Information

1.5: Principles of Biology - Biology


Reproduction, homeostasis, evolution, metabolism, heredity. What controls characteristics of life?

Characteristics of life are controlled by genes, which are passed from parents to offspring, and are located on chromosomes, like the one shown here, that are found in every cell. The gene theory is one of the unifying principles of biology.

Unifying Principles of Biology

Four unifying principles form the basis of biology. Whether biologists are interested in ancient life, the life of bacteria, or how humans could live on the moon, they base their overall understanding of biology on these four principles:

  1. cell theory
  2. gene theory
  3. homeostasis
  4. evolution

The Cell Theory

According to the cell theory, all living things are made up of cells, which is the structural unit of living organisms, and living cells always come from other living cells. In fact, each living thing begins life as a single cell. Some living things, such as bacteria, remain single-celled. Other living things, including plants and animals, grow and develop into many cells. Your own body is made up of an amazing 100 trillion cells! But even you—like all other living things—began life as a single cell.

Tiny diatoms and whale sharks are all made of cells. Diatoms are about 20 µm in diameter and are made up of one cell, whereas whale sharks can measure up to 12 meters in length and are made up of billions of cells.

The Gene Theory

The gene theory is the idea that the characteristics of living organisms are controlled by genes, which are passed from parents to their offspring. A gene is a segment of DNA that has the instructions to encode a protein. Genes are located on larger structures, called chromosomes, that are found inside every cell. Chromosomes, in turn, contain large molecules known as DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Molecules of DNA are encoded with instructions that tell cells what to do. To see how this happens, click on the animation titled Journey into DNA at the following link: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/genome/dna.html.

Homeostasis

Homeostasis, which is maintaining a stable internal environment or keeping things constant, is not just a characteristic of living things. It also applies to nature as a whole. Consider the concentration of oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere. Oxygen makes up 21% of the atmosphere, and this concentration is fairly constant. What keeps the concentration of oxygen constant? The answer is living things. Most living things need oxygen to survive, and when they breathe, they remove oxygen from the atmosphere. On the other hand, many living things, including plants, give off oxygen when they make food, and this adds oxygen to the atmosphere. The concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere is maintained mainly by the balance between these two processes. A quick overview of homeostasis can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DFyt7FJn-UM.

Evolution

Evolution is a change in the characteristics of living things over time. Evolution occurs by a process called natural selection. In natural selection, some living things produce more offspring than others, so they pass more genes to the next generation than others do. Over many generations, this can lead to major changes in the characteristics of living things. Evolution explains how living things are changing today and how modern living things have descended from ancient life forms that no longer exist on Earth.

As living things evolve, they generally become better suited for their environment. This is because they evolve adaptations. An adaptation is a characteristic that helps a living thing survive and reproduce in a given environment. Look at the mole in Figure below. It has tentacles around its nose that it uses to sense things by touch. The mole lives underground in the soil, where it is always dark. However, by using its touch organ, it can detect even tiny food items in the soil in total darkness. The touch organ is an adaptation because it helps the mole survive in its dark, underground environment.

This mole uses its star-shaped nose organ to sense food by touch in the dark. The mole’s very large front claws are also an adaptation for its life in the soil. Can you explain why?

Summary

  • The cell theory states that all living things are made up of cells, and living cells always come from other living cells.
  • The gene theory states that the characteristics of living things are controlled by genes.
  • Homeostasis is maintaining a constant internal environment.
  • Evolution is a change in species over time.

Explore More

Use this resource to answer the questions that follow.

  • http://www.hippocampus.org/Biology → Non-Majors Biology → Search: Cell Theory
  1. What is the cell theory?
  2. What is one main tenet of the cell theory?
  3. Describe the findings of Schwann, Schleiden, and Virchow.
  4. What findings led to the refinement of the cell theory?
  5. What is one main difference between the classic cell theory and the modern cell theory?

Review

  1. Identify four unifying principles of modern biology.
  2. How are genes related to chromosomes?
  3. Define homeostasis.
  4. How are adaptations related to evolution?

1.5: Principles of Biology - Biology

Biology 198
PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY
Fall semester sections 07500 and 07510 Ackert 219 WF 1:30-3:20 pm
(The next time Dr. Upton will teach this course will be Fall, 2004)

Required text: Biology: A Guide to the Natural World. Krogh, D., editor. 1st edition (2000). Please bring the text to EACH class period. There will be reading assignments from the text before each class. PLEASE read the assigned sections prior to coming to class.

Studio manual: Principles of Biology Studio Manual. Rintoul, D.A., Montelone, B., Horne, E., Coles, J., and Decker, M., editors. 2nd edition (2000). This manual will be used every class period and there will be reading assignments from this document before each class. Please bring the manual to EACH class period.


Biology for the Health Sciences

Course Description. A survey of biological topics including evolution structure and function information flow, exchange and storage pathways and transformations of energy and matter and systems intended as preparation for Pre-Nursing and Pre-HRS students. Not intended for students on a Pre-Medicine or related track, or for students intending to major in biology or related areas.

Prereq: Not open to students with credit for 1101 (101), 1102 (102), 1113 (113), or 1114 (114). This course is available for EM credit. GE Natural Science: Biological Science

Text: A common textbook used is Biology: Concepts and Investigations (4th edition), Hoefnagels, Marielle.

Biological Sciences: Energy Transfer and Development

Course description. Exploration of biology and biological principles evolution and the origin of life, cellular structure and function, bioenergetics, and genetics. A broad introduction to biology comprises both Biology 1113 and 1114. Lecture, Lab.

Prereq: Chem 1110, 1210, 1610, or 1910H (or concur) Math 1148. Pre/Co-req exceptions made only in cases where chem course credit has not transferred, with supporting documents. Not open to students with credit for 113. This course is available for EM credit. GE nat sci bio course. NS Admis Cond course.

Advanced Placement Program, EM test administered by the Office of Testing, GE Natural Science: Biological Science


Biology

The Department of Biology provides academic programs leading to the B.A. or B.S. in Biology. In cooperation with the College of Education, the department offers the B.S. Ed. in Secondary Education with Emphasis in Biology and the B.A. or B.S. in Biology with Master’s Level Coursework for Secondary Teacher Certification. It also offers graduate work leading to the Master of Science and the Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Biology. Biology faculty members are engaged in teaching and research in areas ranging from cell and molecular biology to population and community studies.

Minor in Biology

Students majoring in another discipline may earn a minor in biology by completing a prescribed course of study. Unique programs can be developed to coordinate with special career objectives.

Departmental Honors

The Department of Biology offers an Honors Program to train students in conducting research in areas of biological research currently under study in the Department.

Graduate Studies

The Department of Biology offers graduate work leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in biology. Graduate students will normally work toward an M.S. or Ph.D. degree in two broad areas of biology: a) cellular, molecular, and developmental biology, or b) ecology, evolution, and systematics. Students in the M.S. and Ph.D. programs also have the opportunity to do their graduate work in collaboration with scientists at the Missouri Botanical Garden, the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, or the Saint Louis Zoo through cooperative graduate programs.

Facilities

Department facilities include research and teaching laboratories, environmental chambers, greenhouses, and a large array of supporting modern research instrumentation. Graduate research can be pursued using facilities of the Missouri Botanical Garden, the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, or the Saint Louis Zoo. Several sites within an hour of campus are suitable for regional field studies, including state parks, wildlife conservation areas, the Shaw Nature Reserve, and Washington University's Tyson Research Center. UMSL is a member of the St. Louis University Research Station Consortium that operates Lay and Reis Field Stations in Missouri and is also a member of the Organization for Tropical Studies, which operates three field stations in Costa Rica. Student researchers work independently at research stations throughout the tropics.

Cooperative Programs

The department participates in a cooperative consortium program in biology with Washington University, Saint Louis University, Southern Illinois University-Edwardsville, the St. Louis Zoo, the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, and the Missouri Botanical Garden.

Program Objectives and Career Prospects

The degree program at the baccalaureate level is designed to prepare the student for further professional training in areas such as medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, plant science, conservation, and related areas or for further graduate training in research in biology.

The Master of Science program is an extension of the undergraduate program and provides the research-oriented training and education necessary for students to enter doctoral programs in biology and develops professional biologists qualified to function in responsible technical positions. It also trains students to become effective secondary school and junior college biology teachers.

The Ph.D. program prepares students to be research biologists in academics or other professional fields in ecology, evolution and systematic and cellular and molecular biology. Employment opportunities are available in college or university research and teaching, in government and public institutions such as museums, botanical gardens and conservation organizations, and in industry.

Degrees

Minors

Certificates

Courses

BIOL� Introduction to Student Research: 1-3 semester hours

Prerequisites: Minimum of four semesters of high school science and math courses and consent of the instructor. This course provides high school students an opportunity to develop individual research projects under faculty mentorship. It includes interdisciplinary lectures, demonstrations, seminars, and project guidance. Evaluation will be based on written and oral presentation of the research project and student portfolio.

BIOL� General Biology: The Science of Life (MOTR BIOL 100): 3 semester hours

This non-majors biology course is designed for students who want to know more about themselves and the living things surrounding them. The course emphasizes the fundamental principles and processes of biology. Course topics may include the scientific method, organization of living things, cell and molecular biology, genetics, evolution, human body systems, and ecology. Credit for BIOL� can be applied towards fulfillment of the general education requirement in science. Biology majors, Biochemistry and Biotechnology (BCBT) majors, or any students who plan to pursue a career in medicine or one of the medical-oriented professions should enroll in BIOL� rather than BIOL�.

BIOL� General Biology Laboratory: The Science of Life: 1 semester hour

Prerequisites: BIOL� (may be taken concurrently). This non-majors biology laboratory course is designed to complement the non-majors general biology lecture course BIOL�. The activities students undertake and the thought processes they develop are similar to those used by scientists. Students become actively involved in learning about science by doing it. Specific course topics may include the scientific method, organization of living things, cell and molecular biology, genetics, evolution, ecology, and human anatomy and physiology. Credit for BIOL� can be applied towards fulfillment of the general education requirement in a laboratory science.

BIOL� Human Biology (MOTR LIFS 150): 3 semester hours

Lectures and readings concerned with the reproduction, development, genetics, functional anatomy, behavior, ecology, and evolution of the human species. Three hours lecture per week.

BIOL� Nutrition in Health: 3 semester hours

This course studies dietary nutrients essential for health, proper selection of foods to provide them and current issues affecting them.

BIOL� Human Physiology and Anatomy I: 4 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� or equivalent or consent of instructor. This course covers the basic aspects of the structure of the healthy human body and how it functions. Special emphasis is on how the human body adapts itself to its environment and how changes affect physiological activities. Three hours lecture and two hours laboratory per week.

BIOL� Human Physiology and Anatomy II: 4 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL�. A continuation of BIOL�. A study of the basic aspects of human physiology and anatomy. Three hours lecture and two hours laboratory per week.

BIOL� Concepts in Health and Wellness: 3 semester hours

This course introduces students to the concepts and issues related to multiple dimensions of health and wellness through topics such as nutrition, exercise, mental health, sexual health, and environmental health.

BIOL� General Microbiology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL� or its equivalent. A survey of microbiology structure, genetics, and physiology. Special emphasis will be placed on the transmission and control of such organisms as it relates to the maintenance of human health. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL� Environmental Biology: 3 semester hours

An examination of the biological basis of current environmental problems, with emphasis upon resources, energy, pollution and conservation. Three hours lecture per week.

BIOL� Introduction to the Biology Major: 1 semester hour

Prerequisites: Biology major or consent of the instructor. This course is an orientation to the field of biology for majors and for students who are considering declaring the major. This course introduces students to concepts, skills, and practices that are essential for success as a Biology major and must be completed by all freshman and transfer Biology majors during their first semester of study at UMSL.

BIOL� Introductory Biology: Organisms and the Environment (MOTR BIOL 150L): 5 semester hours

Prerequisites: A minimum of high school chemistry, ENGL� or equivalent (may be taken concurrently), and placement into college algebra or higher. Required for students intending to major in biology or take specified biology courses at the 2000 level or above. This course presents an introduction to some of the principles of biology and scientific methodology applied to the organism and supraorganism levels of biology. Topics to be covered include: ecology, evolution, diversity, and population biology. Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

BIOL� Introductory Biology: From Molecules to Organisms (MOTR BIOL 150L): 5 semester hours

Prerequisites: A minimum of high school chemistry and MATH� ENGL� or equivalent (may be taken concurrently). Required for students intending to major in biology or take specified biology courses at the 2000 level or above. This course presents and introduction to some of the principles of biology and scientific methodology applied to the molecular/ cellular through organ system levels of organization. Topics include: cell structure, metabolism, reproduction, heredity and major physiological processes regulated by organ systems. Three hours of lecture, three and one half hours of lab, and one hour of discussion per week.

BIOL� Introductory Topics in Biology: 1-5 semester hours

Prerequisites: Consent of instructor. The topics will vary each semester. See online course schedule for topics. Credit arranged. May be taken more than once for credit if topics are different. The applicability toward a Biology degree is dependent on the topic.

BIOL� Evolution for Everyone: 3 semester hours

Evolution for Everyone explores the development of our current understanding by examining modern and ancient controversies, and by studying major processes by which change occurs. Lectures will present overviews and many examples on topics in history, mechanisms, and outcome of evolutionary change, and students will participate in classroom and online discussions based on readings, computer exercises, and data collection and analysis. Course may not be applied towards major in Biology. Not eligible for credit with BIOL� (Introduction to Evolution) required for Biology majors.

BIOL� Introduction to Inquiry Approaches to STEM Education (STEP I): 1 semester hour

Same as CHEM�, PHYSICS�, MATH�, and SEC ED�. Prerequisites: Concurrent enrollment BIOL�, BIOL�, CHEM�, CHEM�, PHYSICS�, PHYSICS�, MATH�, or MATH� or have a declared STEM major. Students who want to explore teaching careers become familiar with lesson plan development by writing, teaching and observing lessons in a local school class. Students build and practice inquiry-based lesson design skills and become familiar with and practice classroom management in the school setting. As a result of the STEP I experiences students should be able to decide whether to continue to explore teaching as a career and ultimately finishing the remainder of the WE TEACH MO curriculum leading to teacher certification. The classroom observations and teaching represent a major field component and requires at least one two hour block of free time during the school day once a week.

BIOL� Designing Inquiry-Based STEM Experiences (STEP II): 1 semester hour

Same as CHEM�, PHYSICS�, MATH�, and SEC ED�. Prerequisites: BIOL�, CHEM�, PHYSICS�, MATH�, or SEC ED�. Students explore teaching careers, become familiar with STEM school setting through observing and discussing the school environment and by developing and teaching inquiry-based lessons.

BIOL� Genetics: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� (majors must also take BIOL�) MATH�, and CHEM� or (CHEM 1081 plus CHEM 1091). Fundamental principles of inheritance, including classical genetic theory as well as recent advances in the molecular basis of heredity. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL� Genetics Laboratory: 2 semester hours

Prerequisites: Concurrent registration in BIOL�, or consent of instructor. Laboratory to accompany BIOL�. Three and one-half hours of organized laboratory time per week. Students may need to return to the laboratory at unscheduled times to complete some exercises.

BIOL� Ecology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL�. This course examines the relationships between living organisms and their environment.

BIOL� Ecology Laboratory: 2 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� (may be taken concurrently) a general statistics course is strongly recommended. This laboratory course analyzes environmental factors influencing the abundance and distribution of living organisms. Some classes will be held at field sites in and around St. Louis.

BIOL� Vertebrate Anatomy: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL�. Development, structure, function, interrelationships, and zoogeography of vertebrate animals with particular attention to phylogenetic aspects. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL� Vertebrate Anatomy Laboratory: 2 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL� (may be taken concurrently). Laboratory to accompany BIOL�. Morphological analysis and systematic survey of major vertebrate groups. Overview of the vertebrate life forms and their adaptations to habitats and resources. Three and one-half hours of laboratory per week.

BIOL� Microbiology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� (majors must also take BIOL�), MATH�, and CHEM�. Study of microorganisms, their metabolism, genetics, and their interaction with other forms of life. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL� Microbiology Laboratory: 2 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL� (may be taken concurrently). Experimental studies and procedures of microbiological techniques. Three and one-half hours of organized laboratory time per week. Students will need to return to the laboratory at unscheduled times to complete some exercises.

BIOL� Contemporary Topics in Biology: 1-5 semester hours

Prerequisites: Consent of instructor. The topics will vary each semester. See course schedule online for topics. Credit arranged. May be taken more than once for credit if topics are different.

BIOL� Experiential Practicum in Biosciences: 1 semester hour

Prerequisites: Consent of Biology Curriculum Committee. Credit for off-campus bioscience projects providing extraordinary student experience and service to a community in need.

BIOL� Animal Behavior: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL�. The study of invertebrate and vertebrate behavior, including neurophysiological, hormonal, developmental, genetic, ecological and evolutionary aspects of behavior behavior interactions within and between populations. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL� Animal Behavior Laboratory: 2 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� (may be taken concurrently). Observational and experimental studies of animal behavior in the field and laboratory. Three and one-half hours of formal laboratory time per week, but additional time may be required for independent projects. Some activities involve field trips or trips to the St. Louis Zoo.

BIOL� Conservation Biology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL�. Introduction to the principles and theories of conservation biology. Course topics include biodiversity, extinctions, population modeling, habitat fragmentation, conservation area management, restoration ecology, and social science elements of conservation strategies. Class sessions will include lectures, discussions, and simulation exercises. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL� Conservation Biology Laboratory: 2 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL� (recommended to be taken concurrently). Laboratory to accompany BIOL�. Laboratory will include computer simulations of conservation problems using existing software, 2-3 field trips to local conservation projects, and field interviews with governmental and nongovernmental agencies. Three and one-half hours of laboratory per week.

BIOL� Evolution: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, BIOL�, BIOL�, and MATH�. This course covers the theory, events, and processes of organic evolution.

BIOL� Cell Biology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, BIOL�, CHEM�, and MATH�. This course examines the organization and basic processes of cells including tissues, organelles, glycolysis, respiration, photosynthesis, trafficking, cytoskeleton, signal transduction, and cell division.

BIOL� Histology and Microtechniques: 5 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� (majors must also take BIOL�), BIOL� recommended. The basic principles of histology. A survey of basic tissues and organ systems. Techniques associated with preparation of animal tissues for light microscopic studies. Three hours of lecture and 3 1/2 hours of laboratory per week. (Additional lab hours arranged). Fulfills both a lecture and a laboratory requirement.

BIOL� Undergraduate Internship in Biotechnology: 1-4 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, BIOL�, and CHEM� and CHEM� and consent of instructor. Concurrent enrollment in CHEM� or higher is strongly encouraged. A 2.5 GPA and enrollment in the undergraduate Biotechnology Certificate Program is required. Internship will consist of a period of observation, experimentation and on-the-job training in a biotechnology laboratory. The laboratory may be industrial or academic. Credit will be determined by the number of hours a student works each week and in consultation between the intern's supervisor and instructor. Internship assignments will be commensurate with the education and experience of the student. Two credits may be used to fulfill the lab requirement.

BIOL� Vertebrate Physiology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL� and CHEM� or CHEM 1081 plus CHEM 1091. Basic functional aspects of organ systems in relation to the physiochemical properties of protoplasm. Three hours lecture per week.

BIOL� Vertebrate Physiology Lab: 2 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL� (may be taken concurrently). Instrumental and experimental studies in physiology. Three and one-half hours laboratory per week.

BIOL� Special Topics in Biology: 1-5 semester hours

Prerequisites: Consent of instructor. The topics will vary each semester. See course schedule online for topics. Credit arranged. May be taken more than once for credit if topics are different.

BIOL� Behavioral Ecology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL� (BIOL� recommended). The evolution and ecology of animal behavior. Topics include the theoretical framework for making predictions, foraging, decision making, sensory ecology, sexual selection, mating systems, sociality and groups, cooperation, signal use and communication. Three hours of lecture per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Biostatistics: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: MATH� and a minimum of 15 hours in biology. This course covers basic theory and mathematics behind statistical testing in biology. It includes components on experimental design, a historical perspective on statistics, and the description of a range of parametric and non-parametric statistical tests. This course also includes a practical component, where students apply their statistical knowledge using the R statistical computing environment. The course fulfills the statistics requirement for the BA or BS degree in biology.

BIOL� Population Biology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL� (BIOL� recommended). Introduces concepts and mathematical models of population ecology and population genetics. By integrating the ecology and genetics of populations, the course goal is to understand the processes that contribute to microevolution of populations. Topics include: demography, metapopulation biology, natural selection, migration, gene flow, and genetic drift. Three hours of lecture per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Tropical Ecology and Conservation: 3 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL�, BIOL�, BIOL�, or equivalent. This course will cover research areas in tropical population, community and ecosystem ecology, with emphasis on inter-species and environment-organism interactions, population control factors, and genetic structure of populations. Topics include the current status and causes of tropical habitat destruction, ongoing attempts to manage those habitats, and development of strategies leading to sustained use of non-renewable resources. Three hours of lecture per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Field Biology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisite: Three biology courses and consent of instructor. Intensive study of the flora and fauna of selected natural areas of North America, including an extended field trip. Details of the field trip and course schedule will be posted in the Biology department preceding registration for the term in which the course will be offered. Students will be required to pay costs of travel and of the field trip. This is a laboratory course appropriate for advanced undergraduates and non-thesis Master of Science students.

BIOL� Global Climate Change: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� or consent of instructor. Topics included are fundamental physical, meteorological, and biological circumstances of global climate change, as well as predictions of its future effects on biological diversity, including humans, and how those estimates are made. In addition, basic environmental economics and politics of climate change at local and global levels will be included. The course will be taught as a series of lectures and discussions led by guest experts in each of the subdisciplines covered. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Practicum in Conservation: 2 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and consent of instructor. This course is generally restricted to students officially enrolled in the Certificate Program in Conservation Biology. The course provides practical experience with conservation or environmental agencies. Specific placement will be selected according to student's interests and career goals as well as availability of agency openings. Course requirements include practical experience and final report on practicum experience.

BIOL� Ornithology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and junior standing. Introduction to avian biology and ecology. Material to be covered will include basic adaptations of anatomy, physiology, and behavior of birds. There will be a strong emphasis on avian ecology and conservation. Specific topics will include flight, reproductive behavior, migration, foraging behavior, community structure, and current conservation concerns. The diversity of birds will be emphasized through comparisons between temperate and tropical regions. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL� Ornithology Laboratory: 2 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� (may be taken concurrently), or consent of instructor. This course will introduce students to methods of identifying and studying birds. Labs will almost entirely be comprised of field trips to local areas and will emphasize diversity of birds, adaptions shown by different groups, and means of identification, particularly of birds found in Missouri. Field projects will focus on techniques for censusing birds, sampling foraging behavior, and studying habitat selection. Indoor periods will cover internal and external anatomy of birds. Slides and field trips to the St Louis Zoo will be used to survey the diversity of birds worldwide. Three and one-half hours of laboratory per week. Longer (e.g., Saturday) field trips will be made when appropriate.

BIOL� Entomology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, BIOL�, 9 additional hours of biology and upper-division standing. Development, structure, function, behavior and ecology of insects, including a systematic survey of the orders of Insecta. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL� Entomology Laboratory: 2 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� (may be taken concurrently). Laboratory to accompany BIOL�. Studies of the morphology, physiology, and behavior of insects to give a sampling of biological studies of the class Insecta. Formation of a collection of insects, comprising a systematic survey of orders and principal families, will be an intregal part of the course and will require additional time beyond the official lab hours. Three and one-half hours of lab per week.

BIOL� Developmental Biology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL�. A study of the basic principles that shape the embryonic and post-embryonic development of animals with an emphasis on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Specific topics include fertilization, determination of cell fate and differentiation, cell migration, establishment of the body plan, formation of selected organs and organ systems, stem cells, and limb regeneration. Environmental influences on development and the impact of developmental biology on modern medicine are also discussed. Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Flowering Plant Families: Phylogeny and Diversification: 5 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, BIOL� and junior standing or consent of instructor. Focusing on the flowering plant families of North America, the aim of the course is to give an understanding of their phylogeny and diversification. Student will also gain an understanding of plant morphology and anatomy, a basis for further developing their knowledge of plants. Three hours of lecture and three to four hours of laboratory per week. Students may need to return to the laboratory at unscheduled times.

BIOL� Evolution of Cognition: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� or consent of instructor BIOL� and PSYCH� are strongly recommended. The evolutionary ecology of animal cognitive abilities. Topics include learning, memory, perception, navigation, and communication from an evolutionary perspective. The focus is on cognitive abilities as adaptations, which have evolved to solve specific environmental problems. Topics include empirical methods for assessing cognitive ability, experimental design, theoretical approaches for generating predictions, and the parsimonious interpretation of data. Two hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

BIOL� Bacterial Pathogenesis: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL�. Examination of the strategies bacterial pathogens use to infect animals. Topics include host immune responses to infection, bacterial virulence factors, regulation of bacterial virulence, and the cellular and molecular approaches used to study hostparasite interactions. Three hours of lecture per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Molecular Biology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and CHEM�. This course is a survey of the principles of molecular biology, with emphasis on understanding the genetic regulation of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis and function in eukaryotic cells.

BIOL� Synthetic Biology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, BIOL�. A study of the molecular biology of microbial cells, in the context of synthetic biological systems. Topics include DNA replication, transcription, translation, gene regulation and protein structure as well as aspects of genetic engineering as they apply to the construction of novel biological systems. Following an introduction to the design of biological parts used in synthetic biology, students read, discuss and present recent journal articles in order to learn about current advances and applications of synthetic biology. Three hours of lecture per week. Students may not receive credit for BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Biotechnology Laboratory I: 4 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� or consent of instructor. An introduction to the fundamental concepts that underlie the field of biotechnology. Both the basic principles of molecular biology and hand-on experience with the techniques of the field will be addressed through lectures, discussions, and a series of laboratory exercises. Two hours of lecture and four hours of laboratory per week. Fulfills a laboratory requirement only may not be used to fulfill the higher level (4000-5000) lecture course requirement for the B.A. or B.S. degree in biology. Students may not receive credit for BIOL� and a comparable biotechnology course from another institution.

BIOL� Biotechnology Laboratory II: 4 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and either BIOL� or BIOL 4612, or consent of instructor. An in-depth look at theory and practice of biotechnology. Lectures and discussion will examine the underlying principles, and laboratory exercises will present hands-on experience with current techniques. One hour of lecture and six hours of laboratory per week. Fulfills a laboratory requirement only may not be used to fulfill the higher level (4000-5000) lecture course requirement for the B.A. or B.S. degree in biology. Students may not receive credit for BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Cellular Basis of Disease: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�. A study of the structural organization and processes of eukaryotic cells, focusing on how defects in cellular function lead to genetic diseases and cancer. Topics of discussion may include membrane dynamics, intracellular trafficking, signal transduction, and the cell cycle. Three hours of lecture per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Nucleic Acid Structure and Function: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL� or equivalent, or consent of instructor. A comprehensive view of the structural properties of DNA and RNA that promote molecular interactions and biological function. Topics will include the physical properties of nucleic acids, the formation and biological importance of higher order structures, RNA enzymatic activities, nucleic acid-protein interactions, and RNA metobolism. Three hours of lecture per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, BIOL�. This course will introduce molecular biology principles that govern plant growth, development, and responses to stress. This course integrates the experimental approaches of genetics, molecular biology, and biochemistry, with a specific focus on biotechnology techniques and applications. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Virology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. This first half of the course entails a comparative study of the structure, replication, and molecular biology of viruses. The second half of the course focuses on the pathogenesis, control, and evolution of animal viruses. Three hours of lecture per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Human Pathology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� or consent of the instructor. A study of disease processes as they affect the human body. The course will examine both the proximate causes and underlying mechanisms of disease. Specific conditions will be used to illustrate application of clinical approaches in determining the origin, development, and effects of a disease.

BIOL� Techniques in Biochemistry: 2 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� or CHEM� (may be taken concurrently). Laboratory activities introducing fundamental qualitative and quantitative biochemical techniques. Student evaluation will be based on laboratory participation, student laboratory reports, and written examinations. Three and one-half hours of organized laboratory time per week. Students may need to return to the laboratory at unscheduled times to complete some experiments.

BIOL� Principles of Biochemistry: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: CHEM� and BIOL�. This course explores the structure, function, and chemistry of biological molecules including enzymology, bioenergetics, and cellular metabolism. Biochemistry and Biotechnology majors should take CHEM�. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and CHEM�.

BIOL� Biochemistry and Biotechnology Seminar: 1 semester hour

Same as CHEM�. Prerequisites: Senior standing in the Biochemistry and Biotechnology program and consent of faculty advisor. This course will focus on selected publications related to biochemistry and biotechnology from both refereed journals and news sources. Students are expected to participate in discussions and to prepare oral and written presentations. Completion of the Major Field Achievement Test in Biochemistry & Biotechnology is a course requirement. May not be taken for graduate credit.

BIOL� Introduction to Neuroscience: 3 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL� or consent of instructor. The study of nervous systems, featuring the cellular bases of initiation and conduction fo the impulse, synaptic transmission, and the network integrative function of invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. This course emphasizes the multidisciplinary nature of the neurosciences, including anatomical, physiological and molecular approaches to understanding neural function. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL� Immunobiology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL� and CHEM�. The fundamental principles and concepts of immunology and immunochemistry. Emphasis on the relation of immunological phenomena to biological phenomena and biological problems. Three hours lecture per week.

BIOL� Senior Seminar: 2 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, BIOL�, BIOL�, and BIOL�, with a total of at least 30 credits in Biology and the consent of your assigned Biology Advisor. Oral and written presentation by students of selected scientific papers or articles. Students are expected to participate in discussions of oral presentations by other students. May not be taken for graduate credit.

BIOL� Research: 1-3 semester hours

Prerequisites: Consent of faculty research advisor. Research in an area selected by the student in consultation with and under the direct supervision of an UMSL biology faculty research adviser. Research opportunities are subject to availability and must be approved in advance of beginning research. The project may include the reading of pertinent literature, laboratory or field experience, including keeping of a logbook, and a summary paper and a presentation, all based on an average 8 hours per week per credit during a 15 week semester at the discretion of the instructor. Credit arranged. Course may be repeated for a total of up to 5 credit hours. A maximum of one lab requirement may be satisfied using any two BIOL� credits. Additional credits may be applied toward the total biology hours required for the biology BA or BS. May not be taken for graduate credit.

BIOL� Biology Internship: 1-3 semester hours

Prerequisites: Consent of faculty research advisor generally restricted to junior and senior standing. Research in an area selected by the student to be conducted off-campus in a lab of a professional researcher or faculty person (the internship mentor) other than those in UMSL Biology. Research opportunities are subject to availability and must be approved in advance of beginning research by an UMSL biology faculty liaison and the internship mentor. The project normally includes the reading of pertinent literature, laboratory or field experience, including keeping of a logbook, and a summary paper and a presentation, all based on an average 8 hours per week per credit during a 15 week semester. Credit arranged. This course and BIOL� may be repeated in any combination for a total of up to 5 credit hours. A maximum of one lab requirement may be satisfied using any two BIOL� and/or BIOL� credits. Additional credits may be applied toward the total biology hours required for the biology BA or BS.

BIOL� Selected Topics in Biology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: Junior standing and consent of instructor. The topic for this course will vary each semester. Topics offered for the following semester will be posted in the departmental office. This course may be repeated once if the topic is different.

BIOL� Advanced Genetics: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� or consent of instructor. This course explores advanced topics in the study of genetics, including advanced principles of inheritance, classical genetic theory, advances in understanding the nature of genetic material, and the molecular basis of heredity. Variation between individuals and populations will be considered to emphasize the effects of genetics on both medical and evolutionary questions. A particular focus will be placed on identifying, analyzing, and communicating findings from recent primary literature.

BIOL� Topics in Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics: 1 semester hour

Prerequisites: Graduate standing. Presentation and discussion of faculty and student current research projects in behavior, ecology, evolution, and systematics. May be repeated.

BIOL� Topics in Cellular and Molecular Biology: 1 semester hour

Prerequisite: Graduate standing or consent of instructor. Presentation and discussion of student and faculty research projects and/or current research articles in molecular, cellular and developmental biology. May be repeated. Course graded on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis.

BIOL� Topics in Floristic Taxonomy: 1 semester hour

Prerequisite: BIOL 2501 or equivalent, and graduate standing. Seminar course In systematics of higher plants, arranged In the Cronquist sequence of families, covering morphology, anatomy, palynology, biogeography, chemosystematics, cytology, and other aspects of plant classification and phylogenetics. Given at the Missouri Botanical Garden. One hour per week.

BIOL� Topics in Animal Behavior: 1 semester hour

Prerequisites: Graduate standing. Presentation and discussion of current research articles and/or student and faculty research projects in animal behavior, including ecology, evolution, genetics, and mechanisms of behavior. May be repeated.

BIOL� Biology Colloquium: 1 semester hour

Prerequisites: Graduate standing. Attendance is required for the Biology weekly seminar series, consisting of research presentations by department faculty and invited speakers. Class sessions will include discussion of scientific research and presentation practices.

BIOL� Advanced Tropical Resource Ecology Field Studies: 2 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL 5122 (may be taken concurrently). The field component to the lecture and seminar course. Examines the patters of use and exploitation of resources in the topics by humans in the context of the theories of behavioral ecology. Two weeks of intensive field research and lectures in Guyana, South America during the second and third weeks of Summer Session I (trip costs to be borne by the student). Students may not receive credit for both BIOL 3123 and BIOL�. Offered in odd numbered years.

BIOL� Graduate Research Writing Workshop in Biology: 1 semester hour

Prerequisites: Graduate standing. This hands-on course is designed to give Biology graduate students practical assistance and advice on writing, including grant proposal content and organization, writing succinctly but clearly, and editing. The course format will include both informational lectures with discussions and working sessions focused on writing and critiquing drafts. Students are recommended to begin the class ready to write at least one aim of a grant or thesis proposal. Course is graded on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis.

BIOL� Introduction to Graduate Research in Biology: 1 semester hour

Prerequisites: Graduate standing or consent of instructor. A discussion-based class to introduce new PhD and thesis MS students to the Biology department, graduate school, and best research practices.

BIOL� Ethical Issues in Biology: 1 semester hour

Prerequisites: Graduate standing. Using readings and discussions, students will explore ethical issues in Biology in both professional and social realms. Professional topics include authorship, grants accounting, and academic misconduct social topics include ethical foundations of basic and applied science, government regulation of science, environmental and individual protection, and current issues. Course graded on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis.

BIOL� Community Ecology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: Graduate standing and either BIOL� and BIOL� or an equivalent course. Studies of structure and organization of natural communities stressing the abundance and distribution of species, the regulation of species diversity, and the evolution of demographic parameters in populations.

BIOL� Advanced Evolution: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� or graduate standing. Explores advanced topics in the study of adaptation and the origin of species. Covers phenomena both within populations (e.g. natural selection, sexual selection, and molecular evolution) and between populations (e.g. speciation, coevolution, competition, gene flow, biogeography, and comparative phylogenetics), with a particular focus on recent primary literature.

BIOL� Theory of Systematics: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, BIOL� and at least one course beyond the introductory level dealing with animal, plant, or microbial diversity (such as BIOL�, BIOL 2501, BIOL�, BIOL 4482, BIOL�, BIOL�, BIOL�) or consent of instructor. Course investigates the theory of classification, phylogenetic analysis, systematic biology, and their relation to systematic practice. Will cover goals and schools of systematics, characters and homology, analysis of molecular and morphological data and underlying assumptions, species concepts, classification, naming, and the connections between evolutionary biology and systematics. The course is appropriate for upper level undergraduates & graduate students in all disciplines, animal, plant, and microbial, as an introduction to systematic methods. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL� Applied Bioinformatics: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� or BIOL� or consent of instructor. This course provides a survey of the various computational approaches that can be used to solve biological problems. Specific attention will be focused on biological databases and methods for using and interpreting database information, sequence alignments, functional genomics, structure prediction, high-throughput analyses, and proteomics. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL� Practicum in Science in Business: 1-2 semester hours

Same as CHEM�. Prerequisites: Graduate standing and enrollment in a Professional Science emphasis in Chemistry, Biochemistry & Biotechnology, or Biology. Students will integrate and apply their scientific expertise to a practical, business-related problem. The course will emphasize interdisciplinary team-work as well as both written and oral communication skills.

BIOL� Internship in Sciences in Business: 1-2 semester hours

Same as CHEM�. Prerequisites: Graduate standing and enrollment in a Professional Science emphasis area in Chemistry, Biochemistry & Biotechnology, or Biology. The internship will consist of a period of on-the-job training at a local company. Credit hours will be determined by the number of hours the student works each week and in consultation between the intern's supervisor and the course instructor. Internship assignments will be commensurate with the education and experience of the student, with an emphasis on work at the interface between the scientific and business components of the company. A written report describing the internship project is required.

BIOL� Advanced Topics in Behavioral Ecology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL� (BIOL� is recommended). The evolution and ecology of animal behavior. Topics include the theoretical framework for making predictions, foraging, decision making, sensory ecology, sexual selection, mating systems, sociality and groups, cooperation, and signal use and communication. Three hours of lecture per week. Assignments will include a heavy emphasis on theory and modelling approaches to behavioral ecology. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Advanced Population Biology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� (BIOL� recommended). Introduces concepts and mathematical models of population ecology and population genetics. By integrating the ecology and genetics of population, the course goal is to understand the processes that contribute to microevolution of populations. Topics include: demography, metapopulation biology, natural selection, migration, gene flow, and genetic drift. A discussion section will focus on mathematical elements of population biology models. Three hours of discussion per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Advanced Tropical Ecology and Conservation: 3 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL�, BIOL�, or BIOL�, or their equivalent. This course will cover research areas in tropical population, community and ecosystem ecology, with emphasis on inter-species and environment-organism interactions, population control factors, and genetic structure of populations. Topics include the current status and causes of tropical habitat destruction, ongoing attempts to manage those habitats, and development of strategies leading to sustained use of non-renewable resources. A research proposal designed to investigate a current topic in tropical ecology will be required. Students may nor receive credit for BIOL� and BIOL�. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL� Public Policy of Conservation and Sustainable Development: 3 semester hours

Same as POL SCI�. Prerequisite: Graduate standing in Biology or Political Science and consent of instructor. Prior course in ecology recommended. This course will introduce the student to concepts and techniques for formulating. implementing, and analyzing public policy with an emphasis on environmental concerns, conservation, and sustainable development. The course will be team taught by a political scientist and a biologist. Course materials will include case studies that demonstrate the special problems of environmental policymaking in developing and developed economies.

BIOL� Advanced Global Climate Change: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: Graduate standing or permission of the instructor. We will cover the fundamental physical, meteorological, and biological circumstances of global climate change, as well as predictions of its future effects on biological diversity, including humans, and how those estimates are made. We will also cover basic environmental economics and politics of climate change at local and global levels. The course will be taught as a series of lectures and discussions led by guest experts in each of the subdisciplines covered. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Internship in Conservation Biology: 1-4 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL� or BIOL 6212 and consent of the director of graduate studies in biology. Internships will consist of a period of study, observation and on-the-job training at a conservation or environmental agency. Specific placements will be selected according to student's interests and career goals. Internships may vary from 2 weeks to 4 months in duration.

BIOL� Advanced Developmental Biology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL�. A study of the basic principles that shape the embryonic and post-embryonic development of animals with an emphasis on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Specific topics include fertilization, determination of cell fate and differentiation, cell migration, establishment of the body plan, formation of selected organs and organ systems, stem cells, and limb regeneration. Environmental influences on development and the impact of developmental biology on modern medicine are also discussed. Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Advanced Evolution of Cognition: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL�, or consent of instructor PSYCH� strongly recommended. The evolutionary ecology of animal cognitive abilities. Topics include learning, memory, perception, navigation, and communication from an evolutionary perspective. The focus is on cognitive abilities as adaptations, which have evolved to solve specific environmental problems. Topics include empirical methods for assessing cognitive ability, experimental design, theoretical approaches for generating predictions, and the parsimonious interpretation of data. Two hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Advanced Bacterial Pathogenesis: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL�. Examination of the strategies bacterial pathogens use to infect animals. Topics include host immune responses to infection, bacterial virulence factors, regulation of bacterial virulence, and the cellular and molecular approaches used to study hostparasite interactions. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Students will be required to give an oral presentation and/or write an extra paper on a topic relevant to the course. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL� Advanced Molecular Biology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and CHEM�, or consent of instructor. This course covers advanced principles of molecular biology, with an emphasis on primary literature. Students may be required to give an oral presentation and/or write papers on a topic relevant to the course. Students may not receive graduate credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Advanced Synthetic Biology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, BIOL�. A study of the molecular biology of microbial cells, in the context of synthetic biological systems. Topics include DNA replication, transcription, translation, gene regulation and protein structure as well as aspects of genetic engineering as they apply to the construction of novel biological systems. Following an introduction to the design of biological parts used in synthetic biology, students read, discuss and present recent journal articles in order to learn about current advances and applications of synthetic biology. Three hours of lecture per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Advanced Biotechnology Laboratory II: 4 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and either BIOL� or BIOL 4612, or consent of instructor. An in-depth look at the theory and practice of biotechnology. Lectures and discussion will examine the underlying principles, and laboratory exercises will present hands-on experience with current techniques. One hour of lecture and six hours of laboratory per week. Students will be required to give an oral presentation and/or write an extra paper on a topic relevant to the course. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL� or any course previously called Techniques in Molecular Biology or Advanced Techniques in Molecular Biology.

BIOL� Practical Next-Generation Sequencing: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: Consent of instructor. This is a laboratory course in practical next-generation sequencing. Roughly one-half of the course will focus on bench-top methods for generating sequencing libraries from total RNA as well as the use of next-generation sequencing instruments. The second half of the course will focus on computational methods for analyzing sequencing data, including data visualization and coding.

BIOL� Advanced Cellular Basis of Disease: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, or consent of instructor. A study of the structural organization and processes of eukaryotic cells, focusing on how defects in cellular function lead to genetic diseases and cancer. Topics of discussion may include membrane dynamics, intracellular trafficking, signal transduction, and the cell cycle. Three hours of lecture per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Advanced Nucleic Acid Structure and Function: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL� or equivalent, or consent of instructor. A comprehensive view of the structural properties of DNA and RNA that promote molecular interactions & biological function. Topics will include the physical properties of nucleic acids, the formation and biological importance of higher order structures, RNA enzymatic activities, nucleic acid-protein interactions, and RNA metobolism. Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Advanced Plant Biology and Biotechnology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: Graduate standing. This course will introduce molecular biology principles that govern plant growth, development, and responses to stress. This course integrates the experimental approaches of genetics, molecular biology, and biochemistry, with a specific focus on biotechnology techniques and applications. Student may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Advanced Virology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, BIOL�, and graduate standing. This first half of the course entails a comparative study of the structure, replication, and molecular biology of viruses. The second half of the course focuses on the pathogenesis, control, and evolution of animal viruses. Three hours of lecture, one hour of discussion or seminar per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Graduate Internship in Biotechnology: 1-4 semester hours

Prerequisites: Graduate standing and enrollment in graduate Biotechnology Certificate Program. 6 credit hours maximum (maximum of 8 combined credit hours of BIOL� and internship) Internship will consist of period of observation, experimentation and on-the-job training in biotechnology laboratory. The laboratory may be industrial of academic. Credit will be determined by the number of hours the student works each week and in consultation between the intern's supervisor and the instructor. Internship assignments will be commensurate with the education and experience of the student.

BIOL� Graduate Seminar: 2 semester hours

Presentation and discussion of various research problems in biology. Graduate student exposure to the seminar process.

BIOL� Graduate Research in Biology: 1-10 semester hours

Research in area selected by student in consultation with faculty members.

BIOL� Graduate Research Practicum: 1-2 semester hours

Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. This course is designed for graduate students wishing to pursue research experience in an area outside their dissertation topic. The project can be techniques-oriented or focused on a specific research question. The credit hours will depend on the time commitment to the project as decided by the supervisory faculty member.

BIOL� Advanced Topics in Biology: 1-5 semester hours

Prerequisites: Graduate standing. In-depth studies of selected topics in contemporary biology. May be repeated.


Biology Course Listing

This course introduces students to the nature, methods, and applications of biology. Conceptual topics include methods of biological investigation, molecular and cellular features of living things, mechanisms for the evolution and continuity of life, and ecological interactions among individuals, populations and their environment. Issues of contemporary and historical importance will be used to illustrate conceptual topics and demonstrate biology's relevance to the quality of human life and history and future of human civilizations. Does not meet the requirements for Biology majors or for students seeking teaching licensure. Biology majors must take BIOL 120 as the entry-level introductory course and undergraduate students seeking elementary, elementary/middle, or special education teaching licensure must take BIOL 114 for the scientific reasoning pillar. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits. G06. FSRC. WI.

BIOL114. Biol for the Teach Profession

An inquiry into the study of life, with emphasis on the form and function of organisms and the ecological principles governing populations, communities, and ecosystems. This course is specifically designed for students seeking teaching licensure and does not meet the requirements for a biology major. Scientific reasoning and scientific communication will be emphasized within the context of studying the principles of life science education guided by both the Next Generation Science Standards and the Virginia Standards of Learning. 4 credits. FSRC, SI.

BIOL114. Biol for the Teach Profession

An inquiry into the study of life, with emphasis on the form and function of organisms and the ecological principles governing populations, communities, and ecosystems. This course is specifically designed for students seeking teaching licensure and does not meet the requirements for a biology major. Scientific reasoning and scientific communication will be emphasized within the context of studying the principles of life science education guided by both the Next Generation Science Standards and the Virginia Standards of Learning. 4 credits. FSRC, SI.

BIOL120. Integrative Biology

The first of a three-semester introduction to the study of biology. The course introduces students to the nature, methods, and applications of biology. Students will be asked to think critically on a broad range of biological topics, from the molecular, cellular, and developmental bases of life to the evolutionary and ecological relationships of individuals and populations. Open only to biology and integrated environmental science majors & minors. Biology majors and minors must earn at least a C- in this course before taking advanced courses. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL1XX. Biology Elective

BIOL206. Human Anat Physiology I

Basic physiological principles and integrated anatomy and physiology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous and endocrine systems. Does not meet requirements of biology major and may not enroll if BIOL 301 has already been completed. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL207. Human Anat Physiology II

Basic physiological principles and integrated human anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular, lymphatic, immune, respiratory, digestive, metabolic, urinary, and reproductive systems. Does not meet requirements of biology major and may not enroll if BIOL 302 has already been completed. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL250. Intro to Genetics & Cell Biol

The second tier of a three-semester introduction to the study of biology. This course introduces students to the molecular mechanisms that govern cellular growth, homeostasis, and response to external stimuli. Students will be asked to think critically on a broad range of biological topics focused on the cellular, molecular, and genetic basis of life. Prerequisites: BIOL 120 with a minimum grade of C- or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL251. Intro to Ecology & Evolution

The second tier of a three-semester introduction to the study of biology. An examination of the central concepts of evolutionary and ecological theory and application. The principles underlying the interactions of organisms within their environments including the population, community, and ecosystem levels of organization are discussed. The lab normally includes local field trips and the completion of research assignments as part of a functional team. Prerequisites: BIOL 120 with minimum grade of C- or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits

BIOL288. Sophomore Seminar

The primary emphasis of this course is on the enhancement of scientific reading, writing, and critical thinking skills. Biological concepts that were introduced in previous introductory courses will be reinforced through readings and discussions of primary literature. Various forms of scientific writing will also be taught and practiced through multiple writing assignments. Other miscellaneous topics related to scientific research and career preparation will also be considered. Prerequisites: BIOL 250 and 251 with minimum grades of C- and MATH 171, or permission of instructor. 3 credits. WR and SP.

BIOL292. Internship in Biology

A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of biology. 1-4 credits.

BIOL295. Special Topics Biology

Specialized courses on a variety of topics that may be offered periodically. 1-6 credits.

BIOL2XX. Biology Elective

BIOL301. Comprehensive Human A & P I

Integrative human anatomy with advanced physiological principles. Topics covered include pathophysiology as well as the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, and endocrine systems. Prerequisite or may be taken concurrently: BIOL 288 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL302. Comprehensive Human A & P II

Basic physiological principles and integrated human anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular, lymphatic, immune, respiratory, digestive, metabolic, urinary, and reproductive systems. Prerequisite: BIOL 301 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL303. Vertebrate Morphology

A comparative study of embryonic development, anatomy and evolution in representative vertebrate groups. Prerequisite or may be taken concurrently: BIOL 288 or permission of instructor. 2 lecture and two 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL304. Microbiology for Hlthcare Prof

A study of the structure, physiology and activity of microorganisms as related to their role in nature, disease, and human affairs. This course will examine the key roles of symbiosis with emphasis on the host-pathogen relationship as it affects humans. Basic concepts and fundamental techniques for the isolation, growth, and identification of bacteria and fungi are stressed. This course does not fulfill the Cell and Molecular Area requirement for the biology major (students should take BIOL 305 instead to fulfill that requirement). Either BIOL 304 or BIOL 305 may be used to satisfy elective requirements for the biology major, but no student may take both of these courses. Prerequisites: BIOL 250, or both BIOL 206 and 207. 3 lecture and one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL305. General Microbiology

Microorganisms make life possible, and their study has taken life science into the molecular age. This course is designed primarily for biology majors and will introduce the fundamentals of prokaryotic cell structure and function, metabolism and physiology, taxonomy, microbial genetics and mechanisms of gene transfer inclusive of both bacteria and viruses. Discussions will emphasize the profound importance of microbial symbiosis ranging from key trophic interactions in the biosphere to key influences upon the human microbiome. This course will provide conceptual background sufficient to enable students to engage more advanced coursework in related fields. Either BIOL 304 or BIOL 305 may be used to satisfy elective requirements for the biology major, but no student may take both of these courses. Prerequisite or may be taken concurrently: BIOL 288 and CHEM 211, or permission of the instructor. 3 lecture and on 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL306. Vertebrate Physiology

The principal functional processes in vertebrate organs and organ systems including respiration, circulation, hormonal coordination, water balance, thermoregulation, nervous coordination, and responses to special environments. Prerequisites: CHEM 111 with a minimum grade of C- BIOL 288 (may be taken concurrently) or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL309. Plant Biology

An examination of major groups of photosynthetic organisms, with emphasis on vascular plants. Major topics include (1) evolution and biodiversity, (2) comparative structure, function, and organization, (3) reproduction, development, and growth, and (4) ecological and human importance. Students will be challenged to think critically and to build an integrated understanding of plants, from knowledge of their unique biochemistry to their important roles in ecosystems. Prerequisite or may be taken concurrently: BIOL 288 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL313. Hormones & Behavior

This course examines how hormones can produce changes in behavior, and how behavioral interactions can alter hormones. Topics may include sexual differentiation, sex differences in behavior, reproductive and parental behavior, dominance, aggression, and hormonal and behavioral homeostatic regulations. Prerequisites: PSYC 151 or NEUR 105 or BIOL 288 (with grades of C- or better). 3 credits.

BIOL315. Invertebrate Zoology

A survey of the most prominent branches of the phylogenetic tree. Working from the protozoans to the chordates, this course explores evolution, systematics, physiology, morphology, life history, ecology and behavior of select species. This phylogenetic context will provide a unique opportunity to understand the problems common to all life and how evolution has solved them. Labs will include studying the body plans of major phylogenetic groups to understand how structure and function are interlinked. Course coverage includes many groups important to medicine (e.g. many parasitic organisms) as well as to other disciplines such as geology, ecology, paleontology and neuroscience. Prerequisite or may be taken concurrently: BIOL 288 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL324. Genetics

A study of classical and molecular genetics that emphasizes the nature of hereditary material, gene transmission and expression, linkage and recombination, and gene action and regulation. Lectures will cover a broad range of topics addressing both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Issues and ethics concerning the human condition will be addressed. Laboratory activities will target the application of a variety of practical, critical thinking, and technical skills. Prerequisite or may be taken concurrently: BIOL 288 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL326. Cell Biology

A study of the structure and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The course will focus on cellular structures, membranes, and organelles, internal cellular functions including cytoskeleton, aerobic respiration, DNA replication, gene expression, cell cycle and the endomembrane system, external cellular matrix and cell attachment, and signaling pathways. Laboratory activities will target the application of a variety of practical, critical thinking, and technical skills. Prerequisite or may be taken concurrently: BIOL 288 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL330. Conservation Biology

A multifaceted course focused on the application of basic ecological principles to complex conservation problems. Successful conservation efforts require that biological solutions be meshed with political, social, and economic realities, and thus conservation biology is an interdisciplinary field. Class discussions and projects will apply basic concepts to the high-stakes field of endangered species management as well as local, regional, and global biodiversity conservation. Students will be required to complete research assignments independently and as part of a functional team. Prerequisite or may be taken concurrently: BIOL 288 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits. SP.

BIOL341. Ecology

Mechanisms underlying ecological concepts will be explored in-depth with critical discussions of classical and contemporary literature. Field and laboratory exercises will emphasize experimental design, execution, and data analysis. Prerequisite or may be taken concurrently: BIOL 288 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL342. Biogeography

An investigation of the past and present geographic distribution of organisms on land and in water. This broad, interdisciplinary course will combine insights from biology, ecology, geography, and geology to examine changes in species distribution over space and time. The course will investigate: 1)historical and present day patterns in biological diversity 2) the geologic, climatic, and ecological factors controlling these patterns, 3) the influence of humanity on biogeography, and 4) the conservation of biodiversity. Prerequisite or may be taken concurrently: BIOL 288 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL345. Tropical Ecology

A study of evolutionary, ecological, and conservation biology in the New World tropics through intense field work in a tropical country. Focal areas include identification of typical species of the area, with emphasis on plants, birds, herpetofauna, and mammals student research projects focused on a question of interest and relevance and application of key biological concepts in the environmental and cultural context. Prerequisite: BIOL 251 with a C- or better or permission of instructor. 4 credits.

BIOL346. The Resource Curse: Conservat

This class is offered in conjunction with study abroad in Ecuador and focuses on the importance of the Amazon rainforest as an ecosystem and as a contributor to economic growth. Students will gain an understanding of tropical ecology, conservation biology, and environmental economics as they apply to the Amazon environment and communities, with a basis of scientific reasoning to develop an informed perspective on civic and global issues. A particular topic of interest will be the decision to drill for oil in the Amazon and the impacts on biological, sociological, and economic systems. The course will highlight the integration of both conservation and economics, while exploring the tradeoffs associated with drilling. Pre-requisites: Completion of FHBS and FSRC. 3 credits.

BIOL360. Developmental Biology

One of the most complex processes in biology is the transformation of a single cell &ndash the fertilized egg &ndash into an adult organism. This course provides an introduction to the genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms that direct the development of multicellular organisms. Topics include: gametogenesis, fertilization, gastrulation, organogenesis, sex determination, developmental gene regulation, teratology, aging, and ethics. Prerequisite or may be taken concurrently: BIOL 288 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits. SP.

BIOL364. Perspectives in Toxicology

This Perspectives course introduces students to the interdisciplinary field of toxicology at the molecular, environmental, and regulatory levels. Students will be introduced to the basic concepts of toxicology, including the history of poisons, dose-response, routes of exposure, and mechanisms of toxicity through a series of case studies that delve into the social, political, and global issues involved. Prerequisites: One of the following FSRC courses: BIOL101, BIOL114, NEUR105, ENSC162 or CHEM111, with a minimum of C-. 3 credits. PSRC, WI.

BIOL366. Biodiversity and Conservation

A Scientific Reasoning Perspectives level course focused on understanding global biodiversity and conservation strategies. The course will emphasize the distinguishing features and the human and ecological relevance of the major taxa of organisms. Understanding the characteristics of organisms and the factors that determine their distribution and abundance provides critical information for devising conservation strategies. However, successful efforts to reduce the loss of biodiversity depend on the integration of multiple perspectives and knowledge from many disciplines. Students will be challenged to consider the effects of historical, cultural, economic, political, and ethical perspectives on shaping human viewpoints about biodiversity and conservation. Critical thinking and scientific writing will be utilized in evaluating conservation strategies from an interdisciplinary perspective. Prerequisite: Completion of Civitae Core FSRC. 3 credits. PSRC, WI.

BIOL370. Ichthyology

This course will introduce students to Ichthyology, the study of fishes. The goal of this course is to explore the diversity, biology and ecology of fishes from an evolutionary perspective. Topics covered include, the history of Ichthyology, phylogenic relationships and taxonomic diversity of fishes, morphology, physiology, ecology, evolution and conservation of fishes. The laboratory portion of the course expands upon material presented in lecture and includes field trips to local waters. The labs off hands-on experience in learning about, identifying major orders, families, genera and species of fishes with particular emphasis on species occurring in freshwater and brackish water habitats in Virginia. Prerequisites: BIOL 251 with minimum grade of C- or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL371. Ornithology

A study of the ecology and evolution, form and function and, classification and identification of birds of the world, with an emphasis on Virginia species. In the laboratory, students will learn to classify and identify, by sight and sound, the birds of the world with an emphasis on species of the eastern United States. Lab work, field activities, and independent study are required, including weekend field trips. Prerequisites: BIOL 251 with minimum grade of C- or permission of instructor. 3 lectures and one 3-hour lab period. 4 credits.

BIOL374. Entomology

A study of insects: morphology, ecology, evolution, physiology, or taxonomy of the class or of a particular order. Prerequisites: BIOL 251 with minimum grade of C- or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL390. Directed or Independent Study

Must be approved by the head of the department. 1-8 credits.

BIOL392. Internship in Biology

A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of biology. 1-4 credits.

BIOL395. Special Topics in Biology

Specialized courses on a variety of topics that may be offered periodically. 1-6 credits.

BIOL399. Evolution

This course examines the principles of organic evolution and the patterns generated by evolutionary processes. Topics include: hypothesis testing in evolutionary biology, origins of variation and novelty, natural selection, molecular evolution, evolutionary development, speciation, and major transitions in evolutionary history. Prerequisite or may be taken concurrently: BIOL 288, or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits. WR.

BIOL400. Unifying Biol Principles

Unifying Biological Principles. An integrative study of phenomena common to all living creatures: metabolism, homeostasis, reproduction, development, inheritance, life's interactions and the environment through time and space. Themes are studied from the perspective of both cellular and organismic levels of complexity. Open only to junior and senior biology majors and minors. Prerequisites: BIOL 324 and BIOL 341. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits. WR and SP.

BIOL404. Immunology

This course focuses on the specific and non-specific immune responses with particular emphasis on the human system. Relative to each category of immune response, the interplay between immune signaling molecules and relevant cells, tissues, and organs are discussed. Specific topics include: antigen recognition, processing, and presentation, B/T lymphocyte maturation, activation, and differentiation, humoral immunity, cell-mediated immunity, inflammation, hypersensitivity, acute and chronic disease responses, vaccines, and the immunology of cancer. Prerequisites: Undergraduate level BIOL 304 Minimum Grade of C- and Undergraduate level BIOL 324 Minimum Grade of C-) or Undergraduate level BIOL 288 Minimum Grade of C- and ( BIOL 305 or BIOL 324 or BIOL 326. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL405. Field Mammalogy

A field course emphasizing identification of common mammals in Virginia's mountain, coastal, and Piedmont regions. Students will also gain an understanding of general habitat associations, breeding behavior, and conservation issues. Additional emphasis will be placed on learning to employ standard census techniques such as small mammal and bat trapping and radio telemetry. Students will have the opportunity to contribute to a long-term research project on small mammal populations. Activities focused on Southside Virginia with additional required extended trips to other areas. Offered during summer session. 6 credits.

BIOL410. Field Ornithology

A field course emphasizing identification of birds by sight and sound in Virginia's mountain, coastal, and Piedmont regions. Students will also gain an understanding of general habitat associations, breeding behavior, and conservation issues. Census and monitoring techniques will be studied to emphasize the development of practical skills. Activities focused on Southside Virginia with additional required extended trips to other areas. Lab work, field activities, and independent study required. Offered during summer session. 6 credits.

BIOL412. Biochemistry

A study of the chemistry of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids in biological systems. Prerequisite: CHEM 112 and CHEM 212 (with minimum grade of "C-" in both courses). 3 lecture and one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL425. Modern Genetics

A study of the structure and function of hereditary material at the molecular level. Students will apply current laboratory and analytical technologies to develop research-based critical thinking skills. Topics include DNA-RNA structure and replication, RNA splicing, Protein synthesis, and Genomic analysis. Prerequisite: BIOL 288 with a minimum grade of C- BIOL 324 or BIOL 326 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and two 1.5-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL427. Molecular Mechanisms Disease

This course will develop the principles of molecular biology including the biology, structure, and function of DNA and RNA. Lecture will cover a broad range of topics addressing modern tenets of Molecular Biology and how genetic factors contribute to the mechanisms of disease. Particular attention will be given to the action of enzymes on DNA and RNA as a standard process of life, and principles of gene expression. Laboratory sessions will be dedicated to the design and implementation of novel genetic &ldquomachines&rdquo to understand molecular mechanisms. Course content will be developed through individual and group discussions of select topics. The course is designed for students planning to continue into graduate and professional education. Prerequisites: BIOL 288 with a minimum grade of C- BIOL 305 or 324 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and two 1.5-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL432. Freshwater Ecology

This course provides as introduction to the physical, chemical, and biological properties of freshwater ecosystems. Emphasis is placed on species interactions among aquatic organisms, including microbes, plants, and animals under varying abiotic conditions. Comparisons between lentic (ponds, lakes, wetlands) and lotic (streams, rivers) as well as natural and man-made systems are discussed, and human impacts on fresh waters are investigated. Field sampling of various freshwater habitats is conducted during the laboratory component to compliment lecture topics. Weekend field trips may be required. Prerequisite: BIOL 288 with minimum grade of C- CHEM 112, MATH 301, and BIOL 330, 341, or 342 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL434. Ecosystem Ecology

This course will examine how the living processes on the Earth interact chemically with the non-living aspects of the Earth's atmosphere, and surface. The course will cover both the history of life's impact on the Earth's chemistry and how present day life continues to interact with the abiotic processes on Earth. The course will also discuss the unique role that human activities play in the present state of Earth's surface chemistry and biology. Prerequisites: BIOL 288 with minimum grades of C- MATH 301, CHEM 111, and BIOL 305 or 341 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL435. Advanced Ecology

Advanced ecological concepts will be emphasized through readings and discussions of primary literature. Various forms of scientific writing will also be taught and practiced through multiple writing assignments. Other miscellaneous topics related to scientific research and career preparation will also be considered. This course is primarily designed for ecology track biology majors who plan to pursue graduate studies. Prerequisite: BIOL 341 or BIOL 441 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL444. Medical Neurobiology

Medical Neurobiology provides a review of the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system and then explores how alterations in these systems &ndash whether genetically or environmentally triggered &ndash can result in human neurologic or psychiatric disorders. Emphasizing pathological neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neuropharmacology, this class covers material essential for understanding problems related to health and disease. Common neurological medical disorders (such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, and Parkinson&rsquos disease) and disorders that are classically thought of as non-neurological (such as myopia, hearing loss, hypertension, asthma) will be covered &ndash concepts that will affect nearly every health professional. Pre-requisites: BIOL 301 or BIOL 306 or BIOL 324 or BIOL 326 or BIOL 360 or NEUR 321. 3 credits.

BIOL450. Biology of Cancer

This course focuses on the basic cellular and molecular mechanisms of cancer with an emphasis on comparing the cellular and molecular biology of healthy cells and cancer cells. To understand how a normal cell becomes cancerous, this course will examine the development of cancer as it relates to genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, cell biology, developmental biology, and physiology. In addition, the development and clinical use of therapies based on major discoveries in cancer biology research will be investigated. Prerequisite: BIOL 288 with a minimum grade of C- BIOL 324, 326 or 360 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL455. Seminar Topics in Biology

The study of current topics in biology through reading and discussion of the primary literature. this course will emphasize advanced critical analysis and the integration of knowledge in the chosen field to the broader scientific context. May be repeated for credit when the topic changes. Prerequisite: BIOL 288 with a minimum grade of C- and MATH 301, or permission of instructor. Additional prerequisites may be recommended, depending on the topic. 1-3 credits. SP

BIOL460. Topics in Field Biology

The study of field biology in the context of an area of specialization such as, but not limited to, the following: botany, ecology, ornithology, herpetology, or mammalogy. In addition to local field trips, independent field study and overnight field trips may be required. May be repeated for credit when topic changes. Prerequisite: BIOL 288 with a minimum grade of C- or permission of instructor. Additional prerequisites may be recommended, depending on the topic. 3-6 credits.

BIOL465. Advanced Laboratory Techniques

The study and application of advanced laboratory techniques in the context of an area of specialization, such as, but not limited to the following: molecular biology, protein biochemistry, phylogenetics, microbial fermentation, chemical composition of environmental samples. In addition to laboratory sessions, independent study, data collection outside of normal laboratory sessions, and field-trips to collect samples may be required. Lecture and laboratory sessions will focus on the theoretical and practical skills required to address a research-centric topic. May be repeated for credit when the topic changes. Prerequisite: BIOL 288 with a minimum grade of C- and MATH 171, or permission of instructor. Additional prerequisites may be recommended, depending on the topic. 1-6 credits.

BIOL473. Comparative Biomechanics

All living things are subject to physical laws that govern how they move, eat, stand, heat themselves, and stay hydrated. Comparative biomechanics is the study of how organisms are built and have evolved to live within those physical limitations. This course will focus on examining the form-function relationships of animal locomotion (walking, running, flying, and swimming), animal food consumption, and plant structures. Prerequisites: BIOL 288 with a minimum grade of C- and either one of the following: BIOL 301, 303, 306, 309, 315 or permission of instructor PHYS 120 and PHYS 121 recommended. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL475. Animal Behavior

An examination of the evolutionary, developmental, ecological, and physiological mechanisms and significance of animal behavior. Focal areas include foraging, communication, migration, predator-prey interactions, mating and parental care. An inclusive sampling of those species (e.g., insects, reptiles, bird and mammals) will bestudied. Prerequisites: BIOL 288 with minimum grades of C- MATH 301 and BIOL 341 or 399 or permission of the instructor. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

BIOL488. Senior Capstone in Biology

An integrative study of biology that serves as a capstone experience for the major. Students will be challenged to utilize and reflect upon knowledge and skills acquired throughout the curriculum, including the role of science in society. Critical analysis of primary literature will be applied to writing a research proposal and demonstrating skills in written and oral communication. Additional emphasis will be placed on professional development, information literacy, and collaborative work skills. Prerequisites: MATH 261 or MATH 301 a minimum of one Organismal Area course (BIOL 301, 303, 309, or 315), one Cell and Molecular Area course (BIOL 305, 324, 326, or 360) and one Ecology and Evolution Area course (BIOL 330, 341, 342, or 399) and completion of at least 3 credits in BIOL 400 - 491 or permission of instructor. 3 credits. WR and SP.

BIOL489. Senior Assmnt & Prof Dev

This course is designed to provide guidance to students as they complete their final ePortfolio and prepare for future careers. Instruction and individualized guidance will be provided for the reflective writings and organization of the final ePortfolio. Other professional development skills including professional networking, application, and interview skills will also be discussed. Satisfactory completion of the ePortfolio and a program-defined assessment is required to pass this course. Students should complete this course during their last semester of coursework. Prerequisite or may be taken concurrently: MATH 261 or MATH 301 a minimum of one Organismal Area course (BIOL 301, BIOL 303, BIOL 309, or BIOL 315), one Cell and Molecular Area course (BIOL 305, BIOL 324, BIOL 326, or BIOL 360) and one Ecology and Evolution Area course (BIOL 330, BIOL 341, BIOL 342, or BIOL 399) and completion of at least 3 credits in BIOL 400-491 or permission of instructor. 1 credit.

BIOL490. Directed or Independent Study

A directed project administered by qualified specialists in the department. By permission of instructor and must be approved by the head of the department. Fulfills General Education Goal 14. 1-12 credits.

BIOL492. Internship in Biology

A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of biology. May be repeated. 1-5 credits. *Fulfills General Education Goal 14.

BIOL494. Advanced Internship in Biology

A semester-long, on-the-job, learning experience designed to apply the principles of biology. May be a continuation of BIOL 492 or a new internship experience that involves advanced responsibilities and application of knowledge. May be repeated. 1-5 credits.

BIOL495. Special Topics Biology

Special Topics in Biology. Specialized courses on a variety of topics that may be offered periodically. 1-6 credits.

BIOL496. Research Projects in Biology

With the approval of a faculty member and the department chair, a student may carry out an individual research project. The nature of the project must be determined between the student and faculty member and approved by the department chair before the student may register for the course. May be repeated. 1-5 credits. *Fulfills General Education Goal 14.

BIOL497. Advanced Research in Biology

With the approval of a faculty member and the department chair, a student may carry out an individual research project. May be a continuation of BIOL 496 or a new research project that involves advanced application of knowledge and skills. Students are encouraged to share the findings of their research through a poster of oral presentation. May be repeated. 1-5 credits.

BIOL498. Honors Research in Biology

Students conduct research in biology under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. 3 credits. WR *Fulfills General Education Goal 14.

BIOL499. Honors Research in Biology

Students conduct research in biology under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. 3 credits.


Search for key information about Programs and Majors across Virginia's Community Colleges. Browse all Degree types and curriculums offered by Virginia's Community Colleges. Focus on a specific Program and all possible majors are presented. Focus on a Major and see all the community colleges in Virginia that offer that curriculum.

Focus on courses and programs offered by specific colleges. Search for, and browse, specific courses and programs at the college you are interested in.

The courses listed on this VCCS website are updated on a term by term basis and reflect only those courses approved for offering during the most current term. All VCCS colleges must use, as a minimum, the standard course prefix, course number, credit value(s), and descriptions contained in this listing.

When scheduling courses, colleges may use the local rule to assign pre- or co-requisites that are not listed in the Master Course File.

Questions, additional information, and corrections regarding the Master Course File should be addressed here.


Minor

All BIO courses numbered 211 through 399 require BIO 150 , BIO 150L , BIO 160 , and BIO 160L as prerequisites with the exception of BIO 213 and BIO 214 . Additional prerequisites may be required and are noted in individual course descriptions.

Under special circumstances, an exceptional student lacking a prerequisite for a particular course may be allowed to enroll in that course by receiving a POI (permission of instructor) from the instructor.

The same numbered course cannot be repeated unless it is a topics course ( BIO 301 - BIO 306 ) with a different title.

A maximum of four hours of research in biology ( BIO 390 , BIO 391 , and/or BIO 392 ) may be applied toward the major, but an additional four hours in research ( BIO 392 , BIO 393 , and/or BIO 394 ) may be taken and applied as elective hours towards graduation. Research courses should be taken in consecutive order. Only BIO major and minors are eligible to receive BIO credit for research. Only BA majors are eligible to take BIO 399 .

BIO 101. Biology and the Human Condition. (4 h)

Introduction to basic principles in biology, emphasizing recent advances in biology in the context of their ethical, social, political, and economic considerations. Intended for students with little or no previous experience in biology. BIO 101 is not recommended for those pursuing a career in the health professions or who are planning to continue in biology. Does NOT count toward the biology major or minor. Credit not given for both BIO 101 and BIO 111. C-BIO 101L. (D)

BIO 101L. Biology and the Human Condition-Lab. (0 h)

BIO 105. Plants and People. (4 h)

Explores the numerous associations between plants and people, the fundamental importance of plant diversity to humans and their role in the sustainability of the biosphere. This course is intended for students with little or no previous experience in biology and does NOT count toward the major or minor in Biology. (D)

BIO 111. Biological Principles. (4 h)

Study of the general principles of living things with focus on the cellular, organismal, and population levels of biological organization, emphasizing the role of heredity and evolution in these systems. Used as equivalent credit for prior college level or transfer course work only. Does NOT count toward the major or minor in biology. Credit not given for both BIO 101 and BIO 111. (D)

BIO 111L. Biological Principles Lab. (0 h)

BIO 150. Biology I. (3 h)

Introduction to biological principles and concepts I. Both BIO 150 and 150L must be taken to meet the divisional requirement. (D)

BIO 150L. Biology I Lab. (1 h)

BIO 160. Biology II. (3 h)

Introduction to biological principles and concepts II. P-BIO 150 and 150L.

BIO 160L. Biology II Lab. (1 h)

BIO 202. Bird Taxonomy (Florida). (2 h)

Immersion in bird taxonomy and ecology, conducted in southern Florida during six days of Spring Break. Two on-campus meetings are followed by a trip to top birding sites in North America, viewing over 100 species and covering most of the world's orders of birds. Out-of-pocket costs for food, transportation, and lodging expected to be $200 or less. P-POI required.

BIO 208. Understanding Climate Change. (1.5 h)

Introduction to the scientific evidence for climate change.

BIO 210. Ethical Decision-Making in Biology and Medicine. (3 h)

Examines contemporary issues in bioethics, including responsible conduct in research, implications of technological advances in biology, environmental issues, and controversies in health care and medical practice.

BIO 212. Biodiversity. (4 h)

Investigates the history of life on earth and examines its diversification in an evolutionary and ecological context. Lectures cover the mechanisms of biological diversification and survey life on earth. Labs introduce students to the broad diversity of life through exercises with living organisms. P-BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L. (D)

BIO 213. Genetics and Molecular Biology. (4 h)

Introduction to the principles and processes of heredity, information flow, and gene function. Topics covered include Mendelian genetics, molecular genetics, and the origin of genetic variation. This course will be offered for the last time Spring 2021. C-BIO 213L.

BIO 213L. Genetics and Molecular Biology Lab. (0 h)

BIO 214. Cellular Biology. (4 h)

Introduction to the principles and processes of cellular biology and their impact on organismal function. Topics include molecular organization of cellular structures, regulations of cellular functions, bioenergetics, and metabolism. Introduces cancer, immunology, and developmental biology. This course will be offered for the last time in Spring 2021. P-BIO 114 and CHM 111.

BIO 214L. Cellular Biology Lab. (0 h)

BIO 220. Introduction to Earth Science. (3 h)

Oceans, weather, climate, earthquakes, volcanoes, soil, and space all play important roles in our dynamic planet. Students will explore the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere, and gain a deeper understanding of how the Earth operates as a whole. Also listed as ENV 220. P-requires BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L if taken as BIO 220.

BIO 225. Field Biology and Natural History. (3 h)

Provides a hands-on study of organisms in their natural habitats with an emphasis on local North Carolina biodiversity. Well-established sampling methods in field biology are blended with emerging technologies. P-BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 235. Genetics and Evolution. (3 h)

Exploration of genetic evolution, biodiversity, adaptation, and genomics. Intended as an intermediate course for developing skills towards advanced studies in genetics, evolution, ecology, and molecular biology. P-BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 245. Comparative Animal Physiology. (3 h)

Introduction to animal physiology in the context of animal diversity and evolution. P-BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 265. Cellular and Molecular Biology. (3 h)

Exploration of the molecular mechanisms of cellular functions. P-BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 301. Topics in Biology. (1-4 h)

Seminar and/or lecture courses in selected topics, some involving laboratory instruction. May be repeated if the course title differs.

BIO 302. Topics in Biology. (1-4 h)

Seminar and/or lecture courses in selected topics, some involving laboratory instruction. May be repeated if the course title differs.

BIO 303. Topics in Biology. (1-4 h)

Seminar and/or lecture courses in selected topics, some involving laboratory instruction. May be repeated if the course title differs.

BIO 304. Topics in Biology. (1-4 h)

Seminar and/or lecture courses in selected topics, some involving laboratory instruction. May be repeated if the course title differs.

BIO 305. Topics in Biology. (1-4 h)

Seminar and/or lecture courses in selected topics, some involving laboratory instruction. May be repeated if the course title differs.

BIO 306. Topics in Biology. (1-4 h)

Seminar and/or lecture courses in selected topics, some involving laboratory instruction. May be repeated if the course title differs.

BIO 307. Biophysics. (3 h)

Introduction to the structure, dynamic behavior, and function of DNA and proteins, and a survey of membrane biophysics. The physical principles of structure determination by X-ray, NMR, and optical methods are emphasized. Also listed as PHY 307. P-BIO 114 or 214, PHY 113 or 123, PHY 114 or 124, or POI. BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L may be substituted for BIO 114 and 214.

BIO 308. Biomechanics. (3 h)

Analyzes the relationship between organismal form and function using principles from physics and engineering. Solid and fluid mechanics are employed to study design in living systems. P-BIO 114 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 308L. Biomechanics Lab. (1 h)

Laboratory study of biomechanics. P or C-BIO 308.

BIO 309. Comparative Anatomy. (4 h)

Study of the vertebrate body from an evolutionary, functional, and developmental perspective. Labs emphasize structure and function, primarily through the dissection of representative vertebrates. P-BIO 113 and 114 or BIO 245.

BIO 310. Community Ecology and Global Change. (4 h)

An advanced ecology course covering mechanisms that determine the dynamics and distribution of plant and animal assemblages and their responses to and roles in global change. Lectures focus on ecological principles and theory. Lab includes local field trips and discussion of the primary literature. Weekend field trips to Outer Banks and mountains. P-BIO 113 and 114 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 311. Ecology and Conservation Biology of Coral Reefs. (4 h)

In-depth study of the various biotic and abiotic components that come together to structure ecosystem function and biodiversity at all spatial scales in one of Earth’s most productive and diverse environments, yet one most threatened by human use and climate change. Lab component is a one-week field trip over Spring Break. P-BIO 113 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 313. Herpetology. (4 h)

Explores the biology of reptiles and amphibians, emphasizing their unique morphological, physiological, behavioral and life-history adaptations, and their evolutionary relationships. The lab consists mostly of field trips. P-BIO 113, 114 and 213 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 315. Population Genetics. (3 h)

Study of the amount and distribution of genetic variation in populations of organisms and of how processes such as mutation, recombination, and selection affect genetic variation. Lectures introduce theoretical studies and include discussion of molecular and phenotypic variation in natural populations. P-BIO 113 and 213 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L. (QR)

BIO 315L. Population Genetics Lab. (1 h)

Uses computer modeling and simulation, and experiments using populations of fruit flies and other model organisms as appropriate. P or C-BIO 315.

BIO 316. Biology of Birds. (4 h)

Lecture plus lab course emphasizing ecological and evolutionary influences on the physiology, behavior, diversity, and population biology of birds, and case studies in conservation biology. P-BIO 113 and 114 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 317. Plant Physiology and Development. (3 h)

Examines the growth, development, and physiological processes of plants. Control of these processes is examined on genetic, biochemical, and whole plant levels. P-BIO 114, 213 and 214 or BIO 265.

BIO 317L. Plant Physiology and Development Lab. (1 h)

Consists of structured experiments and an independently designed research project. P or C-BIO 317.

BIO 323. Animal Behavior. (3 h)

A survey of laboratory and field research on animal behavior. P-BIO 113 and 114 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, or BIO 160L.

BIO 323L. Animal Behavior Lab. (1 h)

Laboratory study of animal behavior. P or C-BIO 323.

BIO 324. Hormones and Behavior. (3 h)

Explores the mechanisms of hormonal influences on behavior in a broad range of animals, including humans. P-BIO 114 or BIO 245.

BIO 327. Mycology: Biology of Fungi. (4 h)

Introduces fungi, their evolution and natural taxonomy cell and molecular biology genetics, mating, and development primary and secondary biochemistry and their interactions with other organisms and the environment. Lab introduces culturing, microscopic and molecular techniques. P-BIO 113, 114, 213 and 214 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 328. Biology of Aging. (3 h)

Explores mechanisms of aging, and effects of aging on cellular and physiological processes in a range of organisms. P-BIO 113, 114 and 214 or BIO 235 or BIO 245 or BIO 265.

BIO 329. Conservation Biology. (3 h)

Lectures, readings, and discussions examining biological resources, their limitations and methods for sustainability. Genetic, aquatic, terrestrial, and ecosystem resources will be examined. P-BIO 113 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 330. Land and Natural Resource Management. (3 h)

Provides a fundamental understanding of land and resource management. The major focus is on federal oversight and policies but state, local, non-profit, and international aspects are included. P-BIO 113 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 332. Microbiology. (4 h)

Structure, function, and taxonomy of microorganisms with emphasis on bacteria. Topics include microbial ecology, industrial microbiology, and medical microbiology. Lab emphasizes microbial diversity through characterizations of isolates from nature. P-CHM 122 and BIO 213 and 214 or CHM 122 and BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 333. Vertebrates. (4 h)

Systematic study of vertebrates, with emphasis on evolution, physiology, behavior, and ecology. Laboratory devoted to systematic, field, and experimental studies. P-BIO 113 and 114 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 334. Parasitology. (4 h)

Survey of protozoan, helminth, and arthropod parasites with a focus on cellular biology, life cycles, host-parasite relationships, and public health implications. Laboratory emphasizes microscopy-based techniques for examining parasite morphology and intracellular structures. P- BIO 113 and 114 or BIO 265.

BIO 335. Insect Biology. (4 h)

Introduction to the diversity, structure, development, physiology, behavior, and ecology of insects. P-BIO 113 and 114 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 336. Development. (3 h)

Study of the molecular, cellular, and anatomical aspects of embryonic development of invertebrate and vertebrate animals. P-BIO 114, 213 and 214, or BIO 150, 150L, 160, or BIO 160L.

BIO 336L. Development Lab. (1 h)

Laboratory study of the molecular, cellular, and anatomical aspects of embryonic development of invertebrate and vertebrate animals. P or C-BIO 336.

BIO 338. Plant Diversity. (3 h)

Explores the diversification of plants in the context of convergent evolution, functional processes and ecological importance. P-BIO 113 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 338L. Plant Diversity. (1 h)

Plant diversity lab. P or C-BIO 338.

BIO 340. Ecology. (4 h)

Introduction to the interrelationships among living systems and their environments structure and dynamics of major ecosystem types contemporary problems in ecology. P-BIO 113 and 114 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L. (QR)

BIO 341. Marine Biology. (3 h)

An introduction to the physical, chemical, and biological parameters affecting the distribution of marine organisms. P-BIO 113 and 114 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 341L. Marine Biology. (1 h)

Marine biology lab. P or C-BIO 341.

BIO 342. Oceanography. (4 h)

Introduces the geological, physical, chemical, and biological processes that govern the global oceans and their role in climate change. Lab focus is on tools and research questions pertinent to the field of biological oceanography. P-CHM 111 and BIO 113 or CHM 111 and BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 346. Neurobiology. (3 h)

Introduces the structure and function of the nervous system including the neural basis of behavior. P-BIO 114 and 214 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 346L. Neurobiology Lab. (1 h)

Laboratory emphasizing electrophysiological techniques with experiments from the cellular to the behavioral level. Students will design and complete their own projects. P or C-BIO 346.

BIO 348. Physiological Plant Ecology. (3 h)

Provides a fundamental understanding of how plants have adapted to the stresses of their habitats, particularly in harsh or extreme environments such as deserts, the alpine, the arctic tundra, and tropical rain forests. P-BIO 113 and 114 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 348L. Physiological Plant Ecology. (1 h)

Physiological plant ecology lab. P or C-BIO 348.

BIO 349. Tropical Biodiversity of the Amazon and Andes. (4 h)

Intensive field course in tropical biodiversity focusing on ecosystems, natural resource management, and conservation. Students will travel to major tropical biomes in the vast tropical wildernesses of Andean and Amazonian Peru. Lectures emphasize the basic ecological principles important in each ecosystem. Field-based labs focus on student-designed projects. Offered in the summer only. POI required.

BIO 352. Developmental Neuroscience. (4 h)

Focuses on the development of neural structures and the plasticity of the mature nervous system. Laboratory features immunocytochemical and cell culture techniques for the study of neurons. P-BIO 213 and 214 or BIO 265.

BIO 353. Functional Neuroanatomy. (3 h)

Introduces the anatomical organization of the vertebrate central nervous system. P-BIO 214 or BIO 245.

BIO 354. Methods in Neuroscience. (3 h)

Introduces the techniques used in the field of neuroscience. Anatomical, physiological, molecular and behavioral methods are covered through lectures, laboratory work, and reading the primary literature. Also offered in Salamanca. P-BIO 114 and 214 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 356. Ecology and Resource Management of Southeast Australia. (4 h)

Intensive field-oriented course focusing on ecosystems, natural resource management and environmental conservation of southeastern Australia. Students travel to major biomes including sub-tropical rainforests, coral reefs and the Australian urban environment. Laboratories are field-based, with some consisting of student-designed projects. Taught only in summers in Australia. P-BIO 113 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L or POI.

BIO 357. Bioinspiration and Biomimetics. (3 h)

Explores the ways in which biological mechanisms can inspire new technologies, products, and businesses. The course combines basic biological and entrepreneurial principles. Also listed as ENT 357. P-BIO 114 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 358. Biogeography. (3 h)

Study of geographic variation and distribution of organismal diversity using theoretical, historical and ecological information with specific applications to conservation and sustainability. P-BIO 113 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 358L. Biogeography Lab. (1 h)

Introduces methods of analysis related to the study of biogeography. P or C-BIO 358.

BIO 360. Metabolic Diseases. (3 h)

Explores genetic and biochemical pathways in the context of inborn errors of metabolism. P-BIO 370/CHM 370/BMB 370.

BIO 361. Principles of Biological Microscopy. (4 h)

Introduces the fundamentals of biological imaging techniques. Students will explore a variety of microscopic methods as well as image acquisition, post-image processing, and scientific figure creation. Emphasis will be on both a theoretical and practical understanding of microscopic imaging principles. Concepts of experimental design and data critique will be explored through student projects and presentations. P-BIO 214 or BIO 265.

BIO 362. Immunology. (3 h)

Study of the components and protective mechanisms of the human immune system, including innate and acquired immunity. P-BIO 214 or BIO 265.

BIO 363. Sensory Biology. (3 h)

Introduction to sensory physiology and other aspects of sensory systems, e.g. molecular biology and anatomy. Also offered in Salamanca. P-BIO 114 and 214 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 363L. Sensory Biology Lab. (1 h)

Laboratory emphasizing electrophysiological and behavioral techniques to examine sensory systems. Students will design and complete their own projects. P or C-BIO 363.

BIO 365. Biology of the Cell. (3 h)

Lecture course on classic and recent experiments in cell biology. Analysis and interpretation of experimental data from the primary literature is emphasized. P-BIO 213 and 214 or any BIO course at the 211 level or above.

BIO 365L. Biology of the Cell Lab. (1 h)

Laboratory course introducing basic techniques in cell biology, leading to an independent project. P or C-BIO 365.

BIO 367. Virology. (3 h)

Introduces molecular virology, including viral replication, viral-cell interactions, viral disease, and methods for studying and controlling viruses. P-BIO 213 and 214 or BIO 265.

BIO 368. The Cell Biological Basis of Disease. (3 h)

Examines defects in basic cellular mechanisms that may lead to disease. P-BIO 214 or BIO 265.

BIO 368L. The Cell Biological Basis of Disease Lab. (1 h)

Lab uses advanced microscopic and histological techniques to investigate basic properties of cells. P or C-BIO 368.

BIO 369. Cancer Biology. (3 h)

Analysis of molecular and cellular mechanisms that transform normal cells, trigger abnormal proliferation, and lead to tumor formation. Emphasis is on the biological basis of cancer, with some exploration of clinical and social consequences. P-BIO 213 and 214, or BIO 235 or BIO 245, or BIO 265.

BIO 370. Biochemistry I: Macromolecules and Metabolism. (3 h)

Introduces principles of biochemistry including structure, function, and biosynthesis of biological molecules, analysis of enzyme function and activity, bioenergetics, and regulation of metabolic pathways. Also listed as BMB 370 and CHM 370. P-any two of the following with associated labs: CHM 122 (or CHM 123), CHM 280 or BIO 214 or any two of the following: CHM 122 (or CHM 123), CHM 280, or BIO 265.

BIO 370L. Biochemistry Lab. (1 h)

Overview of biochemical approaches to study structure and function of macromolecules. Also listed as CHM 370L. Credit allowed for BIO 370L/CHM 370L or BIO 371L/BMB 371L/CHM 371L, but not both. P or C-BIO 370/BMB 370/CHM 370.

BIO 371L. Advanced Biochemistry Lab. (1.5 h)

Emphasizes approaches for isolation and analysis of enzymes. Required for BMB major and the chemistry major with concentration in biochemistry. Recommended for research focused students. Also listed as BIO 371L and CHM 371L. Credit allowed for BIO 370L/CHM 370L, or BMB 371L/BIO 371L/CHM 371L, but not both. P or C-BMB 370/BIO 370/CHM 370.

BIO 372. Advanced Molecular Biology. (3 h)

Presents molecular mechanisms by which stored genetic information is expressed including the mechanisms for and regulation of gene expression, protein synthesis, and genome editing. Emphasizes analysis and interpretation of experimental data from the primary literature. Also listed as BMB 372. P-BIO 370/BMB 370/CHM 370.

BIO 372L. Advanced Molecular Biology Laboratory. (1.5 h)

Introduces modern methods of molecular biology to analyze and manipulate expression of genes and function of gene products. Also listed as BMB 372L. P or C-BIO 372/BMB 372 or BMB 373/CHM 373.

BIO 374. Neuropharmacology. (3 h)

Introduces how pharmacological agents affect cellular and molecular functions in the nervous system of normal and disease states. Lecture and case studies will be used to examine topics including drugs targeting mood and emotion, memory and dementia, and movement disorders. Drugs of abuse and the neurological basis of addiction will also be evaluated. P-BIO 214 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 379. Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS). (4 h)

Introduces the concepts and use of GIS as a mapping and analytical tool with emphasis on applications environmental modeling, global change, sociodemographic change, and site suitability analyses. P-BIO 113 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 380. Biostatistics. (3 h)

An introduction to statistical methods used by biologists, including descriptive statistics, hypothesis-testing, analysis of variance, and regression and correlation. P-BIO 114 or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L. (QR)

BIO 381. Epigenetics. (3 h)

Studies the molecular mechanisms for inheritance of genome modifications. Uses primary literature to explore the environmental and developmental signals that influence epigenetic controls of gene expression and disease. Also listed as BMB 381. P-BIO 213 and 214, or BIO 265.

BIO 381L. Epigenetics Laboratory. (1 h)

Provides hands-on experiences with genome editing and molecular genetics to address the function and expression of genes. Also listed as BMB 381L. P or C-BIO 381 or POI.

BIO 382. Molecular Signaling. (3 h)

Examines the molecular and biochemical mechanisms by which hormones, neurotransmitters, and other signaling molecules act to change growth, development, and physiological and behavioral responses of organisms with a focus on discussion of primary literature. Also listed as BMB 382. P-BIO 213, 214, and BIO 370/BMB 370/CHM 370 or BIO 265 and BIO 370/BMB 370/CHM 370.

BIO 383. Genomics. (3 h)

Examines the architecture, expression, and evolution of genomes. Uses current primary literature to examine the functional and evolutionary dynamics of genomes and the modern analytic techniques used to investigate genome-wide phenomena. Also listed as BMB 383. P-BIO 160 and 160L or CSC 112 or STA 212 and an introductory statistics course such as STA 111, ANT 380, BIO 380, or PSY 311.

BIO 383L. Genomics Lab. (1 h)

Introduces analytic methods and interpretation of genome wide data through practical tutorials. Also listed as BMB 383L. P or C-BIO 383.

BIO 384. Molecular Evolution. (3 h)

Study of the evolutionary analysis of biological sequences in population genetic and phylogenetic contexts. Explores statistical and bioinformatic techniques for investigating population evolution, molecular adaptations, and reconstruction of evolutionary history through primary literature. P-BIO 160 and 160L or CSC 112 or STA 212 and an introductory statistics course such as STA 111, ANT 380, BIO 380, or PSY 311.

BIO 384L. Molecular Evolution. (1 h)

Introduces evolutionary analytic methods and interpretation of molecular data through practical tutorials. P or C-BIO 384.

BIO 385. Bioinformatics. (3 h)

Introduction to computational approaches essential to modern biological inquiry. Approaches may include large biological dataset analyses, sequence similarity and motif searches, and analysis of high-throughput genomic technologies. Emphasizes interdisciplinary interaction and communication. Also listed as CSC 385 and PHY 385. P-CSC 201 or 221 (and BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L if taken as BIO 385) or POI.

BIO 387. Computational Systems Biology. (3 h)

Introduction of concepts and development of skills for comprehension of systems biology problems, including both biological and computational aspects. Topics may include genome-wide transcriptomic analysis, protein interaction networks, large-scale proteomics experiments, and computational approaches for modeling, storing, and analyzing the resulting data sets. Emphasizes interdisciplinary interaction and communication. Also listed as CSC 387. P-CSC 201 or 221 (also requires BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L if taken as BIO 387) or POI.

BIO 388. Methods in Molecular Genetics. (4 h)

Hybrid lecture/laboratory course gives students a hands-on introduction to a diverse array of techniques commonly used in molecular genetics laboratories. P-BIO 213 and 214, or BIO 150, 150L, 160, and BIO 160L.

BIO 390. Mentored Research. (2 h)

Introduces the technology and techniques of research. Working under the supervision of a faculty member or research staff, students will obtain experience in experimental design and analysis. The course may be taken as a precursor to BIO 391. Satisfies the research requirement for the BA and BS degrees. Pass/Fail option. P-BIO 150, 150L, 160, 160L, and POI required.

BIO 391. Independent Research. (2 h)

Students participate in a research project involving collection or analysis of data to investigate a defined research question. Students are required to submit a written paper or poster documenting research progress. The same numbered course cannot be repeated. Subsequent courses must be taken in consecutive order. Satisfies the research requirement for the BA and BS degree. Pass/Fail option. P-BIO 150, 150L, 160, 160L and POI required.

BIO 392. Independent Research. (2 h)

Continuation of research beyond BIO 391. Students are required to submit a written paper or poster documenting research progress. The same numbered course cannot be repeated. Pass/Fail option. P-BIO 391 and POI required.

BIO 393. Research in Biology. (2 h)

Continuation of research beyond BIO 392. Students are required to submit a written paper or poster documenting research progress. The same numbered course cannot be repeated. Pass/Fail option. P-BIO 392 and POI required.

BIO 394. Research in Biology. (2 h)

Continuation of research beyond BIO 393. Students are required to submit a written paper or poster documenting research progress. The same numbered course cannot be repeated. Pass/Fail option. P-BIO 393 and POI required.

BIO 399. Mentored Biology. (2 h)

Students explore career opportunities in biology-related fields or experiences. Students are required to submit a written paper or poster describing research internship or experience to their adviser. Plans must be approved in advance by the adviser. Course can be repeated for credit, but only 4 total hours will count toward the BA BIO major. Does not count toward the BS BIO major or the BIO minor. Pass/Fail only. P-BIO 150, 150L, 160, 160L and POI required.

Chair Susan E. Fahrbach
Andrew Sabin Family Foundation Presidential Chair in Conservation Biology Miles R. Silman
Charles M. Allen Professor of Biology Gloria K. Muday
Reynolds Babcock Chaired Professor of Biology William K. Smith
Reynolds Professor Susan E. Fahrbach
Professors David J. Anderson, Miriam A. Ashley-Ross, Robert A. Browne, William E. Conner, James F. Curran, Carole L. Gibson, Erik C. Johnson, Kathleen A. Kron, Wayne L. Silver, Clifford W. Zeyl
Teaching Professors A. Daniel Johnson, Pat C. W. Lord
Associate Professors T. Michael Anderson, Sarah McDonald, Brian W. Tague, Ke Zhang
Associate Teaching Professors Diana R. Arnett, Anna Kate Lack
Assistant Professors Regina J. Cordy, Joshua Currie, Sheri A. Floge, James B. Pease
Visiting Assistant Professor Christine M. Vega
Director of Microscopy Glen S. Marrs
Assistant Director of Microscopy Heather Brown-Harding
Teacher-Scholar Postdoctoral Fellow Sukhpreet Kaur


Requirements for the Major

Students must complete a minimum of 31 credits of Biological Science courses as detailed below. Unless specifically stated otherwise, courses may not be used to meet multiple requirements of the major.

In addition to the standard Biology major, there are two Named Options: Biology with a Named Option in Evolutionary Biology and Biology with a Named Option in Plant Biology. Admissions to the Named Option in Plant Biology is suspended as of Fall 2021.

Students may complete only one Biology major/named option and must declare the named option they are pursuing.

Core Requirements

Mathematics and Statistics

Chemistry

Physics

Introductory Biology

For AP Biology policy, as it applies to introductory biology in the biology major, see this link.

Foundation Course (complete one of the following):

Students may use BIOCORE 381 and BIOCORE 383 toward bothIntroductory Biology andFoundation.

Course List
Code Title Credits
AGRONOMY/​HORT 338 Plant Breeding and Biotechnology3
BIOCHEM 501 Introduction to Biochemistry3
BIOCHEM 508 General Biochemistry II3-4
BIOCORE 381
& BIOCORE 383
Evolution, Ecology, and Genetics
and Cellular Biology
6
GENETICS 466 Principles of Genetics3
GENETICS 468 General Genetics 23
MICROBIO 470 Microbial Genetics & Molecular Machines3

Intermediate/Advanced Courses

Minimum of 13 credits required and must include one approved lab course. Approved lab courses are indicated by footnote. A course taken to meet the Foundation requirement may not also count as an Intermediate/Advanced course.

  • Complete at least two credits from either category A or B.
  • Complete at least two credits from either category C or D.
  • Complete at least two credits from an unused category (A, B, C, D or E).

A. Cellular and Subcellular Biology

Course List
Code Title Credits
AGRONOMY/​HORT 338 Plant Breeding and Biotechnology3
AGRONOMY/​BOTANY/​HORT 339 Plant Biotechnology: Principles and Techniques I 1 4
AGRONOMY/​BOTANY/​HORT 340 Plant Cell Culture and Genetic Engineering3
AN SCI/​DY SCI 362 Veterinary Genetics2
BIOCHEM 501 Introduction to Biochemistry3
BIOCHEM 507 General Biochemistry I3
BIOCHEM 508 General Biochemistry II3-4
BIOCHEM/​NUTR SCI 510 Nutritional Biochemistry and Metabolism3
BIOCHEM 551 Biochemical Methods 1 4
BIOCHEM 570 Computational Modeling of Biological Systems3
BIOCHEM/​M M & I 575 Biology of Viruses2
BIOCHEM 601 Protein and Enzyme Structure and Function2
BIOCHEM/​GENETICS/​MICROBIO 612 Prokaryotic Molecular Biology3
BIOCHEM/​GENETICS/​MD GENET 620 Eukaryotic Molecular Biology3
BIOCHEM/​BOTANY 621 Plant Biochemistry3
BIOCHEM 625 Mechanisms of Action of Vitamins and Minerals2
BIOCHEM/​PHMCOL-M/​ZOOLOGY 630 Cellular Signal Transduction Mechanisms3
BMOLCHEM 314 Introduction to Human Biochemistry3
BMOLCHEM 504 Human Biochemistry Laboratory 1 3
BMOLCHEM/​MICROBIO 668 Microbiology at Atomic Resolution3
BOTANY/​ENTOM/​PL PATH 505 Plant-Microbe Interactions: Molecular and Ecological Aspects3
CRB/​B M E 670 Biology of Heart Disease and Regeneration3
GENETICS 466 Principles of Genetics3
GENETICS 467 General Genetics 13
GENETICS 520 Neurogenetics3
GENETICS 527 Developmental Genetics for Conservation and Regeneration3
GENETICS/​MD GENET/​ZOOLOGY 562 Human Cytogenetics2
MICROBIO 607 Advanced Microbial Genetics3
MICROBIO 470 Microbial Genetics & Molecular Machines3
MICROBIO/​SOIL SCI 523 Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry3
MICROBIO 551 Capstone Research Project in Microbiology 1 2
M M & I 341 Immunology3
M M & I/​PATH-BIO 528 Immunology3
NEURODPT/​NTP 610 Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience4
NEURODPT/​NTP/​ZOOLOGY 616 Lab Course in Neurobiology and Behavior 1 4
NEURODPT/​NTP 629 Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Memory3
NTP 675 Special Topics (Stem Cell in Neurobiology)1-3
NTP 675 Special Topics (Reproductive Neuroendocrinology)1-3
NTP 675 Special Topics (Molecular Mechanisms of Brain Damage)1-3
ONCOLOGY/​PL PATH 640 General Virology-Multiplication of Viruses3
PHM SCI 558 Laboratory Techniques in Pharmacology and Toxicology 1 2
ZOOLOGY 470 Introduction to Animal Development3
ZOOLOGY/​PSYCH 523 Neurobiology3
ZOOLOGY 555 Laboratory in Developmental Biology 1 3
ZOOLOGY 570 Cell Biology3
ZOOLOGY 604 Computer-based Gene and Disease/Disorder Research Lab 1 2
ZOOLOGY 625 Development of the Nervous System2
ZOOLOGY 655 Modeling Neurodevelopmental Disease3

B. Organismal Biology

Course List
Code Title Credits
AN SCI/​DY SCI 373 Animal Physiology3
AN SCI/​DY SCI 434 Reproductive Physiology 1 3
AN SCI/​F&W ECOL/​ZOOLOGY 520 Ornithology3
AN SCI/​F&W ECOL/​ZOOLOGY 521 Birds of Southern Wisconsin 1 3
ANAT&PHY 335 Physiology 1 5
ANAT&PHY 337 Human Anatomy3
ANAT&PHY 338 Human Anatomy Laboratory 1 2
ANAT&PHY 435 Fundamentals of Human Physiology 1 5
ANTHRO/​NTP/​PSYCH/​ZOOLOGY 619 Biology of Mind3
BIOCORE 486 Principles of Physiology Laboratory 1 2
BOTANY 300 Plant Anatomy 1 4
BOTANY 330 Algae 1 3
BOTANY/​PL PATH 332 Fungi 1 4
BOTANY/​PL PATH 333 Biology of the Fungi2
BOTANY/​F&W ECOL 402 Dendrology 1 2
BOTANY 500 Plant Physiology 1 3-4
CS&D 503 Neural Mechanisms of Speech, Hearing and Language3
DY SCI 378 Lactation Physiology 1 3
ENTOM/​ZOOLOGY 302 Introduction to Entomology 1 4
ENTOM 321 Physiology of Insects3
ENTOM 331 Taxonomy of Mature Insects 1 4
F&W ECOL 401 Physiological Animal Ecology3
GENETICS 545 Genetics Laboratory 1 2
GENETICS/​MD GENET 565 Human Genetics3
GEOSCI/​ZOOLOGY 542 Invertebrate Paleontology3
KINES 314 Physiology of Exercise 1 4
MICROBIO 303 Biology of Microorganisms3
MICROBIO 304 Biology of Microorganisms Laboratory 1 2
MICROBIO 330 Host-Parasite Interactions3
MICROBIO 526 Physiology of Microorganisms3
M M & I 301 Pathogenic Bacteriology2
M M & I/​ENTOM/​PATH-BIO/​ZOOLOGY 350 Parasitology3
M M & I 410 Medical Mycology2
NTP/​NEURODPT/​PSYCH 611 Systems Neuroscience4
NTP/​ZOOLOGY 620 Neuroethology Seminar2
NTP/​NEURODPT 630 Neuronal Mechanisms for Sensation and Memory in Cerebral Cortex3
NTP 675 Special Topics (Functional Brain Imaging of Cognitive Disorders)1-3
NUTR SCI 431 Nutrition in the Life Span3
NUTR SCI 631 Clinical Nutrition I3
NUTR SCI/​PHM PRAC 672 Herbals, Homeopathy, and Dietary Supplements2-3
ONCOLOGY 401 Introduction to Experimental Oncology2
PATH 404 Pathophysiologic Principles of Human Diseases3
PL PATH 558 Biology of Plant Pathogens 1 3
PSYCH 406 Psychology of Perception3-4
PSYCH 414 Cognitive Psychology3
PSYCH 454 Behavioral Neuroscience3
PSYCH 513 Hormones, Brain, and Behavior4
PSYCH 606 Hormones and Behavior3
ZOOLOGY 303 Aquatic Invertebrate Biology3
ZOOLOGY 430 Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates 1 5
ZOOLOGY 603 Endocrinology3-4
ZOOLOGY 611 Comparative and Evolutionary Physiology3
ZOOLOGY 612 Comparative Physiology Laboratory 1 2

C. Ecology

Course List
Code Title Credits
AGRONOMY/​BOTANY/​SOIL SCI 370 Grassland Ecology3
AGRONOMY/​ENTOM/​F&W ECOL/​M&ENVTOX 632 Ecotoxicology: The Chemical Players1
AGRONOMY/​ENTOM/​F&W ECOL/​M&ENVTOX 633 Ecotoxicology: Impacts on Individuals1
AGRONOMY/​ENTOM/​F&W ECOL/​M&ENVTOX 634 Ecotoxicology: Impacts on Populations, Communities and Ecosystems1
BOTANY/​ZOOLOGY 450 Midwestern Ecological Issues: A Case Study Approach2
BOTANY/​F&W ECOL 455 The Vegetation of Wisconsin 1 4
BOTANY/​F&W ECOL/​ZOOLOGY 460 General Ecology 1 4
BOTANY/​ENTOM/​ZOOLOGY 473 Plant-Insect Interactions3
BOTANY/​ENVIR ST/​F&W ECOL/​ZOOLOGY 651 Conservation Biology3
ENTOM 450 Basic and Applied Insect Ecology3
ENTOM 451 Basic and Applied Insect Ecology Laboratory1
ENVIR ST/​ZOOLOGY 315 Limnology-Conservation of Aquatic Resources2
ENVIR ST/​LAND ARC 361 Wetlands Ecology3
F&W ECOL 379 Principles of Wildlife Management3
F&W ECOL 550 Forest Ecology3
F&W ECOL/​LAND ARC/​ZOOLOGY 565 Principles of Landscape Ecology2
F&W ECOL/​ZOOLOGY 660 Climate Change Ecology3
GENETICS 528 Banking Animal Biodiversity: International Field Study in Costa Rica1
MICROBIO/​AN SCI/​BOTANY 335 The Microbiome of Plants, Animals, and Humans3
PL PATH 300 Introduction to Plant Pathology 1 4
PL PATH 315 Plant Microbiomes 1 4
ZOOLOGY 304 Marine Biology2
ZOOLOGY 316 Laboratory for Limnology-Conservation of Aquatic Resources 1 2-3
ZOOLOGY 504 Modeling Animal Landscapes3-5
ZOOLOGY/​ENVIR ST 510 Ecology of Fishes3
ZOOLOGY/​ENVIR ST 511 Ecology of Fishes Lab 1 2

D. Evolution and Systematics

Course List
Code Title Credits
ANTHRO 302 Hominoid Evolution3
ANTHRO 304 Heredity, Environment and Human Populations3
ANTHRO/​BOTANY/​ZOOLOGY 410 Evolutionary Biology3
ANTHRO 411 The Evolution of the Genus, Homo3
ANTHRO 458 Primate Behavioral Ecology3
ANTHRO 603 Seminar in Evolutionary Theory3
BIOLOGY/​GENETICS 522 Communicating Evolutionary Biology2-3
BOTANY 305 Plant Morphology and Evolution 1 4
BOTANY 400 Plant Systematics 1 4
BOTANY 401 Vascular Flora of Wisconsin 1 4
BOTANY 422 Plant Geography3
BOTANY 563 Phylogenetic Analysis of Molecular Data3
ENTOM 432 Taxonomy and Bionomics of Immature Insects 1 4
ENTOM/​GENETICS/​ZOOLOGY 624 Molecular Ecology3
ENVIR ST/​F&W ECOL/​ZOOLOGY 360 Extinction of Species3
GENETICS 468 General Genetics 23
GEOSCI/​ZOOLOGY 541 Paleobiology3
MICROBIO 450 Diversity, Ecology and Evolution of Microorganisms3
PSYCH 449 Animal Behavior3
PSYCH 450 Primates and Us: Insights into Human Biology and Behavior3
ZOOLOGY 300 Invertebrate Biology and Evolution3
ZOOLOGY 301 Invertebrate Biology and Evolution Lab 1 2
ZOOLOGY 425 Behavioral Ecology3

E. Applied Biology, Agriculture and Natural Resources

Course List
Code Title Credits
A A E/​AGRONOMY/​INTER-AG/​NUTR SCI 350 World Hunger and Malnutrition3
AGRONOMY 300 Cropping Systems3
AGRONOMY 302 Forage Management and Utilization3
AGRONOMY/​HORT 360 Genetically Modified Crops: Science, Regulation & Controversy2
AGRONOMY 377 Global Food Production and Health3
AGRONOMY/​DY SCI/​INTER-AG 471 Food Production Systems and Sustainability3
AGRONOMY/​HORT 501 Principles of Plant Breeding3
AGRONOMY/​ATM OCN/​SOIL SCI 532 Environmental Biophysics3
AMER IND/​ANTHRO/​BOTANY 474 Ethnobotany3-4
AN SCI/​DY SCI/​NUTR SCI 311 Comparative Animal Nutrition3
AN SCI/​DY SCI 320 Animal Health and Disease3
AN SCI/​DY SCI 361 Introduction to Animal and Veterinary Genetics2
AN SCI/​DY SCI 363 Principles of Animal Breeding2
AN SCI 503 Avian Physiology 1 3
AN SCI 512 Management for Avian Health 1 3
BIOCORE 587 Biological Interactions3
BOTANY 403 Field Collections and Identification1-4
ENTOM 351 Principles of Economic Entomology3
ENTOM/​ZOOLOGY 371 Medical Entomology 1 3
ENTOM/​F&W ECOL 500 Insects in Forest Ecosystem Function and Management2
ENVIR ST/​POP HLTH 471 Introduction to Environmental Health3
ENVIR ST/​POP HLTH 502 Air Pollution and Human Health3
F&W ECOL 306 Terrestrial Vertebrates: Life History and Ecology 1 4
F&W ECOL/​HORT/​LAND ARC/​PL PATH 309 Diseases of Trees and Shrubs3
F&W ECOL 318 Principles of Wildlife Ecology3
F&W ECOL/​ZOOLOGY 335 Human/Animal Relationships: Biological and Philosophical Issues3
F&W ECOL 410 Principles of Silviculture3
F&W ECOL 415 Tree Physiology3
F&W ECOL/​SURG SCI 548 Diseases of Wildlife3
F&W ECOL 561 Wildlife Management Techniques 1 3
FOOD SCI/​MICROBIO 324 Food Microbiology Laboratory 1 2
FOOD SCI/​MICROBIO 325 Food Microbiology3
FOOD SCI 532 Integrated Food Manufacturing 1 4
GENETICS 548 The Genomic Revolution3
GENETICS/​HORT 550 Molecular Approaches for Potential Crop Improvement3
HORT/​LAND ARC 263 Landscape Plants I 1 3
HORT 370 World Vegetable Crops3
HORT 372 Colloquium in Organic Agriculture1
HORT/​AGRONOMY 376 Tropical Horticultural Systems1
HORT 378 Tropical Horticultural Systems International Field Study2
HORT/​PATH-BIO 500 Molecular Biology Techniques 1 3
M&ENVTOX/​ONCOLOGY/​PHM SCI/​PHMCOL-M/​POP HLTH 625 Toxicology I3
MED PHYS/​NTP 651 Methods for Neuroimaging Research3
MICROBIO/​SOIL SCI 425 Environmental Microbiology3
M M & I 554 Emerging Infectious Diseases and Bioterrorism2
NUTR SCI 332 Human Nutritional Needs3
PL PATH/​SOIL SCI 323 Soil Biology3
PL PATH 517 Plant Disease Resistance2-3
SOIL SCI 321 Soils and Environmental Chemistry3
ZOOLOGY 500 Undergraduate Neurobiology Seminar1

Additional lab or Field Research

In addition to the Lab requirement, complete one of the following requirements:

  • Complete one additional lab course and at least two credits from categories A–E in the Intermediate/Advanced course lists, or
  • Complete at least two credits of directed study in a biological science discipline, or
  • Complete a two-semester thesis in biological science. 2

Approved Directed Study courses

To have Directed Study count for the Additional Lab/Field Research requirement, students must first complete an Introductory Biology sequence.


Watch the video: All of Biology in 9 minutes (January 2022).