Information

15.5F: Lyme Disease - Biology


Lyme disease is caused by bacteria from the Borrelia genus.

Learning Objectives

  • Discuss the mode of transmission and symptoms for lyme disease

Key Points

  • Borrelia is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks belonging to a few species of the genus Ixodes (“hard ticks”).
  • Lyme disease can affect multiple body systems and produce a range of symptoms.
  • Lyme disease begins with a characterized bullseye rash called erythema chronicum migrans.

Key Terms

  • nymphal: In some invertebrates, of or pertaining to the immature form.
  • asymptomatic: not exhibiting any symptoms of disease.
  • paraplegia: A condition where the lower half of a patient’s body is paralyzed and cannot move.

Lyme disease (aka Lyme borreliosis) is caused by bacteria from the Borrelia genus, and is the most common tick-borne disease in the Northern Hemisphere. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto is the main cause of Lyme disease in North America, whereas Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii cause most European cases. Borrelia is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks belonging to a few species of the genus Ixodes (“hard ticks” ). The disease is named after the towns of Lyme and Old Lyme, Connecticut, where a number of cases were identified in 1975. Although it was realized that Lyme disease was a tick-borne disease in 1978, the cause of the disease remained a mystery until 1981, when B. burgdorferi was identified.

Lyme disease can affect multiple body systems and produce a range of symptoms, though not all patients with Lyme disease will have all symptoms, and many of the symptoms are not specific to Lyme disease. The incubation period from infection to the onset of symptoms is usually one to two weeks, but can be much shorter (days), or much longer (months to years). Most infections are caused by ticks in the nymphal stage, as they are very small and may feed undetected for long periods of time, with symptoms occurring most often from May through September because of this life cycle. An infected tick must be attached for at least a day for transmission to occur, and only about 1% of recognized tick bites result in Lyme disease.

Lyme disease begins with a localized infection, affecting the area at the site of the tick bite with a circular, outwardly expanding rash called erythema chronicum migrans (EM), which gives the appearance of a bullseye. Patients may also experience flu-like symptoms, such as headache, muscle soreness, fever, malaise, fatigue, and depression. In most cases, the infection and its symptoms are eliminated by antibiotics, especially if the illness is treated early. Delayed or inadequate treatment can lead to more serious symptoms, which can be disabling and difficult to treat. Asymptomatic infections may occur, though this is the case in less than 7% of infected individuals in the United States. Asymptomatic infection may be more common in Europe.

Left untreated, Borrelia bacteria begins to spread through the bloodstream within days to weeks after the onset of local infection, progressing symptoms to the joints, heart, and central nervous system. These symptoms include migrating pain in muscles, joints, and tendons; neck stiffness; sensitivity to light; and heart palpitations and dizziness caused by changes in heartbeat. Acute neurological problems, termed “neuroborreliosis”, appear in 10–15% of untreated patients. EM may even develop at sites across the body that bear no relation to the original tick bite. Radiculoneuritis causes shooting pains that may interfere with sleep, as well as abnormal skin sensations. Mild encephalitis may lead to memory loss, sleep disturbances, or mood changes.

After several months, untreated or inadequately treated patients may go on to develop severe and chronic symptoms, including permanent paraplegia in the most extreme cases. Patients may develop Lyme arthritis, usually affecting the knees; nerve pain radiating out of the spine (Bannwarth syndrome); and shooting pains, numbness, and tingling in the hands or feet. A neurologic syndrome called Lyme encephalopathy is associated with subtle cognitive problems, such as difficulties with concentration and short-term memory. These patients may experience profound fatigue. Chronic encephalomyelitis can involve cognitive impairment, weakness in the legs, awkward gait, facial palsy, bladder problems, vertigo, and back pain. In rare cases, untreated Lyme disease may cause frank psychosis, which has been mis-diagnosed as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Panic attacks and anxiety can occur; as well as delusional behavior and detachment from themselves and reality.


Preventative shot for Lyme disease promising — but precautions needed as tick populations grow, says expert

Over the course of two weeks last month, Isabel Deslauriers had to pluck four ticks off her husband.

Ticks weren't a common sight in their St. Eugene, Ont., backyard when they initially moved in 10 years ago. But now Delauriers worries about allowing her young nephew to play in the grass or letting her cat outside.

"It definitely makes you rethink what you do, where you walk," she said, adding that they now keep their lawn well manicured.

Ticks spread disease by latching onto a host and consuming its blood. If a tick is infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria that causes Lyme disease, it can be transferred to the host.

Over recent decades, a warming climate, as well as changing land use, have contributed to growing tick populations in parts of Canada — including B.C., Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, N.B. and N.S. — increasing cases of Lyme disease as well.

According to the latest data available from Health Canada, more than 2,600 preliminary cases of Lyme disease were reported in 2019. That's compared to 144 cases 10 years prior.

Currently, there is no vaccine available to prevent Lyme disease, though clinical trials are underway, meaning future vaccines are still years away. An approved vaccine against Lyme disease was discontinued by its manufacturer in 2002 due to limited consumer demand.

But a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PreP) injection currently in human drug trials could offer outdoor enthusiasts protection against ticks in the coming years.


Lyme Disease-Carrying Ticks Are Turning Up On California's Beaches

As temperatures rise in California and people in search of respite head for the beach, there's a new concern beyond damaging sun rays and strong undercurrents: disease-carrying ticks that appear to be spreading all along the Golden State's coast.

The black-legged arachnids that carry Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme, are common on the East Coast, where they usually are found in wooded areas and tall grass. But new research shows the blood-sucking critters are capable of thriving along the West Coast too, though experts don't exactly know why or how.

An unexpected home in California

Dan Salkeld, a biology researcher at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, led a four-year study that found the ticks on beaches along much of Northern California, from Mendocino County down to Monterey County. It appears they're also moving farther south, including to Malibu, Manhattan Beach and Newport Beach, Salkeld told NPR affiliate KCRW — though he notes that the threat of Lyme disease is minimal in those areas.

"Three combined studies done by other researchers . found 1 out of 5,000-plus ticks are actually infected. So the risk in Southern California is really low," he said.

According to the research in Northern California, Salkeld said, about 4% of adult ticks — which are larger and easier to discover — are carriers of the bacterium.

Still, the coastal shrubs and grasses are surprising new habitat for the disease because those ecosystems are not home to the traditional reservoir hosts.

Ticks on their own do not carry the bacterium that causes Lyme. For that to happen, they need to draw blood from a mammal host that can harbor B. burgdorferi. On the East Coast, that is commonly deer and white-footed mice. In California, that would include deer, as well as western gray squirrels, voles and mice — none of which lives in seaside grasslands.

"We've known that there are more ticks in more places with more pathogens than most people have commonly known about," said Lia Gaertner, director of education and outreach for the Bay Area Lyme Foundation, which funded Salkeld's research.

Because of his work, Gaertner added, "Now we're able to match up what we're seeing from personal experience and hearing from doctors, and hearing from patients."

Ronald Owens, a spokesman with the state's Department of Public Health, told SFGate that there were fewer than 50 confirmed and probable Lyme disease cases in 2020. That's less than half of what is typically reported, he said.

But Gaertner believes that is a woefully inaccurate method of counting cases — which in many instances, she said, doctors are unable, unwilling or untrained to identify or treat.

A 2018 report by Quest on Lyme disease said that cases in California shot up by 195% from 2015 to 2017 and that the infection that causes the disease was found in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that approximately 476,000 Americans are diagnosed and treated for Lyme disease each year.

Lyme disease symptoms and how to protect yourself

Typical symptoms of the illness include fever, chills, headache, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, swollen lymph nodes and a skin rash.

But in the case of the latter, Gaertner warns not to rely on the appearance of the bull's-eye shaped rash people have been told about for decades.

"It's a myth that every Lyme disease infection comes with that kind of rash. In fact, most rashes are solid red oval rashes, so people shouldn't think they don't have it if they don't see that bull's-eye," she said.

It can also be incredibly difficult to spot ticks, especially if they're in the nymph stage. Salkeld described them as being the size of a poppy seed, while Gaertner said they can be as tiny as a period on a computer screen.

In either case, they are just as dangerous as fully grown adult ticks in spreading a variety of diseases, and they can feast for three to four days. So it's imperative to do a full body and head check using a magnifying glass or a smartphone magnifier after an outing in the great outdoors, according to Gaertner.

She recommends swapping out dark leggings for light-colored clothing to make it easier to see even the tiniest creatures, and using permethrin tick repellent on bags, shoes and socks, which should always be pulled over pants cuffs to prevent direct access to one's legs. "And always walk on the designated path," she said, adding that ticks like to "quest" on the very tops of tall grasses, "waiting for a chance to hitch a ride."

Save the tick

Once home, put clothes in a dryer with high heat for about 15 minutes to kill any remaining tourist ticks. A thorough shower, scrubbing under armpits, behind the knees and in genital areas, also will help wash away any ticks that haven't yet latched on.

If you do find a tick, "the only proper way to take it out is using pointy nose tweezers, because you don't want it to vomit its bacteria into you," Gaertner said.

And after it's been removed, don't throw it away!

Instead, she said, wrap it in a moist paper towel, put it in a plastic sandwich bag, and drop it in the mail to a tick testing laboratory. Within three days, she said, they can tell what kind of tick it was, how long it had been feeding, and what kind of diseases it was carrying. "That's super important information for people to share with their doctors," Gaertner said.

Gaertner offered one last piece of advice for those who are now terrified to step outside: "I know it all sounds scary, but knowing how scary it is makes it much safer for you."


Lyme Disease-Carrying Ticks Are Turning Up On California's Beaches

As temperatures rise in California and people in search of respite head for the beach, there's a new concern beyond damaging sun rays and strong undercurrents: disease-carrying ticks that appear to be spreading all along the Golden State's coast.

The black-legged arachnids that carry Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme, are common on the East Coast, where they usually are found in wooded areas and tall grass. But new research shows the blood-sucking critters are capable of thriving along the West Coast too, though experts don't exactly know why or how.

An unexpected home in California

Dan Salkeld, a biology researcher at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, led a four-year study that found the ticks on beaches along much of Northern California, from Mendocino County down to Monterey County. It appears they're also moving farther south, including to Malibu, Manhattan Beach and Newport Beach, Salkeld told NPR affiliate KCRW — though he notes that the threat of Lyme disease is minimal in those areas.

"Three combined studies done by other researchers . found 1 out of 5,000-plus ticks are actually infected. So the risk in Southern California is really low," he said.

According to the research in Northern California, Salkeld said, about 4% of adult ticks — which are larger and easier to discover — are carriers of the bacterium.

Still, the coastal shrubs and grasses are surprising new habitat for the disease because those ecosystems are not home to the traditional reservoir hosts.

Ticks on their own do not carry the bacterium that causes Lyme. For that to happen, they need to draw blood from a mammal host that can harbor B. burgdorferi. On the East Coast, that is commonly deer and white-footed mice. In California, that would include deer, as well as western gray squirrels, voles and mice — none of which lives in seaside grasslands.

"We've known that there are more ticks in more places with more pathogens than most people have commonly known about," said Lia Gaertner, director of education and outreach for the Bay Area Lyme Foundation, which funded Salkeld's research.

Because of his work, Gaertner added, "Now we're able to match up what we're seeing from personal experience and hearing from doctors, and hearing from patients."

Ronald Owens, a spokesman with the state's Department of Public Health, told SFGate that there were fewer than 50 confirmed and probable Lyme disease cases in 2020. That's less than half of what is typically reported, he said.

But Gaertner believes that is a woefully inaccurate method of counting cases — which in many instances, she said, doctors are unable, unwilling or untrained to identify or treat.

A 2018 report by Quest on Lyme disease said that cases in California shot up by 195% from 2015 to 2017 and that the infection that causes the disease was found in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that approximately 476,000 Americans are diagnosed and treated for Lyme disease each year.

Lyme disease symptoms and how to protect yourself

Typical symptoms of the illness include fever, chills, headache, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, swollen lymph nodes and a skin rash.

But in the case of the latter, Gaertner warns not to rely on the appearance of the bull's-eye shaped rash people have been told about for decades.

"It's a myth that every Lyme disease infection comes with that kind of rash. In fact, most rashes are solid red oval rashes, so people shouldn't think they don't have it if they don't see that bull's-eye," she said.

It can also be incredibly difficult to spot ticks, especially if they're in the nymph stage. Salkeld described them as being the size of a poppy seed, while Gaertner said they can be as tiny as a period on a computer screen.

In either case, they are just as dangerous as fully grown adult ticks in spreading a variety of diseases, and they can feast for three to four days. So it's imperative to do a full body and head check using a magnifying glass or a smartphone magnifier after an outing in the great outdoors, according to Gaertner.

She recommends swapping out dark leggings for light-colored clothing to make it easier to see even the tiniest creatures, and using permethrin tick repellent on bags, shoes and socks, which should always be pulled over pants cuffs to prevent direct access to one's legs. "And always walk on the designated path," she said, adding that ticks like to "quest" on the very tops of tall grasses, "waiting for a chance to hitch a ride."

Save the tick

Once home, put clothes in a dryer with high heat for about 15 minutes to kill any remaining tourist ticks. A thorough shower, scrubbing under armpits, behind the knees and in genital areas, also will help wash away any ticks that haven't yet latched on.

If you do find a tick, "the only proper way to take it out is using pointy nose tweezers, because you don't want it to vomit its bacteria into you," Gaertner said.

And after it's been removed, don't throw it away!

Instead, she said, wrap it in a moist paper towel, put it in a plastic sandwich bag, and drop it in the mail to a tick testing laboratory. Within three days, she said, they can tell what kind of tick it was, how long it had been feeding, and what kind of diseases it was carrying. "That's super important information for people to share with their doctors," Gaertner said.

Gaertner offered one last piece of advice for those who are now terrified to step outside: "I know it all sounds scary, but knowing how scary it is makes it much safer for you."


Patricia V. Smith, has been appointed as one of the public members of the new panel for Health and Human Services Tick-Borne Disease Working Group (TBDWG). Pat is in her 22 year as President of the all-volunteer run national non-profit Lyme Disease Association (LDA) and has been a leading voice and advocate for patients for [&hellip]

On May 29, 2019, The Lyme & Tick-Borne Diseases Congressional Town Meeting Sponsored by Congressman Christopher H. Smith (NJ-4) was held in the Wall Township, NJ, Municipal Building. Despite tornado warnings, flash flood warnings with torrential rains, a packed house of more than 200 people attended the three and a half hour event. Wall Mayor Kevin [&hellip]


Contents

Zoonotic transmission can occur in any context in which there is contact with or consumption of animals, animal products, or animal derivatives. This can occur in a companionistic (pets), economic (farming, trade, butchering, etc.), predatory (hunting, butchering or consuming wild game) or research context.

Contamination of food or water supply Edit

The most significant zoonotic pathogens causing foodborne diseases are Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter, Caliciviridae, and Salmonella. [16] [17] [18]

In 2006 a conference held in Berlin focused on the issue of zoonotic pathogen effects on food safety, urging government intervention and public vigilance against the risks of catching food-borne diseases from farm-to-table dining. [19]

Many food outbreaks can be linked to zoonotic pathogens. Many different types of food that have an animal origin can become contaminated. Some common foods linked to zoonotic contaminations include eggs, seafood, meat, dairy, and even some vegetables. [20] Outbreaks involving contaminated food should be handled in preparedness plans to prevent widespread outbreaks and to efficiently and effectively contain outbreaks. [ citation needed ]

Farming, ranching and animal husbandry Edit

Contact with farm animals can lead to disease in farmers or others that come into contact with infected farm animals. Glanders primarily affects those who work closely with horses and donkeys. Close contact with cattle can lead to cutaneous anthrax infection, whereas inhalation anthrax infection is more common for workers in slaughterhouses, tanneries and wool mills. [21] Close contact with sheep who have recently given birth can lead to clamydiosis, or enzootic abortion, in pregnant women, as well as an increased risk of Q fever, toxoplasmosis, and listeriosis in pregnant or the otherwise immunocompromised. Echinococcosis is caused by a tapeworm which can be spread from infected sheep by food or water contaminated with feces or wool. Bird flu is common in chickens. While rare in humans, the main public health worry is that a strain of bird flu will recombine with a human flu virus and cause a pandemic like the 1918 Spanish flu. In 2017, free range chickens in the UK were temporarily ordered to remain inside due to the threat of bird flu. [22] Cattle are an important reservoir of cryptosporidiosis [23] and mainly affects the immunocompromised. Reports have shown Minks can also get infected. [24]

Veterinarians are exposed to unique occupational hazards and zoonotic diseases. In the US, studies have highlighted an increased risk to injuries and a lack of veterinary awareness for these hazards. Research has proved the importance for continued clinical veterinarian education on occupational risks associated with musculoskeletal injuries, animal bites, needle-sticks, and cuts. [25]

A July 2020 report by the United Nations Environment Programme stated that the increase in zoonotic pandemics is directly attributable to anthropogenic destruction of nature and the increased global demand for meat, and that the industrial farming of pigs and chickens in particular will be a primary risk factor for the spillover of zoonotic diseases in the future. [26]

Wild animal attacks Edit

Insect vectors Edit

Pets Edit

Pets can transmit a number of diseases. Dogs and cats are routinely vaccinated against rabies. Pets can also transmit ringworm and Giardia, which are endemic in both animal and human populations. Toxoplasmosis is a common infection of cats in humans it is a mild disease although it can be dangerous to pregnant women. [27] Dirofilariasis is caused by Dirofilaria immitis through mosquitoes infected by mammals like dogs and cats. Cat-scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana from fleas which are endemic in cats. Toxocariasis is infection of humans of any of species of roundworm, including species specific to the dog (Toxocara canis) or the cat (Toxocara cati). Cryptosporidiosis can be spread to humans from pet lizards, such as the leopard gecko. Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a microsporidial parasite carried by many mammals, including rabbits, and is an important opportunistic pathogen in people immunocompromised by HIV/AIDS, organ transplantation, or CD4+ T-lymphocyte deficiency. [28]

Exhibition Edit

Outbreaks of zoonoses have been traced to human interaction with and exposure to other animals at fairs, live animal markets, [29] petting zoos, and other settings. In 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued an updated list of recommendations for preventing zoonosis transmission in public settings. [30] The recommendations, developed in conjunction with the National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, [31] include educational responsibilities of venue operators, limiting public animal contact, and animal care and management.

Hunting and bushmeat Edit

Deforestation, biodiversity loss and environmental degradation Edit

Kate Jones, chair of ecology and biodiversity at University College London, says zoonotic diseases are increasingly linked to environmental change and human behaviour. The disruption of pristine forests driven by logging, mining, road building through remote places, rapid urbanisation and population growth is bringing people into closer contact with animal species they may never have been near before. The resulting transmission of disease from wildlife to humans, she says, is now "a hidden cost of human economic development". [32] In a guest article published by IPBES, Peter Daszak and three co-chairs of the 2019 Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, Josef Settele, Sandra Díaz and Eduardo Brondizio, write that "rampant deforestation, uncontrolled expansion of agriculture, intensive farming, mining and infrastructure development, as well as the exploitation of wild species have created a ‘perfect storm’ for the spillover of diseases from wildlife to people." [33]

An April 2020 study published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society Part B found that increased virus spillover events from animals to humans can be linked to biodiversity loss and environmental degradation, as humans further encroach on wildlands to engage in agriculture, hunting and resource extraction they become exposed to pathogens which normally would remain in these areas. Such spillover events have been tripling every decade since 1980. [34] An August 2020 study published in Nature concludes that the anthropogenic destruction of ecosystems for the purpose of expanding agriculture and human settlements reduces biodiversity and allows for smaller animals such as bats and rats, who are more adaptable to human pressures and also carry the most zoonotic diseases, to proliferate. This in turn can result in more pandemics. [35]

In October 2020, the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services published its report on the 'era of pandemics' by 22 experts in a variety of fields, and concluded that anthropogenic destruction of biodiversity is paving the way to the pandemic era, and could result in as many as 850,000 viruses being transmitted from animals – in particular birds and mammals – to humans. The increased pressure on ecosystems is being driven by the "exponential rise" in consumption and trade of commodities such as meat, palm oil, and metals, largely facilitated by developed nations, and by a growing human population. According to Peter Daszak, the chair of the group who produced the report, "there is no great mystery about the cause of the Covid-19 pandemic, or of any modern pandemic. The same human activities that drive climate change and biodiversity loss also drive pandemic risk through their impacts on our environment." [36] [37] [38]

Climate change Edit

According to a report from the United Nations Environment Programme and International Livestock Research Institute named: "Preventing the next pandemic – Zoonotic diseases and how to break the chain of transmission" climate change is one of the 7 human – related causes of increase in the number of zoonotic diseases. [14] [15] The University of Sydney issued in March 2021 a study that examines factors, increasing the likelihood of epidemics and pandemics like the COVID-19 pandemic. The researchers found that "pressure on ecosystems, climate change and economic development are key factors" in doing so. More zoonotic diseases were found in high-income countries. [39]

Secondary transmission Edit

Disease [40] Pathogen(s) Animals involved Mode of transmission Emergence
African sleeping sickness Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense range of wild animals and domestic livestock transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly 'present in Africa for thousands of years' – major outbreak 1900–1920, cases continue (sub-Saharan Africa, 2020)
Angiostrongyliasis Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Angiostrongylus costaricensis rats, cotton rats consuming raw or undercooked snails, slugs, other mollusks, crustaceans, contaminated water, and unwashed vegetables contaminated with larvae
Anisakiasis Anisakis whales, dolphins, seals, sea lions, other marine animals eating raw or undercooked fish and squid contaminated with eggs
Anthrax Bacillus anthracis commonly – grazing herbivores such as cattle, sheep, goats, camels, horses, and pigs by ingestion, inhalation or skin contact of spores
Babesiosis Babesia spp. mice, other animals tick bite
Baylisascariasis Baylisascaris procyonis raccoons ingestion of eggs in feces
Barmah Forest fever Barmah Forest virus kangaroos, wallabies, opossums mosquito bite
Bird flu Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 wild birds, domesticated birds such as chickens [ citation needed ] close contact 2003–19 Avian Influenza in Southeast Asia and Egypt
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy Prions cattle eating infected meat isolated similar cases reported in ancient history in recent UK history probable start in the 1970s [41]
Brucellosis Brucella spp. cattle, goats, pigs, sheep infected milk or meat historically widespread in Mediterranean region identified early 20th century
Bubonic plague, Pneumonic plague, Septicemic plague, Sylvatic plague Yersinia pestis rabbits, hares, rodents, ferrets, goats, sheep, camels flea bite Epidemics like Black Death in Europe around 1347–53 during the Late Middle Age, Third Plague Pandemic in China-Qing dynasty and India alone
Capillariasis Capillaria spp. rodents, birds, foxes eating raw or undercooked fish, ingesting embryonated eggs in fecal-contaminated food, water, or soil
Cat-scratch disease Bartonella henselae cats bites or scratches from infected cats
Chagas disease Trypanosoma cruzi armadillos, Triatominae (kissing bug) Contact of mucosae or wounds with feces of kissing bugs. Accidental ingestion of parasites in food contaminated by bugs or infected mammal excretae.
Clamydiosis / Enzootic abortion Chlamydophila abortus domestic livestock, particularly sheep close contact with postpartum ewes
COVID-19 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) suspected: bats, felines, raccoon dogs, minks respiratory transmission COVID-19 pandemic 2019–present Ongoing pandemic
Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease PrP vCJD cattle eating meat from animals with Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) 1996–2001: United Kingdom
Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever orthonairovirus cattle, goats, sheep, birds, multimammate rats, hares tick bite, contact with bodily fluids
Cryptococcosis Cryptococcus neoformans commonly – birds like pigeons inhaling fungi
Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium spp. cattle, dogs, cats, mice, pigs, horses, deer, sheep, goats, rabbits, leopard geckos, birds ingesting cysts from water contaminated with feces
Cysticercosis and taeniasis Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata commonly – pigs and cattle consuming water, soil or food contaminated with the tapeworm eggs (cysticercosis) or raw or undercooked pork contaminated with the cysticerci (taeniasis)
Dirofilariasis Dirofilaria spp. dogs, wolves, coyotes, foxes, jackals, cats, monkeys, raccoons, bears, muskrats, rabbits, leopards, seals, sea lions, beavers, ferrets, reptiles mosquito bite
Eastern equine encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus horses, donkeys, zebras, birds mosquito bite
Ebola virus disease (a haemorrhagic fever) Ebolavirus spp. chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, fruit bats, monkeys, shrews, forest antelope and porcupines through body fluids and organs 2013–16 possible in Africa
Other haemorrhagic fevers (Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Dengue fever, Lassa fever, Marburg viral haemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever [42] ) Varies – commonly viruses varies (sometimes unknown) – commonly camels, rabbits, hares, hedgehogs, cattle, sheep, goats, horses and swine infection usually occurs through direct contact with infected animals 2019–20 dengue fever
Echinococcosis Echinococcus spp. commonly – dogs, foxes, jackals, wolves, coyotes, sheep, pigs, rodents ingestion of infective eggs from contaminated food or water with feces of an infected, definitive host or fur
Fasciolosis Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica sheep, cattle, buffaloes ingesting contaminated plants
Foodborne illnesses (commonly diarrheal diseases) Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Shigella spp. and Trichinella spp. animals domesticated for food production (cattle, poultry) raw or undercooked food made from animals and unwashed vegetables contaminated with feces
Giardiasis Giardia lamblia beavers, other rodents, raccoons, deer, cattle, goats, sheep, dogs, cats ingesting spores and cysts in food and water contaminated with feces
Glanders Burkholderia mallei. horses, donkeys direct contact
Gnathostomiasis Gnathostoma spp. dogs, minks, opossums, cats, lions, tigers, leopards, raccoons, poultry, other birds, frogs raw or undercooked fish or meat
Hantavirus Hantavirus spp. deer mice, cotton rats and other rodents exposure to feces, urine, saliva or bodily fluids
Henipavirus Henipavirus spp. horses, bats exposure to feces, urine, saliva or contact with sick horses
Histoplasmosis Histoplasma capsulatum birds, bats inhaling fungi in guano
HIV SIV Simian immunodeficiency virus Non-human primates Blood Immunodeficiency resembling human AIDS was reported in captive monkeys in the United States beginning in 1983. [43] [44] [45] SIV was isolated in 1985 from some of these animals, captive rhesus macaques suffering from simian AIDS (SAIDS). [44] The discovery of SIV was made shortly after HIV-1 had been isolated as the cause of AIDS and led to the discovery of HIV-2 strains in West Africa. HIV-2 was more similar to the then-known SIV strains than to HIV-1, suggesting for the first time the simian origin of HIV. Further studies indicated that HIV-2 is derived from the SIVsmm strain found in sooty mangabeys, whereas HIV-1, the predominant virus found in humans, is derived from SIV strains infecting chimpanzees (SIVcpz)
Japanese encephalitis Japanese encephalitis virus pigs, water birds mosquito bite
Kyasanur Forest disease Kyasanur Forest disease virus rodents, shrews, bats, monkeys tick bite
La Crosse encephalitis La Crosse virus chipmunks, tree squirrels mosquito bite
Leishmaniasis Leishmania spp. dogs, rodents, other animals [46] [47] sandfly bite 2004 Afghanistan
Leprosy Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium lepromatosis armadillos, monkeys, rabbits, mice [48] direct contact, including meat consumption. However, scientists believe most infections are spread human to human. [48] [49]
Leptospirosis Leptospira interrogans rats, mice, pigs, horses, goats, sheep, cattle, buffaloes, opossums, raccoons, mongooses, foxes, dogs direct or indirect contact with urine of infected animals 1616–20 New England infection: Present day in the United States–Native Americans Killed around 90–95% of (Native America)
Lassa fever Lassa fever virus rodents exposure to rodents
Lyme disease Borrelia burgdorferi deer, wolves, dogs, birds, rodents, rabbits, hares, reptiles tick bite
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus rodents exposure to urine, feces, or saliva
Melioidosis Burkholderia pseudomallei various animals direct contact with contaminated soil and surface water
Microsporidiosis Encephalitozoon cuniculi Rabbits, dogs, mice, and other mammals ingestion of spores
Middle East respiratory syndrome MERS coronavirus bats, camels close contact 2012–present: Saudi Arabia
Monkeypox Monkeypox virus rodents, primates contact with infected rodents, primates, or contaminated materials
Nipah virus infection Nipah virus (NiV) bats, pigs direct contact with infected bats, infected pigs
Orf Orf virus goats, sheep close contact
Psittacosis Chlamydophila psittaci macaws, cockatiels, budgerigars, pigeons, sparrows, ducks, hens, gulls and many other bird species contact with bird droplets
Q fever Coxiella burnetii livestock and other domestic animals such as dogs and cats inhalation of spores, contact with bodily fluid or faeces
Rabies Rabies virus commonly – dogs, bats, monkeys, raccoons, foxes, skunks, cattle, goats, sheep, wolves, coyotes, groundhogs, horses, mongooses and cats through saliva by biting, or through scratches from an infected animal Variety of places like Oceanic, South America, Europe Year is unknown
Rat-bite fever Streptobacillus moniliformis, Spirillum minus rats, mice bites of rats but also urine and mucus secretions
Rift Valley fever Phlebovirus livestock, buffaloes, camels mosquito bite, contact with bodily fluids, blood, tissues, breathing around butchered animals or raw milk 2006–07 East Africa outbreak
Rocky Mountain spotted fever Rickettsia rickettsii dogs, rodents tick bite
Ross River fever Ross River virus kangaroos, wallabies, horses, opossums, birds, flying foxes mosquito bite
Saint Louis encephalitis Saint Louis encephalitis virus birds mosquito bite
Severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS coronavirus bats, civets close contact, respiratory droplets 2002–04 SARS outbreak started in China
Smallpox Variola virus Possible Monkeys or horses Spread to person to person quickly The last cases was in 1977 WHO certified to Eradicated (for the world) in December 1979 or 1980.
Swine influenza A new strain of the influenza virus endemic in pigs (excludes H1N1 swine flu, which is a human virus). pigs close contact 2009–10 2009 swine flu pandemic The outbreak began in Mexico.
Taenia crassiceps infection Taenia crassiceps wolves, coyotes, jackals, foxes contact with soil contaminated with feces
Toxocariasis Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati dogs, foxes, cats ingestion of eggs in soil, fresh or unwashed vegetables or undercooked meat
Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii cats, livestock, poultry exposure to cat feces, organ transplantation, blood transfusion, contaminated soil, water, grass, unwashed vegetables, unpasteurized dairy products and undercooked meat
Trichinosis Trichinella spp. rodents, pigs, horses, bears, walruses, dogs, foxes, crocodiles, birds eating undercooked meat
Tuberculosis Mycobacterium bovis infected cattle, deer, llamas, pigs, domestic cats, wild carnivores (foxes, coyotes) and omnivores (possums, mustelids and rodents) milk, exhaled air, sputum, urine, faeces and pus from infected animals
Tularemia Francisella tularensis lagomorphs (type A), rodents (type B), birds ticks, deer flies, and other insects including mosquitoes
West Nile fever Flavivirus birds, horses mosquito bite
Zika fever Zika virus chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, monkeys, baboons mosquito bite, sexual intercourse, blood transfusion and sometimes bites of monkeys 2015–16 epidemic in the Americas and Oceanic

During most of human prehistory groups of hunter-gatherers were probably very small. Such groups probably made contact with other such bands only rarely. Such isolation would have caused epidemic diseases to be restricted to any given local population, because propagation and expansion of epidemics depend on frequent contact with other individuals who have not yet developed an adequate immune response. To persist in such a population, a pathogen either had to be a chronic infection, staying present and potentially infectious in the infected host for long periods, or it had to have other additional species as reservoir where it can maintain itself until further susceptible hosts are contacted and infected. In fact, for many 'human' diseases, the human is actually better viewed as an accidental or incidental victim and a dead-end host. Examples include rabies, anthrax, tularemia and West Nile virus. Thus, much of human exposure to infectious disease has been zoonotic.

Through religious scripture, different civilizations as early as 500 years B.C.E had dietary laws that prohibit or allow the consumption of certain animals. Christian and Hebrew religions have reflected these traditions in the Book of Leviticus, [50] while Islamic religions spread the laws throughout the Quran, referring to these rules as Haram and Halal. [ citation needed ] Some consider these dietary rules evolved, among other reasons, to reduce the risk of contracting diseases from animals. [ citation needed ]

Many modern diseases, even epidemic diseases, started out as zoonotic diseases. It is hard to establish with certainty which diseases jumped from other animals to humans, but there is increasing evidence from DNA and RNA sequencing, that measles, smallpox, influenza, HIV, and diphtheria came to humans this way. Various forms of the common cold and tuberculosis also are adaptations of strains originating in other species. Some experts have suggested that all human viral infections were originally zoonotic. [51]

Zoonoses are of interest because they are often previously unrecognized diseases or have increased virulence in populations lacking immunity. The West Nile virus appeared in the United States in 1999 in the New York City area, and moved through the country in the summer of 2002, causing much distress. Bubonic plague is a zoonotic disease, [52] as are salmonellosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and Lyme disease.

A major factor contributing to the appearance of new zoonotic pathogens in human populations is increased contact between humans and wildlife. [53] This can be caused either by encroachment of human activity into wilderness areas or by movement of wild animals into areas of human activity. An example of this is the outbreak of Nipah virus in peninsular Malaysia in 1999, when intensive pig farming began on the habitat of infected fruit bats. Unidentified infection of the pigs amplified the force of infection, eventually transmitting the virus to farmers and causing 105 human deaths. [54]

Similarly, in recent times avian influenza and West Nile virus have spilled over into human populations probably due to interactions between the carrier host and domestic animals. Highly mobile animals such as bats and birds may present a greater risk of zoonotic transmission than other animals due to the ease with which they can move into areas of human habitation.

Because they depend on the human host for part of their life-cycle, diseases such as African schistosomiasis, river blindness, and elephantiasis are not defined as zoonotic, even though they may depend on transmission by insects or other vectors.

The first vaccine against smallpox by Edward Jenner in 1800 was by infection of a zoonotic bovine virus which caused a disease called cowpox. Jenner had noticed that milkmaids were resistant to smallpox. Milkmaids contracted a milder version of the disease from infected cows that conferred cross immunity to the human disease. Jenner abstracted an infectious preparation of 'cowpox' and subsequently used it to inoculate persons against smallpox. As a result, smallpox has been eradicated globally, and mass vaccination against this disease ceased in 1981.


MIT scientist wants to use GMO mice to fight Lyme

(Jan. 26, 2017) Ticks and the diseases they carry are more than a public health question to Kevin Esvelt. Lyme Disease, the most common vector-borne disease in North America, is in his eyes, nothing less than a destroyer of an iconic part of the shared American memory of childhood, one that he wants his two small children to remember someday, a simple, barefoot romp through the high grass and woods of summertime. One not marred by the potential of disease.

&ldquoWe&rsquore both from the West Coast,&rdquo Esvelt said. His wife is a Boston area pediatrician and Esvel, who holds a PhD in evolutionary biology, is a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology&rsquos Media Lab and directs the Sculpting Evolution group there. &ldquoTick checks and the near certainty that our children might get infected were horrifying to us.&rdquo

It is also providing a way for Esvelt to use several emerging gene technologies to engineer a potential solution to an ecosystem problem, while testing some theories on just how gene engineering projects should be done in he future. &ldquoWe haven&rsquot really had the technology to do something like this until very recently,&rdquo he said. &ldquoSo if we can do it, the question is should we do it. As technology becomes more and more powerful you can do more and more good, but you can also screw things up more and more easily.&rdquo

To read the complete story, pick up the print edition of this week's Inquirer and Mirror or register for the I&M's online edition by clicking here.

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Signs of Lyme Disease—and Its Prevention

Dr. Calabro, DC, CCN, FICPA, CEG, practices Functional Medicine at the Calabro Chiropractic and Wellness Center. Dr. Calabro specializes in f unctional medicine, clinical nutrition, essential oils, and BrainTap therapy.

What Dr. Calabro can say in an interview about snoring :

Lyme disease is a bacterial infection transmitted to humans from the bite of an infected black-legged tick—also known as the deer tick. If left untreated, the infection can spread to joints, the heart, and the nervous system. Nonetheless, prompt treatment can help you recover quickly.

Lyme disease cases have traditionally been more prevalent in the Northeast, but have now been found in all 50 states. You’re more at risk to contract Lyme disease if you live or spend time in heavily wooded or grassy areas where ticks carrying Lyme disease can thrive.

Early signs of Lyme disease may include flu-like symptoms such as headache, fever, and chills. Typically, but not always, the disease is marked by a red “bulls-eye” rash. Later symptoms may include pain, weakness, numbness in the arms and legs, changes in vision, heart palpitations and chest pain, a rash, and facial paralysis (Bell’s palsy).

The key to preventing Lyme disease is to avoid being bitten by ticks. Follow these suggestions:

      • Wear long sleeves and long pants with high socks when in the woods or doing gardening or raking leaves
      • Wear a tick repellent that has DEET, lemon oil, or eucalyptus on your skin and clothing
      • When coming in from outside, check thoroughly for ticks and do the same with pets
      • Shower within 2 hours after coming inside, if possible.

      If you find a tick embedded in the skin, remove it with tweezers and clean the area with rubbing alcohol and anti-bacterial soap. You are unlikely to get infected with Lyme disease if you remove the tick within 36 hours. Consult your health care provider if you have questions.

      Dr. David J. Calabro, DC, CCN, FICPA, CEG, runs the Calabro Chiropractic and Wellness Center in Linwood, NJ. Calabro received a Bachelor of Science degree in Biology from the Richard Stockton College of New Jersey. He obtained his Doctor of Chiropractic degree from Life University in Marietta, Georgia where he graduated with honors and pediatric certification. He also received his certification in Clinical Nutrition from the Clinical Nutrition Certification Board in Dallas, Texas.

      Dr. Calabro specializes in f unctional medicine, clinical nutrition, essential oils, and BrainTap therapy. His method is to addresses the underlying cause of the disease by focusing on the patient as a whole rather than only treating isolated sets of symptoms.


      Can lyme disease have mild symptoms?

      I remember having a bullseye rash on my thigh in 2007 (I was 19), I would play football often almost always on grass, my football gear would be damp etc. I've always had my nasal passage overproduce mucus and dry up, feel tired after waking up from sleep with some brain fog as well. I always accepted this as normal and just that my biology was like that. Now I'm starting to think this isn't normal.. and my base energy levels should be higher. Is it possible I got a less severe form of lyme in the UK? I've been experimenting with peptides and I tried ll-37 and my nasal passage is way less blocked and my sense of smell improved dramatically after 14 days of use. I have never been diagnosed, never seen a doctor as I heard most tests are inaccurate. I've read many accounts and a lot of people have very bad symptoms so I'm not sure if I have it. Much thanks.

      I was symptom free for years and then it hit me hard. I was bitten in 2012 and wasn't bothered until I bought and started renovating a 200 year old house in 2015. The exposure to mould and other toxins brought Lyme roaring into my life in a big way!

      For sure I believe certain factors can aggravate symptoms. Are you taking anything for it?

      I had a very mild case for 18-19 years.

      This be a little long. But I think it important, especially if you have a child in your life who says something is wrong with. I should have been treated as a child but wasn’t.

      It started when I had 3 bullseyes rashes on me around 6 years old. And I was sick with flu like symptoms. My parents took me to the doctor and he saw the bullseyes rashes but didn’t know what they were. He told my parents to wait and see what happened.

      So my family waited and the flu like symptoms went away after a few months being sick off and on. I didn’t have flu symptoms anymore, but I wasn’t fully the same after. I was tired all the time. Slept more than normal. My knees started cracking a lot. There almost may have been other small symptoms I’ve forgotten.

      I told the doctor a few times as a child something is wrong. When I was 11 years old I became more assertive with the doctor and better able to express what’s wrong. I said I don’t have normal energy. I wanted to sleep instead of play with friends or do sports. I was exhausted all the time. My friends even nick-named me “Sleeping Beauty.” He told me I must have a mild form of depression or maybe anxiety about school.

      My mother believed me and was certain I didn’t have emotional issues. But she thought since I was functioning mostly normal I was going to be ok. She had no idea how to help me although she did care.

      Years went by. I did high level sports and I did well in school. But inside I felt tired all the time and couldn’t wait to lay in bed. And around 19 I started getting heart palpitations. And more fatigue.

      Nothing much changed until I had an infection that caused encephalitis at 25 years old. My immune system took a big hit. And then I got another tick bite the same year. Lyme roared to life after.

      So yes, as far as I know and read, your immune system can keep a Lyme infection in check. For years. Some people may even have no symptoms. And then, if something occurs that puts your immune system under too much stress, or it’s overloaded, or you have multiple exposures, things like Lyme bacteria take their chance to come out full force.


      I am sad to hear about the passing of Polly Murray, an artist, and a Mom, who was responsible for realizing something was wrong when she and her family, and many children in her neighborhood, suffered from similar symptoms. Polly’s family and neighbors were either unable to be diagnosed by mainstream medicine or were diagnosed [&hellip]

      Congressman Christopher Smith (R-NJ-04) has been pushing for funding and recognition of Lyme and tick-borne diseases over the past 27 years. On July 9, 2019, Mr. Smith testified before the Committee on Rules and introduced two amendments relating to Lyme and tick-borne diseases to the Defense Authorization Bill (National Defense Appropriations Act). ONE PASSED RULES [&hellip]


      Watch the video: INCREASE SEXUAL STIMULATION. VAGINAL REJUVENATION with PRP with ACELL. O-Shot. Dr. Jason Emer (December 2021).