Information

Pee Shiver: Any reliable research about this phenomenon?


I came across 2 webpages about the science of pee shiver.

Link 1 Link 2

I wonder if there any reliable scientific research about this phenomenon. The 2 webpages I have hyperlinked attribute this to ANS(Automatic Nervous System) or sudden decrease of temperature in exposed body part while peeing.

But these 2 are just hypotheses, not proved reseach. Is there any?


Freemartin

OTHER INTERSEX CONDITIONS RESEMBLING FREEMARTINISM

Intersex cattle other than freemartins are very rare. Male pseudohermaphrodites are genetic and gonadal males, but the external genitalia resemble those of a female. Male pseudohermaphrodites are more common than female or true hermaphrodites, probably because more genes are required to initiate male development (steroidogenic enzymes, 5α–reductase, and androgen receptors), with correspondingly greater opportunity for genetic defects. Limited case reports of male pseudohermaphrodites in cattle have been published. 29–32 Classification of intersex cases requires careful anatomic (often at post mortem), chromosomal, and endocrinologic examination. It is possible that some other intersex conditions are misclassified as freemartins if the diagnosis is based solely on physical examination. 33

Bovine male pseudohermaphroditism (often referred to as testicular feminization) results from androgen insensitivity. Affected animals are XY males with testes, paramesonephric and mesonephric (wolffian) duct regression, and female-like external genitalia. The tubular genitalia of the paramesonephric (müllerian) system are underdeveloped owing to testicular production of antimüllerian hormone (müllerianinhibiting substance). Production of testosterone by the testes is normal, but because of intracellular androgen insensitivity, the mesonephric (wolffian) system fails to develop without androgenic support. It is possible that this disorder is inherited as an X-linked trait in cattle, as in other species. 31 Clinically, affected animals may be mistaken for heifers but fail to show estrus and exhibit bull-like behavior. On examination of the internal reproductive tract, the vagina may be short to normal in length no cervix is present, with a very small or absent uterus and testes in the normal position of ovaries. 32


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Pea Plant Characteristics Studied

Mendel focused on the different traits, or characters, that he noticed pea plants exhibiting in a binary manner. That is, an individual plant could show either version A of a given trait or version B of that trait, but nothing in between. For example, some plants had "inflated" pea pods, whereas others looked "pinched," with no ambiguity as to which category a given plant's pods belonged in.

The seven traits Mendel identified as being useful to his aims and their different manifestations were:

  • Flower color: Purple or white.
  • Flower position: Axial (along the side of the stem) or terminal (at the end of the stem).
  • Stem length: Long or short.
  • Pod shape: Inflated or pinched.
  • Pod color: Green or yellow.
  • Seed shape: Round or wrinkled.
  • Seed color: Green or yellow.

How Do I Stay Hydrated During Cold-Weather Exercise?

Similar to exercise in the heat, cold weather produces certain physiological responses that you will need to take into account to maintain proper hydration.

For instance, you may have heard that cold weather makes you pee more, which makes you more dehydrated. This is partly true, according to John Castellani, a research physiologist at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Through a process called cold-induced diuresis, cold weather can cause the body to perceive it has too much water available. As skin temperatures drop, blood is shifted to the core. “With more blood in the thorax, the heart says, ‘I have too much fluid on board and need to get rid of some of it,’” Castellani told Triathlete Magazine.

As we point out on our blog, this process mutes the thirst response. In other words, when you are cold, you are less likely to feel thirsty when you lose fluids. Once you warm up, your brain can process the state of your extremities, and you realize you are very dehydrated. (This process should sound familiar if you have ever spent several hours in the snow feeling fine, only to return indoors and realize you are ravenous and extremely thirsty.)

Key takeaway: Thirst is a good indicator for low fluid levels in warm temperatures, but you can’t rely on thirst alone when it’s cold outside. You still need to drink water and replenish electrolytes during your winter running.


Investigation of Inheritance

Investigation of Inheritance

Twin studies provide geneticists with a kind of natural experiment in which the behavioral likeness of identical twins (whose genetic relatedness is 1.0) can be compared with the resemblance of dizygotic twins (whose genetic relatedness is 0.5).

In other words, if heredity (i.e., genetics) affects a given trait or behavior, then identical twins should show a greater similarity for that trait compared to fraternal (non-identical) twins.

There are two types of twins:

Research using twin studies looks for the degree of concordance (or similarity) between identical and fraternal (i.e., non-identical) twins. Twins are concordant for a trait if both or neither of the twins exhibits the trait. Twins are said to be disconcordant for a trait if one shows it, and the other does not.

Identical twins have the same genetic make-up, and fraternal twins have just 50 percent of genes in common. Thus, if concordance rates (which can range from 0 to 100) are significantly higher for identical twins than for fraternal twins, then this is evidence that genetics play an important role in the expression of that particular behavior.

Identical twins raised together = .86 (correlation).

However, there are methodological flaws which reduce the validity of twin studies. For example, Bouchard and McGue included many poorly performed and biased studies in their meta-analysis.

Also, studies comparing the behavior of twin raised apart have been criticized as the twins often share similar environments and are sometimes raised by non-parental family member.


Widespread occurrence of intersex bass found in US Rivers

Intersex in smallmouth and largemouth basses is widespread in numerous river basins throughout the United States is the major finding of the most comprehensive and large-scale evaluation of the condition, according to U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research published online in Aquatic Toxicology .

Of the 16 fish species researchers examined from 1995 to 2004, the condition was most common by far in smallmouth and largemouth bass: a third of all male smallmouth bass and a fifth of all male largemouth bass were intersex. This condition is primarily revealed in male fish that have immature female egg cells in their testes, but occasionally female fish will have male characteristics as well.

Scientists found intersex fish in about a third of all sites examined from the Apalachicola, Colorado, Columbia, Mobile, Mississippi, Pee Dee, Rio Grande, Savannah, and Yukon River basins. The Yukon River basin was the only one where researchers did not find at least one intersex fish.

Although intersex occurrence differed among species and basin, it was more prevalent in largemouth bass in southeastern U.S., where it occurred at all sites in the Apalachicola, Savannah, and Pee Dee river basins, said Jo Ellen Hinck, the lead author of the paper and a biologist at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. The researchers also documented intersex in channel catfish for the first time.

"Although the USGS has already documented the severity of intersex in individual basins such as the Potomac, this study reveals the prevalence of intersex is more widespread than anyone anticipated, said Sue Haseltine, associate director for biology at the U.S. Geological Survey. "This research sends the clear message that we need to learn more about the hormonal and environmental factors that cause this condition in fish, as well as the number of fish afflicted with this condition."

The study, said Hinck, presents the observed occurrence of intersex in a variety of freshwater fish species, but not potential causes. "This study adds a lot to our knowledge of this phenomena, but we still don't know why certain species seem more prone to this condition or exactly what is causing it. In fact, the causes for intersex may vary by location, and we suspect it will be unlikely that a single human activity or kind of contaminant will explain intersex in all species or regions," she said.

For example, said Hinck, at least one of their sites with a high prevalence of intersex--the Yampa River at Lay, Colo.--did not have obvious sources of endocrine-active compounds, which have been associated with intersex in fish. Such compounds are chemical stressors that have the ability to affect the endocrine system and include pesticides, PCBs, heavy metals, household compounds such as laundry detergent and shampoo, and many pharmaceuticals. Yet other study sites with high occurrence of intersex were on rivers with dense human populations or industrial and agricultural activities, which are more generally associated with endocrine-active compounds.

"We know that endocrine-active compounds have been associated with intersex in fish, but we lack information on which fish species are most sensitive to such compounds, the way that these compounds interact to cause intersex, and the importance of environmental factors," Hinck said. "Proper diagnosis of this condition in wild fish is essential because if the primary causes are compounds that disrupt the endocrine system, then the widespread occurrence of intersex in fish would be a critical environmental concern."

    Intersex smallmouth bass were found in a third of male bass at almost half of the sites examined in the Columbia, Colorado, and Mississippi River basins. The percentage of intersex smallmouth bass ranged from 14 to 73 percent at different sites. It was highest (73 percent) in the Mississippi River at Lake City, Minn., Yampa River at Lay, Colo. (70 percent), Salmon River at Riggins, Idaho (43 percent), and the Columbia River at Warrendale, Oreg. (67 percent).

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Why Do Women Get Physically Aroused and Not Even Know It?

If you're a woman who has participated in a study on sexual arousal, you probably know the drill: watch erotic movies (straight, gay, bi-, bestial) while wearing a plethysmograph, an instrument for measuring blood flow to the vagina. Under the circumstances, you might not expect to get very hot and bothered "down there."

But chances are you will. At least, according to the telltale device between your legs.

And yet, if you're like many of the women who are asked to report how aroused they actually think they are while watching these erotic scenes—gang bangs in Tijuana, hooded strangers on trains, cows with bulls, and stallions with queens—you might say you're not turned on at all. You might even say (huffily) that you're repulsed.

So what's going on? Do women even know what turns them on?

Such is the puzzle that has plagued sex researchers for decades. And it's a topic clinical psychologist Meredith Chivers and her colleagues address in a meta-analysis of 132 papers on the genital measures of sexual arousal.

Why don't women's genital and subjective responses always agree?

Here are a few theories introduced by the researchers in the study:

Women's genital responses are hidden from view and produce fewer "somatosensory cues." While men may get turned on by feeling themselves get erect, women do not. However, [studies have found that] even when women received feedback about their level of vaginal engorgement, correlations (between genital and subjective arousal) were low and statistically nonsignificant. In other words, being told we're getting turned on doesn't necessarily turn us on.

Women may edit their self-report of feeling sexually aroused because of socially desirable responding. Positive affect directs attention to erotic stimuli, thereby increasing sexual response, whereas negative affect interferes in the processing of sexual cues, resulting in lower sexual response. Lower concordance among women may reflect their experience of negative affect while watching the conventional, commercially available erotica that is primarily produced for men.

Interestingly, the authors also suggest that:

Genital response to sexual stimuli may be an evolved self-protection mechanism. The female genital response is an automatic reflex that is elicited by sexual stimuli and produces vaginal lubrication, even if the woman does not subjectively feel sexually aroused. Female genital response entails increased genital vasocongestion, necessary for the production of vaginal lubrication, and can, in turn, reduce discomfort and the possibility of injury during vaginal penetration.

Ancestral women who did not show an automatic vaginal response to sexual cues may have been more likely to experience injuries that resulted in illness, infertility, or even death subsequent to unexpected or unwanted vaginal penetration, and thus would be less likely to have passed on this trait to their offspring. Reports of women's genital response and orgasm during sexual assaults suggest that genital responses do occur in women under conditions of sexual threat.

That women can experience genital response during unwanted sex or when viewing depictions of sexual assault suggests that women's vasocongestion response is automatically initiated by exposure to sexual stimuli, whether or not these stimuli are preferred, and without subjective appraisal of these stimuli as sexually arousing or desired.

During the processing of sexual stimuli, brain areas associated with emotional inhibition are activated among women. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a region of the brain where subjective responses to sexual stimuli are processed. [The ACC appears to influence subjective responses but not genital responses, which helps explain the "upstairs/downstairs" disconnect. Incidentally, women's ACC is most active when we're ovulating and attracted to macho, high-testosterone men. The ACC is activated when we're in conflict about something. Is the ACC also acting as a self-protection mechanism, warning us to proceed with caution?]

Bottom line: Physical arousal is not proof that a woman is really turned on. To really get a woman hot and bothered, you have to start from the top.


What is the treatment for a herniated disc?

The initial treatment is to have a complete evaluation by your physician to assess the extent of the damage to the nerves. If you have numbness and weakness, it should be done sooner rather than later, and if you find that you are getting progressively worse it also should be done as soon as possible by your physician or in the emergency room. Once the extent of the damage is assessed, in most cases the treatment is the same as for arthritis of the spine.

The initial treatment is rest, heat or ice, pain medication, NSAIDs and sometimes oral steroids. The symptoms usually take several weeks to several months to decrease. In most cases the symptoms will decrease on their own with no other treatment.

Physical therapy can be of some help in the early stages to help decrease the pain and help with range of motion. Sometimes traction is helpful but it should be gentle and at the instruction of your physician. Once the pain is better, there are exercises that can increase muscle strength and keep the risk of recurrent pain down. This treatment should be directed by your physician. Also, taking precautions not to stress your spine is helpful. For example, heavy lifting is not recommended, and if the disc is in the neck, then heavy lifting with the arms away from the body is not conducive to good health.


What Science Knows About Why People Are Gay

Recently, scientists announced that they found some genes that might be associated with sexual orientation and a biological explanation for the reason gay men tend to have older brothers.

But the field of sexual orientation research is far broader and more complicated than two studies&mdashand Lisa Diamond, a psychologist and sexual orientation researcher at the University of Utah, knows that better than most. She spoke with Newsweek about what she and her colleagues in the field know&mdashand what they don't&mdashabout how a person's sexual orientation might form.

This interview has been condensed and lightly edited.

What do we actually know? How much of a person's sexual orientation can be chalked up to biology?

Probably the strongest current evidence is for genetic contributions&mdashbut that doesn't mean we've found a gene. All geneticists know that no complex human behaviors are determined by single genes. There was a lot of research in the '90s where people were hoping to find a genetic marker that didn't go too well. The current evidence really focuses on twin studies, and these studies suggest that the heritability of sexual orientation ranges between 30 and 40 percent.

Heritability is not about a person heritability is always about a population. So if we look at the population of Americans and all of their sexual orientations, the estimate of 30 to 40 percent means that amount of the person to person variation in sexual orientation is due to genetic factors. If sexual orientation was completely governed by genes, then heritability would be 100 percent. In other words, genetics raises the chances of you being gay, but it doesn't finish the job. There is clearly something non-genetic going on.

What is that something non-genetic?

We've looked at a bunch of things, but we haven't been able to nail it down. There has been interest in the fraternal birth order effect, the fetal environment, the hormonal character of the placenta, the way levels of maternal stress may influence the fetal environment and may change the hormonal milieu, but there's been no reliable evidence. The one thing that we reliably know is that your family did not cause this. A lot of parents worry they may have influenced their child's sexual orientation, but we have been able to rule out that part of the environment. Everything else is up for grabs.

Are the biological causes of sexual orientation different for men than they are for women?

The heritability estimates tend to be higher for men than those for women, though we don't know why that's the case. It's possible that it's a very different phenomenon for men than it is for women with different causes, different developmental programs. Sexuality is something for which men and women are very, very different. Puberty occurs differently, the hormonal changes of puberty are different.

This is an axis of human nature that is sexually dimorphic, that bears a female version and a male version. That might also extend to sexual orientation. However, there's also been more research done on the biology of men's sexual orientation than for women's. Like a lot of other fields, historically there was a lot more research on men than on women. A lot of the early research going on in the '70s and '80s found research participants at bars and community centers. At the time, those settings tended to have more men than women.

Are there any major misconceptions around sexual orientation or this field of research?

Well, the other systematic bias that was introduced in the research was to focus on exclusively gay individuals. That has led, over the years, to this feeling that bisexuality is rare and does not exist. But we now have really powerful population data&mdashrandom representative samples&mdashof individuals in America and in many other countries that consistently show that the majority of individuals with same-sex attractions also have opposite-sex attractions, to varying degrees. Bisexuality is actually more common than exclusive gay or lesbian sexuality. And in fact, the heritability of bisexuality might be greater than the heritability of same-sex sexuality.

What's the biggest misconception about biological causes of sexual orientation?

Some people think that if something is biologically influenced, it necessarily expresses itself early. That's just a bias that we have, it's not true. Schizophrenia, for example, is a very heritable trait and it often doesn't express itself until its early 20s. So the simple fact that something has biological influences doesn't mean it's early developing and doesn't mean that its expression won't change. There is a capacity for a change in the expression of sexual orientation at any point in the lifespan.

I remember I gave a talk at a high school, and the parents asked, "At what age I will know for sure whether my kid is gay? If they don't turn out to be gay by 18, can I pretty much know, okay, they aren't gay?" And I said," Unfortunately, I can't tell you that. I can't guarantee you that at age 18, if you child hasn't expressed same-sex attractions that they won't in the future&mdashand frankly ma'am, I can't guarantee you that you are not going to end up gay either." I think people used to think that your sexual orientation was kind of fully formed within you, like a little kernel as soon as you were born and then it was just a matter of it unfolding. That doesn't appear to be the case. At any point in the lifespan, different aspects of your sexual phenotype appear capable of expressing themselves.


Watch the video: Why Do I Shiver When I Pee? (January 2022).