Arrange this in sequence :
i. Heat loss exceeds heat production.
ii.As body temperature falls, heat loss decreases.
iii.Body temperature equals environmental temperature.
iv.Metabolic activities fall to the basal level.
I am confused between i,iii,ii,iv and iv,i,ii,iii.
I think the order
i,ii,iiishould be correct, since the fall in temperature occurs after the heat loss exceeds production and will continue only till the temperature equals the ambient temperature.
ivis the reason for
iv,i,ii,iiisounds pretty convincing to me.
i,iii,ii,iv, the main problem is that there can not be any appreciable fall in temperature
iiafter the temperature equals the environmental temperature
ivseems more probably to be the reason for
irather than the reverse
Why do animals hibernate?
During the cold winter months, nothing seems more inviting than a warm bed. But for some animals, hunkering down in a cozy den when nights are long and temperatures are low isn't just a matter of temporary comfort — it's necessary for survival.
Certain animal species have evolved an adaptation that allows them to weather long stretches of time when food is scarce — they enter a state known as hibernation. And what happens when an animal hibernates is much more dramatic than simply curling up for an extended nap extreme metabolic changes are taking place. The animal's heart and breathing rates slow down, and its body temperature drops. Depending on the species, days or even weeks may pass without the animal waking to drink, eat or relieve itself. [5 Hibernating Bears Let Scientists Peek into Their Dens]
The word "hibernation" is derived from the Latin hibernare, meaning, "to pass the winter," according to the Online Etymology Dictionary. The term originated in the late 17th century in reference to a dormant state in insect eggs and plants, and was applied to other animals beginning in the 18th century.
Today, many types of mammals are recognized as hibernators, including bats, rodents, bears and even primates — three species of dwarf lemur in Madagascar and the pygmy slow loris in Vietnam have been found to hibernate.
Hibernating groundhogs even inspired the annual U.S. celebration of Groundhog Day, with a groundhog's emergence from winter slumber heralding spring's arrival time. The tradition was brought to the U.S. by German immigrants — folklore linked the length of hedgehogs' shadows as they emerged from hibernation to the end of winter.
Evolution vs. Creation: The Order of Events Matters!
The order of events of creation recorded in Genesis 1 contradicts (at very many points) the order of events according to the evolution story.
Many Christians think that if we just take each of the days of creation as being figurative of long ages (hundreds of millions of years or more), we can harmonize the Bible with the big bang and the geological evidence for a very old earth. But this only seems reasonable to those who pay insufficient attention to the order of events according to Genesis chapter 1 and the order of events according to evolution theory.
This old-earth view of the days is often called the “day-age” view and is an aspect of both progressive creationism and theistic evolution. There are many strong biblical objections to the day-age view. First, the Bible gives us abundant evidence that the days were intended by God (the divine author) and Moses (the human author) to be understood as literal 24-hour days (see Could God Really Have Created Everything in Six Days?).
Second, along with the gap theory, framework hypothesis (PDF) and other old-earth positions, the day-age view postulates millions of years of death, disease, violence and extinction in the animal world long before man was created. But this absolutely contradicts the Bible’s teaching about sin and death occurring after man was created (see Two histories of death).
Furthermore, like these other old-earth views, the day-age view is based on the false assumption that science has proven long ages through such things as (1) radiometric dating methods (see Thousands . . . Not Billions), (2) distant starlight (Light-Travel Time: A Problem for the Big Bang and Distant Starlight) and (3) how long it supposedly takes for rock layers to form (Rapid Rocks). These old-earth views developed about 200 years ago as Christians abandoned the orthodox young-earth view that dominated the first 1,800 years of church history (see Historical Setting and Millions of Years: Where Did the Idea Come From?).
Here in this article, I want to discuss another problem for the day-age view: the order of events of creation recorded in Genesis 1 contradicts (at very many points) the order of events according to the evolution story. That means that even if you don’t believe in Darwinian evolution as an explanation of the origin of living things, the only way you can harmonize Genesis with the idea of millions of years is by rearranging the order of events in Genesis .
Consider these examples of contradictions of order.
To put it pictorially, you can see the contradiction here:
We need to be aware of one more important point of contradiction. The Bible says that the earth was completely covered with water twice in its history—the first two days of creation (before dry land first appeared) and then about 1,600 years later during Noah’s Flood.
But evolution says that there has never been a global ocean on this planet. Evolution says that the earth was originally a hot, molten lava ball which over millions of years cooled to develop a hard crust and an atmosphere. Eventually the earth developed an irregular topography (hills and valleys) and rainfall gradually filled in some of the low spots to form localized seas.
Just so there is no confusion about this, look at this series of pictures from a geology book produced by the Institute of Geological Sciences in London, England (an evolutionist institution).
Next to these pictures on the same page the author writes:
Dr. Hugh Ross, a progressive creationist, was badly uninformed when he told viewers of TV program seven of The Great Debate on the John Ankerberg Show (aired in March 2006) that in the standard big bang cosmology: “the earth begins with water over the whole surface.” Dr. Ross is simply wrong.
For all these reasons and more, you cannot harmonize the Bible with millions of years, no matter where you try to wedge in the time into Genesis—unless you rearrange the text by moving verses and phrases around to radically change the order of events in Genesis 1. But that is not the way to treat the Bible . That is not Bible interpretation—rather it is Bible mutilation, to make it say what “evolutionized” Christians want it to say.
The Bible clearly teaches a literal six-day creation a few thousand years ago and a global catastrophic Flood at the time of Noah. The Bible firmly resists any attempts to marry it with evolution and millions of years. Rather than playing fast and loose with the sacred text, we ought to heed the words of Isaiah 66:2 , where God says:
Biology & Life Cycle
Gypsy moth undergoes four developmental life stages these are the egg, larva (caterpillar), pupa, and adult. Gypsy moth females lay between 500 to 1,000 eggs in sheltered areas such as underneath the bark of trees. The eggs are covered with a dense mass of tan or buff-colored hairs. The egg mass is approximately 1.5 inches long and 0.75 inches wide. The eggs are the overwintering stage of the insect. Eggs are attached to trees, houses, or any outdoor objects. The eggs hatch in spring (April) into caterpillars.
Caterpillar (Larval Stage)
Gypsy moth caterpillars are easy to identify, because they possess characteristics not found on other leaf-feeding caterpillars. They have five pairs of blue dots followed by six pairs of red dots lining the back. In addition, they are dark-colored and covered with hairs. Young caterpillars primarily feed during the day whereas the older caterpillars feed at night. When present in large numbers, the older caterpillars feed day and night. Young caterpillars spread to new locations by crawling to the tops of trees, where they spin a silken thread and are caught on wind currents. Older caterpillars are approximately 1.5 to 2.0 inches long. Gypsy moth caterpillars do not produce a web, which distinguishes it from web-making caterpillars such as the Eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum and the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea. The Gypsy moth larval stage lasts approximately seven weeks.
In early summer (June to early July), Gypsy moth caterpillars enter a pupal or transitional stage. The pupae are dark brown, shell-like cases approximately two inches long and covered with hairs. They are primarily located in sheltered areas such as tree bark crevices or leaf litter. Adult Gypsy moths emerge from the pupae in 10 to 14 days. They are present from July into August. Females have white to cream-colored wings, a tan body, and a two-inch wingspan. Female Gypsy moths cannot fly. Males, which are smaller than females, with a 1.5-inch wingspan, are dark-brown and have feathery antennae. Both the adult female and male can be identified by the inverted V-shape that points to a dot on the wings.
Gypsy moth has only one generation per year. Gypsy moth populations will go through cycles in which the populations will increase for several years then decline, and then increase again. Area-wide outbreaks can occur for up to ten years, but generally population densities in localized areas remain high for two to three years.
Adapted from Entomology Fact Sheet, NHE-153 written by Raymond A. Cloyd and Philip L. Nixon, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, in cooperation with the Illinois Natural History Survey.
This site is for use by municipal forestry departments, park districts, the green industry and other concerned agencies to report gypsy moth findings in NortheasternIllinois. The site will be monitored by University of Illinois Extension staff and the Illinois Department of Agriculture to assist in the effort to suppress the spread of gypsy moth.
Answer to Problem 1VCQ
The correct answer is option (d) The kinetochore becomes attached to the mitotic spindle. Sister chromatids line up at the metaphase plate. Cohesin proteins break down and the sister chromatids separate. The nucleus reforms and the cell divides.
Explanation of Solution
Explanation/justification for the correct answer:
Option (d): during early metaphase, the kinetochore attaches to the spindle fibers. The sister chromatids of the dividing cells line up at the metaphase plate, after the alignment, the spindle fibers attach to the kinetochore. The sister chromatids are bind together with the help of cohesin. After the alignment of the sister chromatids at the metaphase plate, the cohesin breaks and the sister chromatid separate and move to the opposite poles. A nucleus is formed on each opposite pole and then the cytoplasmic division results in the formation of two new cells.
Explanation for the incorrect answer:
Option (a): In this option, the separation of sister chromatids is placed after the formation of a nucleus, but the formation of the nucleus takes place after the sister chromatids are separated and move to opposite poles. So, it is an incorrect option.
Option (b): In this option, the separation of the sister chromatids is placed before the lining of the sister chromatids on the metaphase plate. The cohesin protein breaks after the sister chromatids are lined up on the metaphase plate, which causes the breaking of the sister chromatids. So, it is an incorrect option.
Option (c): In this option, it is said that the kinetochore is attached to the cohesin protein, but the kinetochore actually gets attached to the spindle fibers. So, it is an incorrect answer.
During metaphase, the mitotic spindle binds to the kinetochore and causes the alignment of sister chromatids on metaphase plate and the cohesin breaks resulting in separation of the sister chromatids. The sister chromatids are then pulled to the opposite pole, there the new nucleus is formed followed by cytokinesis and in this way two new cells from one existing cell are formed. Hence, option (d) is the correct answer.
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It Would Be Pretty Cool to Hibernate
The New York Times reports researchers are exploring ways bear hibernation could change human approaches to healthcare or even space travel. Times fellow Devi Lockwood talked with evolutionary biologists about how bears change most in their fatty tissues&mdashtheir other tissues like muscle barely change, let alone the level of atrophy or even bedsores that would likely afflict a human who tried it. Scientists said changing levels of genetic activity are likely responsible.
Scientists have studied squirrel hibernation for its implications for human organ donation. Lockwood talked with the doctor behind this high-profile study, which Gizmodo covered in 2018. The original paper, published in the journal Cell, explained that the secret lay in cold tolerance, because hibernating animals would die of exposure or hypothermia without special features in their biology: &ldquo[T]hese treatments significantly improved microtubule integrity in cold-stored kidneys, demonstrating the potential for prolonging shelf-life of organ transplants.&rdquo
That&rsquos the thing about hibernation: It&rsquos not a fun choice animals make, but a system that allows them to live despite situations when they would otherwise die. Squirrels and bears continue to exist arguably because of hibernation alone. When it comes to biomimetics&mdashliterally, imitation of life in technology&mdashhibernation offers even more than the usual potential value.
Organ transplant is much more grounded than the other major route for hibernation technology: space travel enabled by human hibernation. This happens all the time in science fiction, with a groove so well worn that we can make relatable movies and TV shows about when hibernation technology fails.
In a 2017 essay called &ldquoIs Human Hibernation Possible?&rdquo Universe Today&rsquos Fraser Cain cited progress in therapeutic hypothermia, where patients have been induced into cold comas for up to 14 days in order to stave off life-threatening conditions. NASA has studied torpor for years and continues making steps forward in its research every new finding about animal hibernation represents a potential new avenue to continue that research.
Of all the sci-fi ideas of how we&rsquoll end up catapulting to Alpha Centauri, hibernation is the most feasible one. Many sci-fi writers rely on something like a portal system, where ships go through a wormhole or some other fantasy zapper where they end up popping out the other side. Some propose hibernation in the sense that travelers are extremely sedated in order to undergo a form of travel that&rsquos traumatic for the wakeful. Gene therapy to tune humans more toward existing large mammals is, at least for now, much more model-able and grounded.
Lockwood draws this conclusion in her Times piece, too. Organizations have put astronaut-adjacent people in long-term isolation to test their ability to stay emotionally cool for a long time, and thousands of people applied to take the real planned one-way journey to Mars at some point in the future. But that hasn&rsquot solved logistical problems like how to continue feeding them for that entire trip, or how to even build a space-worthy craft big enough to carry everything they need to try to build a settlement. Hibernation could relieve pressure to plan the logistics for both a waking years-long trip and what happens once they arrive on Mars.
Sequencing data from the ddRAD-seq and whole-genome resequencing experiments were deposited at the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA) under project accession PRJNA420609. Sequencing data from the HiRise Genome assembly experiment was deposited under the NCBI BioProject accession PRJNA420392. The datasets detailing 13-lined ground squirrel genetic variation and the hibernation onset GWAS summary statistics are available at the following Open Science Framework repository: https://osf.io/a6v7w/?view_only=8d2841006be74207990f275de62d5436.
How Do Animals Survive Winter? Hibernation, Migration, Adaptation!
Objectives: Help students learn to think about adaptations and how they help animals survive.
Materials: Copies of How do Animals Survive the Winter? poster and How do Animals Survive the Winter? chart
I. Ask questions and discuss hibernation with students.
II. Look at the Hibernation Poster together as a class.
III. Afterward have students fill out the Hibernation Chart.
I. Ask your students questions about hibernation and discuss the answers.
Mammals have adapted in many ways to survive the cold winter months. One way to survive the winter is by hibernation. Hibernation is when an animal goes into a deep sleep. The heart beat and breathing slows down. The body cools down. They don&rsquot eat food or drink water.
1. Why do animals hibernate? Animals use up their body&rsquos fat much more slowly when they hibernate than if they were awake and moving around. In winter there is little or no food available. They have to put on a lot of extra weight in the fall, when the food is available, to have enough fat stored for winter.
2. How do animals know when to start hibernation?
Animals begin hibernating for two reasons. Some begin when the days grow shorter in the fall.
Some begin when the days get colder. If an animal waits to hibernate until it gets cold, it can keep eating until then. During a very mild winter, it might not have to hibernate at all.
3. Are all mammals that sleep a lot in winter hibernating?
There are different kinds of hibernation. Some animals are true hibernators. This means their body cools way down. They don&rsquot move for days or weeks. It&rsquos hard to wake an animal in true hibernation. This can be dangerous if a predator attacks. That&rsquos why true hibernators find a safe den before they sleep. Some true hibernators are chipmunks, woodchucks, bats, turtles, frogs, toads, salamanders, and snakes. A woodchuck is the biggest true hibernator. It&rsquos temperature drops from 98° to 40°. Its heartbeat slows from 80 beats per minute to just 4!
Some animals don&rsquot really hibernate but go into a deep sleep called torpor. Torpor can last for a few days or just a few hours on a very cold night. Their body does cool off, but not as much as hibernators. In torpor an animal can wake up in case of danger. Only warm-blooded animals can use torpor to survive the winter. Animals that go into torpor are black bears, raccoons, skunks, some mice and birds. Black bears can sleep for 6 months. They don&rsquot eat or drink. Females can give birth in their den during the winter.
4. Do animals just hibernate in cold climates?
Sometimes animals hibernate to survive hot, dry weather instead of cold. This kind of hibernation is called estivation.
A lot of animals survive the winter by staying active the whole time. They grow a layer of fat and warmer fur. The short-tailed weasel and the snowshoe hare adapt to their winter habitat by turning white to blend in with the snow. Other mammals that are active all winter are shrews, mink, voles, foxes, grey squirrels, and red squirrels.
5. What are some ways mammals that don&rsquot hibernate stay alive all winter?
&bull Beavers and squirrels store lots of food they can eat all winter. Deer and rabbits search for food under the snow. Shrews, mink, weasels, fox, owls and hawks hunt all winter.
&bull White-tailed deer gather together into a deer yard sheltered by evergreen trees to wait out the coldest times.
&bull Many animals change what they eat in the winter. Shrews eat fruit, mushrooms, insects and small animals in the summer. In the winter, all they eat is animals.
6. What are some ways that insects survive the winter?
&bull Some insects also hibernate. Their hibernation is called, diapause. They start when the days get shorter. This starts on just about the same day every year, no matter what the temperature.
&bull Some moths and butterflies survive the winter in a cocoon or chrysalis. In the spring they hatch out as adults. Some stay in their caterpillar form, like wooly bears, and dig under dead leaves or the dirt.
&bull Some insects survive the winter as adults. They stay in a dry place, out of the wind, inside a rotten log, under dead leaves or burrowed into the soil. Their blood changes and keeps them from freezing. These include ladybugs, wasps, mourning cloak butterflies, and honey bees.
&bull Some insects dig into plant stems and form a big swelling called a gall. This keeps them safe from cold and snow until they dig out as adults in the spring. You may have seen these galls on plants in your yard.
&bull The Monarch butterfly migrates to warm climates for the winter.
&bull Most insects don&rsquot survive the winter. They lay eggs in the ground or the bark of a tree and then they die. In the spring the eggs hatch and the cycle starts again.
Reptiles and Amphibians
7. What are some ways that reptiles and amphibians survive the winter?
&bull Cold-blooded animals, like reptiles and amphibians, also hibernate when the days grow shorter. They burrow into the mud at the bottom of their pond or lake. All winter they sleep and take oxygen into their skin from the water. They need the warmth of their environment to heat their bodies, so they must start hibernating on time. If they&rsquore caught out on a freezing day, they will die.
&bull A few frogs like spring peepers, tree frogs and wood frogs spend the winter buried under dead leaves on the forest floor. Their blood changes so that they won&rsquot freeze easily. Snow on top of the leaves also helps keep them from the freezing air. On the first warm day of spring, the peepers come out and start singing.
8. What are some ways that birds survive the winter?
&bull Most birds survive the winter by going south to warmer places. This is called migration.
&bull Yet some birds can stay north in the cold, like grouse, wild turkeys, chickadees, hawks, and owls. They grow warm winter feathers. What birds near you can be seen all winter?
&bull Grouse burrow into a snowdrift during cold spells and use the snow to protect them from the freezing air. This is called a snow roost.
C onclusions and P erspectives
Marmots have adapted to seasonality in a harsh environment by increasing body size and hibernating ( Fig. 1). This adaptive response imposed a major constraint on marmot life history: a shortage of time. Time constraints limit reproductive frequency, delay the age of maturity, and underlie sociality. Although social groups are based on kinship, reproductive competition within a group affects population growth or decline. Perhaps the major effect of time is the limitation on energy acquisition. Sufficient energy must be stored primarily as fat in order to survive hibernation. Only energy in excess of that needed for hibernation can be used for growth and reproduction. The major marmot response to the time-limited active season imposed by hibernation is conservation of water and energy which primarily reduces energy used in maintenance during both the active and hibernation periods. The annual pattern of energy acquisition and use is tightly coupled with the circannual rhythm ( Fig. 1).
Because marmots are adapted to low environmental temperatures, they are susceptible to heat stress which may be associated with summer dryness. Drought reduces the rates of mass gain and increases mortality, especially of young and of reproductive females ( Armitage 1994 Lenihan and Van Vuren 1996). A shift of snow cover from a lower to a higher elevation resulted in a decrease in the population of M. menzbieri (Menzbier’s marmot) because the foraging vegetation deteriorated due to increased dryness ( Armitage 2013b, 2014). In effect, the availability of mainly dry vegetation shortens the active season while increasing maintenance metabolism by increasing resting metabolic rate ( Armitage 2014). Thus, energy acquisition may be insufficient to support hibernation and mortality may increase.
Climate change is associated with extreme weather events whose impacts primarily affect the length of the active season. Plant biomass increases as snow melts and it peaks in late July or early August before declining in late summer ( Armitage 2014). Plant quality decreases as plant senescence progresses, and many plant species that are abundant in late summer are not used as food plants by marmots ( Armitage 2003c). Apparently, the active season of marmots is lengthened by starting earlier in the spring and not by extending the season in late summer. As described previously, several years of early snowmelt enabled M. flaviventris to emerge and wean young earlier in the season, which increased survival and reproduction, and population growth increased ( Ozgul et al. 2010). However, prolonged snow cover in the spring 2 years later resulted in mortality of about 50% of the adults and 80% of the young and reduced reproduction in the following summer ( Armitage 2013b). At North Pole Basin in Colorado, when snow cover lasted into mid-July, there was no reproduction and no survival of young from the previous year ( Woods et al. 2009). Similar responses to late snowmelt were reported for M. olympus ( Griffin et al. 2007), M. caligata ( Karels and Hik 2003), M. vancouverensis, M. camtschatica, and M. marmota ( Armitage 2014).
Marmots have limited response to the major threats of climate change—seasonal dryness and prolonged vernal snow cover. Both evolutionary and plastic responses ( Boutin and Lane 2014) have occurred in populations of M. flaviventris. In captive marmots, lowland-xeric populations have lower metabolic rates than montane-mesic populations. The lowland populations use only half as much water daily, form a more concentrated urine, and are more capable of losing heat by evaporation ( Armitage 2014). These differences occurred when both populations were maintained under the same conditions in the laboratory, suggesting they probably are genetic. The semiarid M. flaviventris is smaller than their montane-mesic conspecifics smaller size is an adaptation to heat stress. A reduction in size has occurred in other marmot populations during global warming over the past 10,000 years recent M. sibirica is smaller than marmots from the middle and late Pleistocene, such as M. nekipelovi ( Erbaeva 2003), and late Pleistocene M. marmota is smaller than geologically older individuals in the same cave sequence ( Aimar 1992). It is unclear at what rate evolutionary changes in body size and physiology can occur nor are effects of these changes on hibernation and other life-history traits known, in part because extensive studies of semiarid populations of marmots are lacking.
Plasticity in the circannual cycle allows for some adjustment to climate changes. The annual cycle and hibernation are obligate and probably genetic, but the timing of immergence and emergence is plastic ( Armitage 2005). For example, the low-elevation M. flaviventris in eastern Oregon emerge in early March and immerge in July. When marmots from a higher elevation site (which emerge in early May and immerge in September) were translocated into enclosures at the low-elevation site, their phenology shifted to conform to the phenology of the local population. Plasticity in phenology could enable marmots to survive as they shift their phenology with changing climatic patterns. However, the shift in phenology will be inadequate to ensure survival if resources during the active season are inadequate to sustain the obligatory hibernation.
In the short term, climate-change warming and early snowmelt could increase the habitat available for marmot colonization. For example, M. caudata and M. olympus do not occupy what appears to be suitable habitat because prolonged snow cover produces an active season that is too short to allow marmots to meet their energy requirements ( Armitage 2013b). Marmots may respond to long-term warming associated with increased aridity by shifting their elevational distribution upwards ( Armitage 2014). If increased aridity also occurs at higher elevations, some marmot populations are likely to go extinct. Extinction is more likely in those species living at high elevations with a relatively small geographic range, such as M. olympus, M. vancouverensis, and M. menzbieri. Species with a large geographic range, such as M. flaviventris, M. monax, and M. bobak, are likely to persist into the foreseeable future, although some local populations likely will go extinct ( Armitage 2013b).
Order of events in hibernation - Biology
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