What is permaculture? Definition, explanation and history:
The term Permaculture It was coined in the 1970s and brings together different systems of agriculture and garden design that are designed in harmony with nature and taking into account all related living beings. The word permaculture is composed of the English terms "permanent" and "agriculture" and refers to ideas and structures of agriculture, which due to the integration of perennial plants, different animal species and individual, mutually supporting elements permanently or permanently functioning and thus sustainable Forming ecosystems.
Development and history of permaculture
Working together with his countryman David Holmgren, Australian ecologist Bill Mollison developed the concept of permaculture in the mid-1970s, publishing several books in his philosophy and practice over the years and decades that followed. In 1978, Bill Mollison also founded the Institute for Permaculture, which has since dedicated itself to research into the development and realization of such cultural concepts. In 1981, Mollison, now internationally known as the father of permaculture, was awarded the Right Livelihood Award, the so-called Alternative Nobel Prize, for the development of this design principle.
In developing their ideas, Mollison and Holmgren drew inspiration from the organic and sustainable agriculture that was already established in Europe, which had not yet established itself in Australia. The two ecologists have reconciled their new approach to the foundations of industrial agriculture, which is destroying natural cycles through leaching of soils, huge monocultures and the intensive use of pesticides and other chemicals commonly used in agriculture and harmful to nature and man. Through the planning and design of different ecosystems and their long-term observation, the two Australians managed to create more and more habitats that can be productive in the long term through diversity (see species diversity), mixed cultures and a cooperative existence of animals, plants and humans.
Philosophical foundations of permaculture
Today, permaculture is understood as the epitome of designing ecosystems in the countryside and the city. which reconcile the needs of man and society with those of nature, especially the flora and fauna. They are found not only in agriculture, but also in the design of private gardens and social living spaces, and by preserving the resources and the use of renewable energies also consider the needs of future generations. Meanwhile, the principles of permaculture are also applied to architecture, energy supply and urban planning.
Permaculture means achieving maximum productivity even on small green spaces such as private gardens in the middle of the city. This is mainly ensured by the fact that humans, animals and plants are not in competition with each other, but in direct interaction. For example, by including certain species of animals that naturally eliminate pests, humans can save energy, avoid the use of chemicals, and at the same time maintain biodiversity. The targeted culture of perennial or self-propagating plants allows a natural cycle that maintains an independent and intact ecosystem. This allows the cultivated area to adapt to the natural conditions.