area, so there is always something new to write about. Here are some of the best examples:

  1. What Is Regenerative Medicine?
  2. A Closer Look at Tissue Engineering.
  3. Discuss the Future of Regenerative Medicine.
  4. Analyzing Therapeutic Cloning.
  5. The Pros and Cons of Creating Artificial Organs.
  6. How Do Cell Age?
  7. Can We Reverse Cell Aging?
  8. Advances in Cell Therapy.
  9. What Is Cell Adhesion?
  10. Explaining Cell Division.
  11. What Is Cellular Metabolism?
  12. Describe Active and Passive Transport in Cells.
  13. What Are Cell Plastids?

Evolutionary Biology Research Paper Topics

If you want something more complex, you can try your hand at writing on evolutionary biology research paper topics. As with all our topics, you will be able to find a lot of ideas and information online. Here are our picks:

  1. Where Did Plants Come From? (The Evolutionary Theory)
  2. Explaining the Host-parasite Coevolution.
  3. How Did Parasites Evolve over Time?
  4. What Is Natural Selection and How Does It Work?
  5. Explain Sexual Selection.
  6. Explain Sexual Conflict.
  7. How Did Our Immune Systems Evolve?
  8. How Do New Species Appear in the Wild?
  9. The Evolution of Cell Respiration.
  10. What Is the Hippo Pathway? (Developmental Biology)

Various Topics

Antibiotics resistance, agriculture and cloning are hot subjects nowadays. Your professor will surely be interested to learn more about biology research topics. Here is a mix of topic ideas from our established community of academic writers:

  1. The Problem of Using Antibiotics on Large Scale.
  2. Examining the Effects of Salt on Plants.
  3. What Is DNA Technology?
  4. The Effects of GMOs on the Human Body.
  5. How Is the Quality of Antibiotics Controlled?
  6. How Are GMO Food Crops Created?
  7. The Effect of Veterinary Antibiotics on Humans.
  8. The Allergic Reactions to Specific Antibiotics.
  9. A Look at How Penicillin Works in the Human Body.
  10. How Are Antibiotics Obtained?
  11. What Are Natural Biochemicals with Pest-repellent Properties?
  12. The 3 Most Toxic Effects of Antibiotics
  13. How the Human Body Develops Resistance to Antibiotics.
  14. The Impact of Biology on the Us Agriculture.
  15. What Is the Green Revolution?
  16. Analyzing the Minerals in the Plant Cell.
  17. Analyzing Muscle Development and Regeneration
  18. The Uses of Cancer Stem Cells.

Marine Biology Research Topics

There is a lot of talk about global warming, about microplastics in our oceans, and about endangered marine species. This means that marine biology research topics are a very hot topic today. Here are some of our best ideas:

  1. Can GMO Organisms Break down Oil after Maritime Accidents?
  2. Pollution-absorbing Bio-films.
  3. Microbes That Can Absorb Toxic Compounds in the Water.
  4. Can We Really Use Bioluminescence?
  5. How Is Bio-diesel Created?
  6. Analyzing the Coral Reef Biology.
  7. Why Is the Lobster Population Dwindling?
  8. The Effect of Mass Fishing on the World’s Oceans.
  9. Global Warming and Its Effect on Marine Microorganisms.

Molecular Biology Research Topics

Writing about molecular biology research topics is not easy. However, it’s a foolproof way to get a top grade. Your professor will really appreciate your willingness to write an essay about a complex topic. Just make sure you know what you are talking about. Below you can find some of the best topics:

  1. How Is Insulin Produced?
  2. How Is the Growth Hormone Produced?
  3. Analyzing the Repropagation of Translation.
  4. What Is DNA-telomerase?
  5. The Process of Sequencing Nucleotides in DNA.
  6. What Is Telomerase?
  7. The Link Between Telomerase and Cancer.
  8. The Link Between Telomerase and Aging.
  9. How Does DNA Forensics Work?
  10. Describe the Process of Protein Metabolism.

There is no such thing as easy biology research topics. When the topic is too simple, you end up getting penalized. You can’t write 500 words about it without straying away from the subject. Also, no matter how interesting the topic may be, you should make sure that the essay is written perfectly. This means that not even interesting biology research topics can save you from a bad grade if you fail to follow all applicable academic writing standards.

Find it hard to cope with your college paper? Great news! Use promo
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Why Are Plants Green? The Answer Might Work on Any Planet

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Land plants are green because their photosynthetic pigments reflect green light, even though those wavelengths hold the most energy. Scientists finally understand why. Photograph: Olena Shmahalo/Quanta Magazine

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From large trees in the Amazon jungle to houseplants to seaweed in the ocean, green is the color that reigns over the plant kingdom. Why green—and not blue or magenta or gray? The simple answer is that although plants absorb almost all the photons in the red and blue regions of the light spectrum, they absorb only about 90 percent of the green photons. If they absorbed more, they would look black to our eyes. Plants are green because the small amount of light they reflect is that color.

Original story reprinted with permission from Quanta Magazine, an editorially independent publication of the Simons Foundation whose mission is to enhance public understanding of science by covering research develop­ments and trends in mathe­matics and the physical and life sciences.

But that seems unsatisfyingly wasteful, because most of the energy that the sun radiates is in the green part of the spectrum. When pressed to explain further, biologists have sometimes suggested that the green light might be too powerful for plants to use without harm, but the reason why hasn’t been clear. Even after decades of molecular research on the light-harvesting machinery in plants, scientists could not establish a detailed rationale for plants’ color.

Recently, however, in the pages of Science, scientists finally provided a more complete answer. They built a model to explain why plants' photosynthetic machinery wastes green light. What they did not expect was that their model would also explain the colors of other photosynthetic forms of life too. Their findings point to an evolutionary principle governing light-harvesting organisms that might apply throughout the universe. They also offer a lesson that—at least sometimes—evolution cares less about making biological systems efficient than about keeping them stable.

The mystery of the color of plants is one that Nathaniel Gabor, a physicist at the University of California, Riverside, stumbled into years ago while completing his doctorate. Extrapolating from his work on light absorption by carbon nanotubes, he started thinking of what the ideal solar collector would look like, one that absorbed the peak energy from the solar spectrum. “You should have this narrow device getting the most power to green light,” he said. “And then it immediately occurred to me that plants are doing the opposite: They’re spitting out green light.”

In 2016, Gabor and his colleagues modeled the best conditions for a photoelectric cell that regulates energy flow. But to learn why plants reflect green light, Gabor and a team that included Richard Cogdell, a botanist at the University of Glasgow, looked more closely at what happens during photosynthesis as a problem in network theory.

The first step of photosynthesis happens in a light-harvesting complex, a mesh of proteins in which pigments are embedded, forming an antenna. The pigments—chlorophylls, in green plants—absorb light and transfer the energy to a reaction center, where the production of chemical energy for the cell’s use is initiated. The efficiency of this quantum mechanical first stage of photosynthesis is nearly perfect—almost all the absorbed light is converted into electrons the system can use.

But this antenna complex inside cells is constantly moving. “It’s like Jell-O,” Gabor said. “Those movements affect how the energy flows through the pigments” and bring noise and inefficiency into the system. Quick fluctuations in the intensity of light falling on plants—from changes in the amount of shade, for example—also make the input noisy. For the cell, a steady input of electrical energy coupled to a steady output of chemical energy is best: Too few electrons reaching the reaction center can cause an energy failure, while “too much energy will cause free radicals and all sorts of overcharging effects” that damage tissues, Gabor said.

Gabor and his team developed a model for the light-harvesting systems of plants and applied it to the solar spectrum measured below a canopy of leaves. Their work made it clear why what works for nanotube solar cells doesn’t work for plants: It might be highly efficient to specialize in collecting just the peak energy in green light, but that would be detrimental for plants, because when the sunlight flickered, the noise from the input signal would fluctuate too wildly for the complex to regulate the energy flow.

Instead, for a safe, steady energy output, the pigments of the photosystem had to be very finely tuned in a certain way. The pigments needed to absorb light at similar wavelengths to reduce the internal noise. But they also needed to absorb light at different rates to buffer against the external noise caused by swings in light intensity. The best light for the pigments to absorb, then, was in the steepest parts of the intensity curve for the solar spectrum—the red and blue parts of the spectrum.

The model’s predictions matched the absorption peaks of chlorophyll a and b, which green plants use to harvest red and blue light. It appears that the photosynthesis machinery evolved not for maximum efficiency but rather for an optimally smooth and reliable output.

Cogdell wasn’t fully convinced at first that this approach would hold up for other photosynthetic organisms, such as the purple bacteria and green sulfur bacteria that live underwater and are named for the colors their pigments reflect. Applying the model to the sunlight available where those bacteria live, the researchers predicted what the optimal absorption peaks should be. Once again, their predictions matched the activity of the cells’ pigments.

“When I realized how fundamental this was, I found myself looking in the mirror and thinking: How could I be so dumb not to think about this before?” Cogdell said.

(There are plants that don’t appear green, like the copper beech, because they contain pigments like carotenoids. But those pigments are not photosynthetic: They typically protect the plants like sunscreen, buffering against slow changes in their light exposure.)

“It was extraordinarily impressive, I think, to explain a pattern in biology with an incredibly simple physical model,” said Christopher Duffy, a biophysicist at Queen Mary University of London, who wrote an accompanying commentary on the model for Science. “It was nice to see a theoretically led work that understands and promotes the idea that it is robustness of the system that seems to be the evolutionary driving force.”

Researchers hope the model can be used to aid in the design of better solar panels and other solar devices. Although the efficiency of photovoltaic technology has advanced considerably, “I would say it’s not a solved problem in terms of robustness and scalability, which is something that plants have solved,” said Gabriela Schlau-Cohen, a physical chemist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Gabor has also set his mind on someday applying the model to life beyond Earth. “If I had another planet and I knew what its star was like, could I guess what photosynthetic life might look like?” he asked. In the code of his model—which is publicly available—there is an option to do exactly that with any selected spectrum. For now, the exercise is purely hypothetical. “In the next 20 years, we probably will have enough data on an exoplanet to be able to [answer] that question,” Gabor said.

Original story reprinted with permission from Quanta Magazine, an editorially independent publication of the Simons Foundation whose mission is to enhance public understanding of science by covering research developments and trends in mathematics and the physical and life sciences.

Plant body plan

Plants have a relatively simple body plan. A plant can be split into two sections: the underground system known as roots and the above ground system referred to as shoots. The shoots typically include stems, branches and leaves.

The evolution of roots was key to the success of plants on land. Roots grow underground in search for water and nutrients in the soil. Often almost half of a plant’s mass is hidden underground in the root system.

Roots also help to anchor a plant to the ground so it doesn’t get blown away in the wind or in a flood. They can also be used to store excess food to be used at a later date.

Stems and branches connect leaves and roots to each other. They are the ‘highways’ that water, nutrients, and sugars travel through to nourish the various parts of a plant.

Branches and stems influence the height and size of a plant which in turn affects how much light it will receive from the sun. A stem and branch can be green and fleshy but in many plants, they are brown, woody and covered in bark.

Leaves are the main place where photosynthesis occurs. The leaves of the plant have the responsibility of producing enough energy to feed the entire plant. Leaves are optimized for this challenge.

A typical leaf is full of a green molecule called chlorophyll a which is the magic ingredient in photosynthesis. Chlorophyll a is able to use energy from the sun to kick start the process of photosynthesis. Leaves are also usually flat and have large surface areas to capture as much light from the sun as possible.

What makes a good IA

A good IA should demonstrate your own interest of the topic. It should show that the student has learned and has been able to apply what they have learned. A good IA does not have to be a very complex and intricate piece of work. A clear research question, consistent structure, and clear personal engagement which demonstrates knowledge will earn the student a good grade.

So let’s jump into what you are here for. Here is a list of 25 possible topics that serve as great biology IA ideas. To keep in mind, in biology IA, you have two options, laboratory work or an essay, so the topic possibilities are far greater than just the list below.

Any good ideas for a plant for my yard?

I have a small yard (25 feet wide) and the southernmost part of it is almost always shaded by a school that is adjacent.

The previous owners had 5 paper birch trees plants in the shaded portion, three across the back edge then two planted about 10 feet closer to my house on the left and right sides of the house. They all died last year (my first year of owning them :() and I'm trying to decide what to plant instead. I think they main things I would want are
- will do ok in a very shaded environment
- can survive New Jersey weather
- will fit in the yard.

Maybe I should just replace them with more birches? They have the advantage of growing straight up. I would be ok with something with a bit of width to it, but there's not that much space and most trees I have looked at don't sound like they do well in full shade.

I've spent a bit of time googling and mostly have found that websites are willing to tell you a plant can survive in full shade in an advertisement them when you go to buy it will instead say partial shade to full sun. I asked one nursery for suggestions and they said they did not have anything to sell me, which was a bit of a downer. Maybe I just need to accept that I can't plant full trees in that area.

Any idea what plant is this? - Biology

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Biochemistry basic chemistry, metabolism, enzymes, energy, & catalysis, large molecules, photosynthesis, pH & pKa, clinical correlates of pH, vitamins B12 and Folate, and regulation of carbohydrate metabolism.(en español - no português)

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Mendelian Genetics monohybrid cross, dihybrid cross, sex-linked inheritance (en español - in italiano)

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Manduca Project
Look under "Activities" for K-8 lesson plans in:
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Biology Project Ideas for Class 11 Students

Here are a few biology class 11 projects explained in detail:

Components of Food

Aim: This project is about the various components of Food. Food is a nutritional material taken for growth work, restoration and preservation of life cycles by an organism. For living creatures, food is a kind of power. We have to feed to provide us with energy known as staple foods. Nutrition is the analysis of food material compositions and the amounts of food materials needed by our body for growth, maintenance and survival.

Theory: Some diets have more sugars, and others may have more fat. Many foods contain all the main nutrients but in different proportions, such as sugars, fats, proteins. So we will ensure that our body receives all the necessary nutrients in sufficient amounts by consuming a range of various foods.

  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Fat
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Dietary Fiber

Requirements: The above requirements are needed in edible forms to classify the components of food.


Aim: The aim of this project is about Pollution, of different forms, which has a major impact on the environment and culture. About 4.2 million deaths per year are a product of external air pollution, according to the Health Organization. In countries where air quality crosses WHO guideline thresholds, ninety-one percent of the world ’s population now lives.

Theory: Pollution need not necessarily be caused by organic compounds such as particulates (like smoke and dust) (like smoke and dust). Forms of energy such as vibration, heat or light may also cause emissions. These pollution-causing compounds are considered contaminants. Pollution affects the ecosystem equilibrium, even in minuscule numbers. Pollutants will work their way up the food chain to find their way into the human body finally. To discover the forms of emissions and their effects, read on.

Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

Aim: This project is about the Non-Conventional Sources of Energy. Energy is one of the main parts of the economic infrastructure, being the fundamental input required to support economic development. A close association exists between economic growth and the use of oil. Renewable electricity sources are also considered non-conventional energy sources.

Renewable supplies that are refilled continually by natural cycles. Examples of alternative energy sources include for example, solar energy, wind energy, bio-energy-biofuels generated sustainably), hydroelectric generators, etc. A method of renewable energy transforms power from sunshine, wind, tidal currents, sea waves, convective energy, or biomass into a form that can be used, such as heat and electricity.

Theory: The more industrialized a nation is the larger the per capita intake of electricity, and conversely. Human culture depends on numerous energy sources. It is possible to categories the two main energy sources under:

Human Genome Project

Aim: The Human Genome Project was a government financed 13-year initiative begun in 1990 with the goal of identifying within fifteen years the DNA sequence of the whole heterochromatic genetic code. The Human Genome Project was treated with skepticism by many individuals in its initial periods, particularly researchers and theistic evolutionists alike.

Theory: The Human Genome Project is divided into two to discuss the universal genome sequence on the basis of the information obtained from yeast and worm studies (IHGSC, 2001). The first step, called the shotgun process, differentiated human chromosomes into sufficiently sized DNA segments, which were then subsequently subdivided into compiled smaller, alternating DNA fragments.


Aim: This project is about Malnutrition. Every living organism needs food for its sustenance on earth, which is very important for carrying out its mentally and physically related activities, development and growth. Man needs such nutritional requirements such as sugars, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, nutrients, starch, and water in the proper proportion and adequate quantity for natural progress and expansion that he gets from the food he consumes. A healthy diet is considered a meal that contains all these important nutrients in the right proportions.

Theory: The loss or even imbalance of any of these in the diet of individual results in eating disorders, which can be collectively considered malnutritional disorders. Malnutrition is the disease in which persons become poor and ill due to inadequate and unbalanced nutrition. Due to hunger, lack of schooling, misinformation and regular pregnancies, a substantial number of individuals in our nation and other developing nations suffer from malnutrition.

Sickle Cell Anemia and its Prevention

Aim: This project is regarding Sickle Cell Anemia and its Prevention. The most frequent cause of sickle cell disease is sickle cell anaemia (SCD). SCD is a severe condition in which the body creates red blood cells that are sickle-shaped. “Sickle-shaped” means that like a crescent, the red blood cells are shaped.

Theory: There are disc-shaped regular red blood cells and they look like doughnuts without holes in the middle. They pass through the blood vessels with ease. An iron-rich protein called haemoglobin is present in red blood cells. There are stiff and sticky sickle cells. The blood vessels in the brain and other organs appear to block blood flow. Pressure and organ injury can be caused by the blocked blood supply. It may also increase the risk of infection as well.

India’s Monsoon

Aim: This is the Monsoon of India Project Study – Our nation is a land of great weather diversity. Seasonal fluctuations as well as variations in both day and night are broad. In weather, these changes are found. A word derived from the Arabic word ‘mousam,’ which implies season, for monsoon use.

Theory: The four months of June, July, August, and September are at the centre of the rainy season in almost all of India. This is the wet season. But it continues to decline from south to north and from east to west. It is hardly two months in the remote northwest. During his time, between three-fourths and nine-tenths of the total rainfall is concentrated.

This may give one an understanding of how it is spread unevenly over the year. By early June they are high enough to draw the trade winds of the southern Hemisphere, the low pressure levels over the north – western plains are further exacerbated. They cross the arctic circle from the Indian Ocean and reach the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea, only to be caught up in the air circulation over India. These south-east trade winds are of oceanic origin.

Manures and Chemical Fertilizers

Aim: By applying manures and fertilisers to the soil of crop fields, the lack of plant nutrients and organic matter in the soil is compensated for. The primary sources of plant nutrients are both manure and fertiliser, so they are used in crop growing.

Theory: In addition to water CO2 and sunlight plants, no elements were required for their growth. These are classified as nutrient elements. From the salt of these elements found in the soil, plants receive their elements. But soil in these elements becomes low after prolonged cultivation of plants. The material applied to the soil to cover up the shortage of the vital components was called fertilisers by increasing soil fertility.

Manures are fertilisers that are natural. They are bulky sources of organic matter that provide small amounts of nutrients but huge amounts of organic matter. Manures include farmhouse compost (FYM), manure, biofertilizers, agricultural residues, etc.

Importance of Trees

Aim: Trees are an integral part of the Earth’s biosphere. In the life of man, they play an important role. Children play under them and in their cool shade, weary travellers refresh themselves. They’re bringing us fruit to eat and burning firewood. In order to build houses and furniture, we need trees.

It was a tree in a woodland on the slope of a hill. Perhaps the furniture in your classroom is made from trees that once flourished in the Assam or Kerala forests. Trees thus supply us with all of life’s conveniences.

Theory: Trees do a lot more than offer us the conveniences that we have described. They continue to sustain the survival of man by providing the world with oxygen that is important to live. When animals breathe and objects combust, carbon dioxide is the fuel the plants consume. The oxygen in the air is continually taken up and converted into carbon dioxide.

The leaves of plants (in fact, of all green plants) absorb this carbon dioxide and decompose into carbon and oxygen with the aid of sunlight. The carbon is used to make starch 70, and the oxygen is released into the air, eliminating the animals with the chemicals used. But this would soon mean the animals would die for lack of oxygen.

GreenHouse Effect

Aim: The atmosphere on Earth has changed several times in the past. From the south, tropical forests have expanded into more temperate regions (or milder, colder climates). Millions of years later, polar caps extended from the north, surrounding great glaciers in most of the northern United States, Europe and Asia. Almost all scientists today consider that human activities are altering the world.

Theory: The air inside of a greenhouse remains warm under bright sunlight. The greenhouse glass makes light energy and some of its heat energy into the sun. Within the greenhouse, this heat builds up. You were only showing a slight greenhouse effect. What will occur if the Earth’s atmosphere shifted by this greenhouse effect?

What occurs inside a car parked in the sun is another type of a greenhouse. The light and heat of the sun gets inside the vehicle and like the plastic bag surrounding the jar, is stuck inside. Within a vehicle, the temperature can reach over 120 degrees Fahrenheit (49 degrees Celsius).

Requirements: Two identical glass jars, 4 cups cold water, 10 ice cubes, One clear plastic bag and a Thermometer.

Record data over the period of time you observed your plants. Data may include observations of the plant's growth as well as measurements of soil and plant weight, or height of the plant. Good scientists record data very carefully and often organize information into charts and graphs.

Here is where you actually answer the question: Did the plants consume the soil? Use your data to support your statements. Remember to write in complete sentences. For example, you would say "plants do /do not consume soil . I know this because. ". Do not recopy your entire data here, but do use observations and data to support your final answer to the question.

Why Study Plants?

Members of the plant kingdom play many crucial and sometimes surprising roles in the drama of life on Earth. You are probably familiar with some reasons plants are important. Why should you understand how plants live? Because plants play many roles, including but certainly not limited to:

  1. Supplying Food and Energy
  2. Maintaining Earth&rsquos Atmosphere
  3. Cycling Water and Nurturing Soils
  4. Contributing to Nitrogen and Other Biogeochemical Cycles
  5. Interdependence with Animals
  6. Interdependence with Fungi
  7. Interdependence Among Plants
  8. Resources for Humans
  9. Aesthetics for Humans
  10. Scientific Use by Humans
  11. Causing Problems

More than 100,000 natural compounds come from plants, and most of these have yet to be explored. Some of the most powerful and useful compounds come from plants. Who knew they could help us unlock some of the biology's mysteries - all using an approach of mapping biological pathways.